Peruvian Army

The Peruvian Army (Spanish: Ejército del Perú, abbreviated EP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with safeguarding the independence, sovereignty and integrity of national territory on land through military force. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations. It celebrates the anniversary of the Battle of Ayacucho (1824) on December 9.

Peruvian Army
Ejército del Perú
Emblem of the Peruvian Army.svg
Founded1821
Country Peru
Allegiance President of Peru
TypeArmy
Size47,106 (2014) active
Motto(s)Hasta quemar el último cartucho (English: "Until the last cartridge has been fired")
ColorsRed and white
March"Himno del Ejército del Perú"[1]
AnniversariesDecember 9, Army Day
June 7, Battle of Arica and National Flag Day
EngagementsPeruvian War of Independence
Peruvian intervention in Bolivia of 1828
Gran Colombia–Peru War
War of the Confederation
War between Perú and Bolivia 1841-42
Ecuadorian–Peruvian War (1857–1860)
Chincha Islands War
War of the Pacific
Insurrection from Loreto
Conflict of the Pedrera 1911
Colombo-Peruvian war
Ecuadorian–Peruvian War
Paquisha War
Internal conflict in Peru
Cenepa War
Commanders
Commanding General of the ArmyCésar Astudillo Salcedo
Notable
commanders
José de San Martín
(founding Commanding General)
Insignia
FlagFlag of the Peruvian Army.svg

HistoryEdit

Military traditions in Peruvian territory go back to prehispanic times, ranging from small armed bands to the large armies assembled by the Inca Empire. After the Spanish conquest, small garrisons were kept at strategic locations but no standing army existed until the Bourbon reforms of the 18th century. The main purpose of this force was the defense of the Viceroyalty from pirates and corsairs as well as internal rebellions.

IndependenceEdit

The Ejército del Perú was officially established on August 18, 1821 when the government of general José de San Martín established the Legión Peruana de la Guardia (Peruvian Guard Legion), although some militia units had been formed before. Peruvian troops were key participants in the final campaign against Spanish rule in South America, under the leadership of general Simón Bolívar, which ended victoriously in the battles of Junín and Ayacucho in 1824.

19th centuryEdit

 
Battle of Arica, July 7, 1880.
Painting by Juan Lepiani

After the War of Independence the strong position of the Army and the lack of solid political institutions meant that every Peruvian president until 1872 held some military rank. The Ejército del Perú also had a major role in the definition of national borders by participating in several wars against neighbor countries. This included a conflict against Gran Colombia (1828-1829) where naval victories were obtained and the blockade of Guayaquil but had setbacks in Tarqui, after that an armistice is signed where it is indicated that it remains in statu quo, the Great Colombia dissolves months later product of the war with Peru, the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1836-1839), two military invasions to Bolivia and the subsequent expulsion of Bolivian troops from Peruvian soil (1828 and 1841) and a successful occupation of Ecuador (1858-1860). Starting in 1842, increased state revenues from guano. Exports allowed the expansion and modernization of the Army, as well as the consolidation of its political power. These improvements were an important factor in the defeat of a Spanish naval expedition at the Battle of Callao (1866). However, continuous overspending and a growing public debt led to a chronic fiscal crisis in the 1870s which severely affected defense budgets. The consequent lack of military preparedness combined with bad leadership were major causes of Peru's defeat against Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). The reconstruction of the Army started slowly after the war due to a general lack of funds. A major turning point in this process was the arrival in 1896 of a French Military Mission contracted by president Nicolás de Piérola. By 1900 the peacetime strength of the army was evaluated at six infantry battalions (nearly 2,000 soldiers), two regiments and four squadrons and cavalry (between six and seven hundred soldiers), and one artillery regiment (just over 500 soldiers) for a total of 3,075 personnel.[2] A military school was reportedly operating in the Chorrillos District of Lima and French officers were continuing to assist in the army's reorganization.[3]

20th centuryEdit

During the early years of the 20th century the Peruvian Army underwent a series of reforms under the guidance of the French Military Mission which operated in the periods 1896–1914, 1919–1924 and 1932–1939. Changes included the streamlining of the General Staff, the establishment of the Escuela Superior de Guerra (War College) in 1904, the creation of four military regions (North, Center, South and Orient) in 1905 and a general professionalization of the military career. Improvements such as these were fundamental for the good performance of the Army in the border skirmishes with Colombia (Colombian troops are expelled from the territory of La Pedrera in 1911 and the Peruvian Colombian war in 1933) and a victorious war against Ecuador (1941).

 
Peruvian dragoon guard.

Even though the Peruvian Army was not involved in World War II, this conflict had a significant effect in its development, mainly through the replacement of French military influence by that of the United States. A US military mission started operations in 1945 followed by an influx of surplus American military equipment delivered as military aid or sold at a very low cost.

Washington also established itself as the leader of continental defense through the creation of the Inter-American Defense Board in 1942 and the signing of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance in 1947. A parallel development was the founding in 1950 of the Centro de Altos Estudios Militares (CAEM, Center of High Military Studies) for the formation of officers in the major problems of the nation beyond those related to its military defense.

The Peruvian Army was the main protagonist of the Gobierno Revolucionario de las Fuerzas Armadas (Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces), an institutionalized military government that ruled the country between 1968 and 1980. During this period, defense expenditures underwent exponential growth allowing a rapid expansion of the Armed Forces and an unprecedented level of weapon acquisitions. In the early 1970s, US influence over the Army was replaced by a massive influx of Soviet training and equipment, including T-55 tanks, the BM-21 Grad, AK series rifles and the BTR series APCs plus a new Soviet-styled national military strategy of regaining the lost southern provinces which were now part of Chile. Political power returned to the civilians in the 1980s, but the rise of the terrorist insurgent group Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) prompted the deployment of several Army units in a counter-insurgency role. Human rights violations associated with this intervention and a sharp decrease in the defense budget due to a general economic crisis caused serious problems for the Army morale and readiness as well as a strain on civil-military relations.

In 1981 during the government of Belaúnde Terry, the Paquisha war broke out where 3 infiltrated bases from Ecuador were detected in Peruvian territory on the source of the Comaina River, ending with the eviction and bombardment of Ecuadorian bases.

The presidency of Alberto Fujimori (1990–2000) saw the Army regain protagonism in the public scene, but its increased political power led to some cases of corruption. The internal conflict ceased for the most part after the capture in 1992 of Abimael Guzmán, leader of the terrorist group Shining Path, but a brief border war with Ecuador broke out in 1995. During this period, women were incorporated into the Army first as conscripts in 1993 and then as officers in 1997. Army commandos had an important participation in operation Chavín de Huantar which put an end to the Japanese embassy hostage crisis. In 1999, one year after the signing of a peace treaty with Ecuador conscription was abolished and replaced by a voluntary military service for both genders.

21st centuryEdit

 
Peruvian Infantry disembarking from Infantry Fighting Vehicles in the Cruz de Hueso Exercise, 2007

The downfall of the Alberto Fujimori regime left the Peruvian Army in a difficult state, with some of its senior officers compromised in scandals of corruption and human rights violations. Several reforms were undertaken during the presidencies of Valentín Paniagua (2000–2001) and Alejandro Toledo (2001–2006), among them the prosecution of criminal cases related to the military, the reorganization of the military rank system and an increased civilian supervision through a revamped Ministry of Defense. The outcome of this and other initiatives is a major factor of order, major preparation, new equipment and development of the Ejército del Perú. G-3 America (G3 and Associates International Corporation) facilitated the incorporation of new technology to eliminate or reduce terrorism. They have been working tenaciously in getting the right equipment for the Armed Forces while working with the US State Department and US companies to accomplish it.

The Ollanta Humalla administration has also had the Army engaged in training members of Peru's indigenous peoples for the duties of national defense as well as, through the BECA 18 program, helping to reduce poverty while teaching the youth of the values of national service. His term also saw the revival of the Army's modernization process with the arrival of the Type 81 MRL, pushing its BM-21s into retirement.

OrganizationEdit

 
Cavalry Regiment of the Chorrillos Military School.

The current Commanding General of the Peruvian Army is General Ricardo Moncada Oblitas. Land forces are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and ultimately to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. They are organized as follows:

Operational units are assigned to one of the following military regions, which are directly subordinate to the Army General Command through the Ground Operations Command.

Región Militar del NorteEdit

 
Peruvian cavalry at the Plaza de Armas - Lima, Peru.

North Military Region and 1st Division, headquartered at Piura

Región Militar del CentroEdit

 
Peruvian Special Forces marching in 2016.

Central/North Central Military Region and 2nd Division, headquartered at Lima

Región Militar del SurEdit

 
Peruvian Army March – Cusco, Peru

South Military Region and 3rd division, headquartered at Arequipa

  • 3rd Armored Brigade (Moquegua)
  • 6th Armored Brigade
  • 3rd Cavalry Brigade (Tacna)
  • 4th Mountain Brigade (Puno)
  • 5th Mountain Brigade (Cuzco)
  • 6th Special Forces Brigade
  • 3rd Divisional Communications Brigade
  • 3rd Divisional Air Defense Artillery

Región Militar del OrienteEdit

Eastern Military Region and 5th Division, headquartered at Iquitos

  • 5th Jungle Brigade (Iquitos)
  • 35th Jungle Brigade
  • 115th Logistics Brigade

Region Militar VEdit

4th (South Central) Military Region and Division

  • 2nd Infantry Brigade
  • 31st Infantry Brigade
  • 32nd Engineering Brigade
  • 33rd Infantry Brigade

PersonnelEdit

 
Order of battle (click to enlarge)
Personnel (as of 2001)[4]
Commissioned Officers 6,231
Non-commissioned officers 13,586
Cadets 1,090
NCO in training 1,000
Enlisted 54,321
Civilians 11,480
Total 76,228 (excl. civilians)

RanksEdit

  • Ranks of the officers, sub-officers and others enlisted of the Army. [1]
Officers
Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
  Peruvian Army
        No equivalent            
Gran Mariscal del Peru General de Ejército General de División General de Brigada Coronel Teniente Coronel Mayor Capitán Teniente Subteniente Cadete EMC
Enlisted
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
  Peruvian Army
        No equivalent     No equivalent  
Sergeant major
Suboficial Primero
Master sergeant
Suboficial Segundo
Sergeant first class
Suboficial Tercero
Sergeant
Sargento Primero
Corporal
Sargento Segundo
Lance Corporal
Cabo
Private
Soldado

EquipmentEdit

Future EquipmentEdit

Peru is expected to acquire between 120 and 170 tanks, Russian T-90S, US M1A1 Abrams, Spanish Leopard 2A4s, Chinese/Pakistani Al-Khalid-1, Chinese VT-4 and Dutch Leopard 2E6s, as well as Ukrainian T-64E and T-84 MBTs are under consideration.[5] By September 2013, the Leopard 2A4/6 entries were disqualified due to logistical complexities. Current contenders are the Ukrainian T-84, Russian T-90S or T-80, and the American M1A1 Abrams.[6] In late September 2013, the South Korean K2 Black Panther was entered in the competition.[7] In October 2015, China offered the MBT-3000 ( VT-4) tank for the competition.[8]

Russia is pushing for the sale of 110 BTR-80A armored personnel carriers to Peru. Peru is also looking to replace its SA-3 air defense systems.[9] Peru has requested information from Russia about the BTR-80A and BMP-3.[10]

The Peruvian Ministry of Defence has awarded a USD$67 million contract to General Dynamics Land Systems-Canada for 32 Light Armoured Vehicles (LAVs) for the Peruvian Marines. The contract was signed through the Canadian Commercial Corporation, a Crown corporation of the Government of Canada.[11]

Heroes and PatronsEdit

Anthem of the ArmyEdit

Spanish lyrics

El ejército unido a la historia
por fecunda y viril tradición,
se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.
El ejército unido a la historia
por fecunda y viril tradición,
se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.
Se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.
Evocando un pasado glorioso
del Incario su antiguo esplendor,
Ayacucho, Junín, Dos de Mayo
libertad conquistó con valor.
Zarumilla, La Breña y Arica
gestas son que a la historia legó
Bolognesi ¡oh, sublime soldado!
por patrono ejemplar te aclamó.
El ejército unido a la historia
por fecunda y viril tradición,
se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.
El ejército unido a la historia
por fecunda y viril tradición,
se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.
Se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.
Las fronteras altivo defiende
cual guardián del honor nacional
de su pueblo recibe las armas
y es bastión de justicia social.
Soy soldado que en filas milito
y un deber tengo yo que cumplir,
a la patria vivir consagrado
y por ella luchar a morir.
El ejército unido a la historia
por fecunda y viril tradición,
se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.
El ejército unido a la historia
por fecunda y viril tradición,
se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.
Se corona con lauros de gloria
al forjar una libre nación.

English translation

The army united to history
by a fecund and virile tradition,
is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.
The army united to history
by a fecund and virile tradition,
is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.
Is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.
Evoking a glorious past
from the Incas its ancient splendor,
Ayacucho, Junín, Dos de Mayo
liberty conquered with bravery.
Zarumilla, La Breña and Arica
The heroic deeds are bequeathed to history
By Bolognesi, oh, sublime soldier!
As exemplary patron, you're acclaimed.
The army united to history
by a fecund and virile tradition,
is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.
The army united to history
by a fecund and virile tradition,
is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.
Is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.
The borders he proudly defends
like a guardian of national honor
from his people receives the arms
and is bastion of social justice.
I am soldier who in these militate ranks
and a duty I have to fulfill,
to the Fatherland I shall live consecrated
and for it I will fight to the death.
The army united to history
by a fecund and virile tradition,
is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.
The army united to history
by a fecund and virile tradition,
is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.
Is being crowned with laurels of glory
by forging a free nation.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UDHef-kQHY
  2. ^ Keltie, J.S., ed. The Stateman's Year Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1900. New York: MacMillan, 1900. p 887. (Retrieved via Google Books 3/4/11.)
  3. ^ Keltie 1900, p. 887.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-09-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), based on Supreme Decree DS No. 69 DE/SG of 2001.
  5. ^ "Russia offers T-90S main battle tank to Peruvian Army". Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  6. ^ Peru; Future main battle tank projects lags on despite criticism Archived 2013-09-28 at the Wayback Machine – Dmilt.com, 2 September 2013
  7. ^ Peru; Korean contender enters MBT competition Archived 2013-10-02 at the Wayback Machine – Dmilt.com, 30 September 2013
  8. ^ China has offered its VT4 main battle tank to replace old T-55 of Peruvian army – Armyrecognition.com, 12 October 2015
  9. ^ Russia to promote Pantsir-S1 air defense system to Brazil and T-90S main battle tank to Peru – Armyrecognition.com, 9 October 2013
  10. ^ Peru; Army mulls BTR-80 and BMP-3 procurement Archived 2014-02-22 at the Wayback Machine – Dmilt.com, 5 February 2014
  11. ^ Nathan Gain. "World Defence News: General Dynamics Awarded $67Mn by the Peruvian Ministry of Defence for Light Armoured Vehicles". Retrieved 24 December 2014.

SourcesEdit

  • (in Spanish) Basadre, Jorge, Historia de la República del Perú. Editorial Universitaria, 1983.
  • (in Spanish) Cobas, Efraín, Las Fuerzas Armadas Peruanas en el Siglo XXI. CESLA, 2003.
  • Cruz, César, "Latin America Air Forces Survey – Peru". Air Forces Monthly 220: 77–78 (July 2006).
  • International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2000–2001. IISS, 2000.
  • (in Spanish) Mejía, Lewis and César Cruz, "La Aviación del Ejército del Perú".
    Defensa 290: 42–48 (June 2002).
  • (in Spanish) Ministerio de Defensa del Perú, Libro blanco de la defensa nacional.
    [2]
  • (in Spanish) Rial, Juan, Los militares tras el fin del régimen de Fujimori-Montesinos.
    https://web.archive.org/web/20070927210407/http://www.resdal.org/art-rial.htm
  • (in Spanish) Tecnología Militar, N°1/2006 ISSN 0722-2904
  • (in Spanish) Marchessini, Alejo, "Plan Bolognesi: Actualidad y Futuro del Ejército del Peru". Defensa 347 (March 2007).
  • Aircraft information files Brightstar publishing File 344 sheet 4

External linksEdit