In Peru, the people directly elect a head of state (the president) as well as a legislature. The president is elected by the people for a five-year term. The unicameral Congress (Congreso) has 130 members, also elected for a five-year term by proportional representation. Peru has a multi-party system, which effectively bars one party from becoming the sole influence in a decision-making process. As such, parties must work with one another to form coalition governments. The whole election process is held by the National Jury of Elections and the National Office of Electoral Processes. Peru has compulsory voting.[1][2]

Schedule Edit

Election Edit

Position 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Type Presidential (April & June)
National Congress (April)
Gubernatorial (April & June)
None Presidential (April & June)
National Congress (April)
Gubernatorial (April & June)
President and
vice president
President and vice president None President and vice president
National Congress All seats None All seats
Provinces, cities and municipalities All positions None All positions

Inauguration Edit

Position 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Type Presidential (May)
National Congress (May)
Gubernatorial (May)
None Presidential (May)
National Congress (May)
Gubernatorial (May)
President and
vice president
28 July None 28 July
National Congress 28 July None 28 July
Provinces, cities and municipalities 28 July None 28 July

Latest elections Edit

Presidential election Edit

 
Leading candidate by region in the first round
 
Leading candidate by region in the second round
 
Leading candidate by province in the second round
 
Leading candidate by district in the second round

The first round was held on 11 April.[3][4] The first exit polls published indicated that underdog nominee Pedro Castillo of Free Peru had placed first in the first round of voting with approximately 16.1% of the vote, with Hernando de Soto and Keiko Fujimori tying with 11.9% each.[4] Yonhy Lescano, Rafael López Aliaga, Verónika Mendoza, and George Forsyth followed, with each receiving 11.0%, 10.5%, 8.8%, and 6.4%, respectively.[4] César Acuña and Daniel Urresti received 5.8% and 5.0%, respectively, while the rest of the nominees attained less than 3% of the popular vote.[5][6]

In the second round, Castillo defeated Fujimori by just 44,263 votes, winning by 50.13% to 49.87%. Castillo was officially designated as president-elect of Peru on 19 July 2021, a little over a week before he was to be inaugurated.[7]

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Votes%Votes%
Pedro CastilloFree Peru2,724,75218.928,836,38050.13
Keiko FujimoriPopular Force1,930,76213.418,792,11749.87
Rafael López AliagaPopular Renewal1,692,27911.75
Hernando de SotoGo on Country – Social Integration Party1,674,20111.63
Yonhy LescanoPopular Action1,306,2889.07
Verónika MendozaTogether for Peru1,132,5777.86
César AcuñaAlliance for Progress867,0256.02
George ForsythNational Victory814,5165.66
Daniel UrrestiPodemos Perú812,7215.64
Julio GuzmánPurple Party325,6082.26
Alberto BeingoleaChristian People's Party286,4471.99
Daniel SalaverryWe Are Peru240,2341.67
Ollanta HumalaPeruvian Nationalist Party230,8311.60
José VegaUnion for Peru101,2670.70
Ciro GálvezNational United Renaissance89,3760.62
Marco AranaBroad Front65,3000.45
Rafael SantosPeru Secure Homeland55,6440.39
Andrés AlcántaraDirect Democracy50,8020.35
Total14,400,630100.0017,628,497100.00
Valid votes14,400,63081.3017,628,49793.49
Invalid votes1,123,0276.341,106,8165.87
Blank votes2,190,05912.36121,4890.64
Total votes17,713,716100.0018,856,802100.00
Registered voters/turnout25,287,95470.0525,287,95474.57
Source: ONPE, ONPE

By department Edit

2021 Peruvian presidential election results – First round by Department
Department Castillo
Free Peru
Fujimori
Popular Force
López Aliaga
Popular Renewal
De Soto
Go on Country
Lescano
Popular Action
Mendoza
Together for Peru
Other
candidates
Valid
votes
Turnout
Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes %
Amazonas 34,411 26.1% 17,805 13.5% 8,269 6.3% 4,433 3.4% 12,698 9.6% 8,887 6.7% 45,557 34.5% 132,060 60.1%
Ancash 110,620 23.4% 67,394 14.3% 42,312 9.0% 34,562 7.3% 38,911 8.2% 39,786 8.4% 138,200 29.3% 471,785 69.3%
Apurimac 88,812 53.4% 10,879 6.5% 7,768 4.7% 6,531 3.9% 15,649 9.4% 15,368 9.2% 21,179 12.7% 166,186 69.4%
Arequipa 256,224 32.2% 40,216 5.1% 71,053 8.9% 148,793 18.7% 88,708 11.1% 55,269 6.9% 135,448 17.0% 795,711 78.8%
Ayacucho 130,224 52.0% 17,751 7.1% 11,490 4.6% 8,995 3.6% 20,315 8.1% 24,506 9.8% 37,269 14.9% 250,550 68.6%
Cajamarca 232,418 44.9% 54,962 10.6% 31,129 6.0% 25,156 4.9% 38,677 7.5% 29,746 5.7% 105,374 20.4% 517,462 62.6%
Callao 33,750 6.4% 79,699 15.2% 78,066 14.9% 78,920 15.0% 34,965 6.7% 38,233 7.3% 181,634 34.6% 525,267 75.2%
Cusco 232,178 38.2% 27,132 4.5% 29,618 4.9% 40,423 6.6% 60,659 10.0% 123,397 20.3% 94,626 15.6% 608,033 73.5%
Huancavelica 79,895 54.2% 8,449 5.7% 5,060 3.4% 4,591 3.1% 16,727 11.3% 10,091 6.8% 22,574 15.3% 147,387 67.6%
Huanuco 110,978 37.6% 32,827 11.1% 33,787 11.4% 15,822 5.4% 22,565 7.6% 15,556 5.3% 63,688 21.6% 295,223 68.3%
Ica 56,597 14.0% 62,055 15.3% 46,098 11.4% 39,929 9.8% 39,461 9.7% 30,602 7.5% 130,887 32.3% 405,629 76.0%
Junin 131,438 22.9% 80,057 13.9% 52,599 9.2% 54,124 9.4% 66,214 11.5% 52,270 9.1% 137,396 23.9% 574,098 71.9%
La Libertad 90,078 11.5% 131,441 16.8% 95,765 12.2% 84,444 10.8% 47,218 6.0% 37,372 4.8% 296,598 37.9% 782,916 68.9%
Lambayeque 73,279 12.9% 121,263 21.4% 86,126 15.2% 50,087 8.8% 51,467 9.1% 28,866 5.1% 155,480 27.4% 566,568 71.4%
Lima 416,537 7.8% 753,785 14.2% 869,950 16.4% 870,582 16.4% 362,668 6.8% 431,425 8.1% 1,602,623 30.2% 5,307,570 74.6%
Loreto 15,432 4.9% 51,900 16.6% 16,378 5.3% 18,816 6.0% 34,773 11.2% 19,502 6.3% 155,025 49.7% 311,826 61.0%
Madre de Dios 23,945 37.1% 7,278 11.3% 4,041 6.3% 3,996 6.2% 6,601 10.2% 4,372 6.8% 14,341 22.2% 64,574 71.1%
Moquegua 33,665 34.4% 4,617 4.7% 6,832 7.0% 10,183 10.4% 15,412 15.7% 7,190 7.3% 20,027 20.5% 97,926 77.2%
Pasco 34,187 34.2% 12,607 12.6% 8,009 8.0% 5,102 5.1% 11,871 11.9% 6,896 6.9% 21,324 21.3% 99,996 63.6%
Piura 70,968 10.1% 173,891 24.8% 68,316 9.8% 63,842 9.1% 51,223 7.3% 44,576 6.4% 227,714 32.5% 700,530 66.8%
Puno 292,218 47.5% 17,514 2.8% 15,918 2.6% 21,665 3.5% 175,712 28.5% 35,484 5.8% 57,010 9.3% 615,521 81.9%
San Martin 67,000 21.4% 46,699 14.9% 26,561 8.5% 21,825 7.0% 31,498 10.0% 17,122 5.5% 102,765 32.8% 313,470 69.2%
Tacna 64,521 33.2% 9,363 4.8% 17,842 9.2% 21,000 10.8% 28,696 14.8% 14,068 7.2% 38,779 20.0% 194,269 77.8%
Tumbes 7,613 7.7% 36,403 37.1% 8,799 9.0% 7,123 7.3% 7,046 7.2% 5,242 5.3% 26,015 26.5% 98,241 74.6%
Ucayali 26,339 14.0% 40,510 21.5% 14,981 8.0% 11,124 5.9% 14,359 7.6% 15,092 8.0% 65,965 35.0% 188,370 66.3%
Peruvians Abroad 10,602 6.6% 22,887 14.1% 34,767 21.5% 21,552 13.3% 11,617 7.2% 21,185 13.1% 39,146 24.2% 161,756 22.8%
Total 2,723,929 18.9% 1,929,384 13.4% 1,691,534 11.8% 1,673,620 11.6% 1,305,710 9.1% 1,132,103 7.9% 3,936,644 27.4% 14,392,924 70.0%
Source: ONPE (100% counted)

Parliamentary election Edit

 
Results of the Congressional election.
 
Map of percentage of votes received by the largest party per region.

The Popular Action, the largest party in the previous legislature, lost some of its seats, and previous parliamentary parties like Union for Peru (UPP) and the Broad Front (FA) had their worst results ever, attaining no representation.[8] The Peruvian Nationalist Party of former President Ollanta Humala and National Victory of George Forsyth (who led polling for the presidential election earlier in the year) failed to win seats as well.[8] New or previously minor parties such as Free Peru, Go on Country and Together for Peru and Popular Renewal, the successor of National Solidarity, had good results, with Free Peru becoming the largest party in Congress.[8] Contigo, the successor to former president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski's Peruvians for Change party, failed to win a seat once again and received less than 1% of the vote.[8] On 26 July, two days before Castillo was sworn in as Peru's President, an opposition alliance led by Popular Action member María del Carmen Alva successfully negotiated an agreement to gain control of Peru's Congress.[9]

 
PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Free Peru1,724,35413.4137+37
Popular Force1,457,69411.3424+9
Popular Renewal1,199,7059.3313+13
Popular Action1,159,7349.0216−9
Alliance for Progress969,7267.5415−7
Go on Country – Social Integration Party969,0927.547+7
Together for Peru847,5966.595+5
We Are Peru788,5226.135−6
Podemos Perú750,2625.835−6
Purple Party697,3075.423−6
National Victory638,2894.960New
Agricultural People's Front of Peru589,0184.580−15
Union for Peru266,3492.070−13
Christian People's Party212,8201.6500
Peruvian Nationalist Party195,5381.520New
Broad Front135,1041.050−9
Direct Democracy100,0330.7800
National United Renaissance97,5400.7600
Peru Secure Homeland54,8590.4300
Contigo5,7870.0500
Total12,859,329100.001300
Valid votes12,859,32972.56
Invalid votes2,737,09915.44
Blank votes2,126,71212.00
Total votes17,723,140100.00
Registered voters/turnout25,287,95470.09
Source: ONPE, Ojo Público

Laws Edit

  • Sale of alcohol and carrying firearms (except for Members of the Armed Forces and the National Police) are forbidden during an election.
  • Political gatherings are forbidden, while public gatherings of any sort are prohibited during voting hours, including religious liturgies and entertainment shows. Clergy of any religion can not participate in their distinctive garments or habits.

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "Peru: Electoral Systems". Political Database of the Americas. 14 March 2012.
  2. ^ Jason Brennan; Lisa Hill (12 June 2014). Compulsory Voting: For and Against. Cambridge University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-107-04151-6.
  3. ^ "In Peru's Presidential Election, the Most Popular Choice Is No One". The New York Times. 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "Elecciones Perú 2021: con el 100% del voto procesado, Pedro Castillo y Keiko Fujimori son los candidatos que pasan a la segunda vuelta de las presidenciales" (in Spanish). BBC. 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  5. ^ "Conteo rápido de Ipsos al 100%: Pedro Castillo y Keiko Fujimori disputarían segunda vuelta de Elecciones 2021". El Comercio (in Spanish). Peru. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  6. ^ "Flash electoral a boca de urna región por región, según Ipsos". Diario Correo (in Spanish). 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  7. ^ Taj, Mitra; Turkewitz, Julie (20 July 2021). "Pedro Castillo, Leftist Political Outsider, Wins Peru Presidency". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d "Elections Show Fissures in Peru's Political Institutions". Finch Ratings. 14 April 2021. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  9. ^ Aquino, Marco (26 July 2021). "Peru opposition to lead Congress in setback for socialist Castillo". Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2021.

External links Edit