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A military academy or service academy (in American English) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the army, the navy, marine corps, air force or coast guard. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.

Three types of academy exist: pre-school-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding bachelor's degree level qualification, and those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The first military academies were established in the 18th century to provide future officers for technically specialized corps, such as engineers and artillery, with scientific training.

The Royal Danish Naval Academy was set up in 1701, making it the oldest military academy in existence.[1] The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich was set up in 1720[2] as the earliest military academy in Britain. Its original purpose was to train cadets entering the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. In France, the École Royale du Génie at Mézières was founded in 1748, followed by a non-technical academy in 1751, the École Royale Militaire offering a general military education to the nobility. French military academies were widely copied in Prussia, Austria, Russia and even minor powers, including Turin and the Kingdom of Savoy, in the late 18th century.

 
Facade of the United Artillery and Engineering School, constructed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel

By the turn of the century, under the impetus of the Napoleonic Wars and the strain that the armies of Europe subsequently came under, military academies for the training of commissioned officers of the army were set up in most of the combatant nations. These military schools had two functions; to provide instruction for serving officers in the functions of the efficient staff-officer, and to school youngsters before they gained an officer's commission.[3] The Kriegsakademie in Prussia was founded in 1801 and the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr was created by order of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 as a replacement for the École Royale Militaire of the Ancien Régime (the institution that Napoleon himself had graduated from).

The Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England was the brainchild of John Le Marchant in 1801,[4] who established schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow, with a grant of £30,000 from Parliament. The two original departments were later combined and moved to Sandhurst. In the United States, the military academy at West Point was founded in 1802 and became popular in the 1860s.

AfghanistanEdit

Afghanistan National Army Officer Academy

AlbaniaEdit

AngolaEdit

ArgentinaEdit

Argentine Army

Argentine Navy

Argentine Air Force

AustraliaEdit

AustriaEdit

BangladeshEdit

Cadet Colleges in Bangladesh...

There are 12 Cadet Colleges in Bangladesh. Among these, nine for boys and three for girls. Four Cadet Colleges were established before 1971. Other cadet colleges were built after the Liberation War of Bangladesh.

No. Name Location Area (acre) Established
01 Faujdarhat Cadet College Chittagong 185 1958
02 Jhenaidah Cadet College Jhenaidah 110 1963
03 Mirzapur Cadet College Mirzapur, Tangail 95 1965
04 Rajshahi Cadet College Sardah, Rajshahi 110 1965
05 Sylhet Cadet College Sylhet 52.37 1978
06 Rangpur Cadet College Alamnagar, Rangpur 37 1979
07 Barisal Cadet College Rahmatpur, Barisal 50 1981
08 Pabna Cadet College Pabna 38 1982
09 Mymensingh Girls Cadet College Mymensingh town, Mymensingh 23 1983
10 Comilla Cadet College Kotbari, Comilla 57 1983
11 Joypurhat Girls Cadet College Joypurhat 7 2006
12 Feni Girls Cadet College Feni 49.5 2006

BelgiumEdit

BoliviaEdit

BrazilEdit

Has several military academies:

  • Army – The biggest Academy is Academia Militar de Agulhas Negras (AMAN) in the municipality of Resende, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in the southeast of that country. For high school level, The Sistema Colégio Militar do Brasil (SCMB) is composed for 13 military schools in Belo Horizonte, Belém, Brasília, Campo Grande, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Juiz de Fora (MG), Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Santa Maria (RS).
  • Navy – Escola Naval (Navy School).
  • Air Force – Academia da Força Aérea (AFA). (Air Force Academy).

BulgariaEdit

CanadaEdit

Canada currently has one military-theme private boarding school open for students at the pre-university level, Robert Land Academy (RLA), which is located in West Lincoln, Ontario. Founded in 1978, it is an all-boys' institute whose funding arises solely from tuition fees. The Academy is an institute fully accredited by the province of Ontario, which accepts students from Grade 6 to Grade 12 (the Ontario Academic Credit level).

Canada formerly had three university level service academies, the Canadian Military Colleges. These included the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) in Kingston, Ontario, Royal Roads Military College (RRMC) in Victoria, British Columbia and the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean (CMR) in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec. RMC was founded in 1876, RRMC in 1941 and CMR in 1954.[5] By the 1960s all three institutions were providing *military education to officer cadets of all three elements in the Canadian Forces; the navy, army and air force; and RMC received the authority to grant academic degrees in Arts, Science and Engineering.[6]

Graduates of the Colleges are widely acknowledged to have had a disproportionate impact in the Canadian services and society, thanks to the solid foundations provided by their military education.[7] Military discipline and training, as well as a focus on physical fitness and fluency in both of Canada's two official languages, English and French, provided cadets with ample challenges and a very fulfilling experience.[8] In 1995 the Department of National Defence was forced to close Royal Roads Military College and Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean due to budget considerations, but Royal Military College of Canada continues to operate.[9] Royal Roads reopened as a civilian university in the fall of 1995, and is maintained by the Government of British Columbia. In 2007, the Department of National Defence reopened Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean as a preparatory and first year college.

China, People's Republic ofEdit

China (Taiwan), Republic ofEdit

ColombiaEdit

Czech RepublicEdit

DenmarkEdit

EgyptEdit

El SalvadorEdit

EstoniaEdit

FinlandEdit

FranceEdit

 
Saint-Cyr cadets at the Bastille Day military parade
 
EMIA cadets
 
Polytechnique cadets

High schools :

Officer academies :

Postgraduate academies :

  • École d'état-major (Staff school) : first step of higher military studies, for officer of OF-2 rank.
  • École de Guerre (War School) : second step of higher military studies, mainly for ranks OF-2 and OF-3 who want to continue the command track (e.g. to command battalion or regiment).
  • Collège d'enseignement supérieur de l'armée de terre (Army Higher Education College) : second step of military education, but for officers whishing to achieve a high-level specialization.
    • Cours supérieur d'état-major (Advanced Staff Course)
    • Enseignement militaire supérieur scientifique et technique (Higher Technical and Scientific Education).
  • Centre des hautes études militaire (Center for Advanced Military Studies) : final step of military education, for very few selected OF-5. Its students also attend the civilian institut des hautes études de défense nationale.

GeorgiaEdit

National Defense Academy (NDA) of Georgia is a descendant of the first Georgian "Junker School" which was established in 1919 right after the declaration of independence. Establishment of the military school was very important for the identity of a new democratic nation-state. The school was abolished after Soviet occupation of Georgia in 1921.

"Davit Aghmashenebeli National Defense Academy of Georgia" was founded on May 28, 1993. The length of studies at the Academy had been defined for 4 years. In 2005, due to the need of the growth of the personnel strength of the Georgian Armed Forces (GAF), the system of the Academy has been transformed to retain only the 18-month-long officer training courses. A bachelor's degree has been defined as a prerequisite for the admission of the cadets.

In 2010, the NDA has undergone a new wave of the reforms to include entire officer education system. As a result, in 2011, Cadet Bachelor School, Junior Officer Basic School, Aviation and Air Defense Officer Basic School, Medical Officer School, Captain Career School, Command and General Staff School, School of Advance Defense Studies and Language Training School were included within the NDA.[11]

Upon entry into NDA, cadets sign a contract with the MoD for 10 years of military service, of which 4 years are dedicated to studies and 6 years – to consequent military service. Cadets receive the rank of Lieutenant upon graduation.

NDA is established by the MoD with the status of the Legal Entity of Public Law. At the same time, NDA maintains very strong link with The Ministry of Education and Science according to the process of Bologna.

GermanyEdit

 
Main complex of the Naval Academy Mürwik of the German Navy with all-ranks-dining hall, historic assembly hall and tower

In Germany there exists a system which clearly differs from the common ones. The only true military academies are in fact the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr where mainly future staff officers and general staff officers are further trained.

The standard education in military leadership is the task of the Offizierschulen (officers' schools) run by the three branches. The contents differ from branch to branch. In the army all officers are at least trained to lead a platoon. There they also have to pass an officer exam to become commissioned later on.

Moreover, there exist so called Waffenschulen like infantry school or artillery school. There the officers learn to deal with the typical tasks of their respective corps. A specialty of the German concept of officer formation is the academic education. Germany runs two own Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces where almost every future officer has to pass non-military studies and achieve a bachelor's or master's degree. During their studies (after at least three years of service) the candidates become commissioned Leutnant (second-lieutenant).

The three officer's schools are:

Academic and staff education:

GreeceEdit

The Hellenic Armed Forces have military academies supervised by each branch of the Armed Forces individually:

HungaryEdit

IndiaEdit

Military Schools 1. 5 Rashtriya Military Schools across India in Belgaum Belgaum Military School, BangaloreBangalore Military School, ChailChail Military School, DholpurDholpur Military School and AjmerAjmer Military School [12]

  • Classes 6 to 12, run by the Integrated Headquarters of Ministry Of Defence (Army) of the Indian government
  • Educational institute to train for defence services, no combat training

IndonesiaEdit

 
Military Academy of Indonesia
 
Indonesian Military Academy cadets

Akademi Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia (id) (Indonesian Military Academy)[2] was founded in Yogyakarta, October 13, 1945 by the order of General Staff Chief of Indonesia Army Lieutenant General Urip Sumohardjo as the Militaire Academie (MA) Yogyakarta. Currently, Tentara Nasional Indonesia or the "TNI" (Indonesian National Armed Forces), under the supervision of the Commandant General of the National Armed Forces Academy (a three-star officer in billet) in the HQ of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has divided the academies into the three respective services:

Indonesian Military Academy

Indonesian Naval Academy

Indonesian Air Force Academy

  • Akademi Angkatan Udara – "A.A.U." (Air Force Academy), located in Yogyakarta, is under the supervision of the Indonesian Air Force Chief of Staff. The academy has three majorings which are: electronics, engineering, and administration. Following graduation, students who are selected as Pilot and Navigator conduct further training in the Pilot and Navigator Flight School prior bearing the Pilot/Navigator designation.

Each service academy is headed by a two-star general, and his/her deputy is a one-star officer. All the students (cadets/midshipman) are recruited from senior high school graduates from all over Indonesia. Shortly after graduation, they are commissioned as Letnan Dua (Second Lieutenant) in their respective services and get the Diploma IV (Associate degree, 4th Grade) comparable to civil academies or universities. The length term is now 4 years and is divided into 5 grades of cadet's rank, starting from the lowest:

  • Prajurit Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Private), 1st year (4 months)
  • Kopral Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Corporal), 1st year (8 months)
  • Sersan Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Sergeant), 2nd year
  • Sersan Mayor Dua Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Second Sergeant Major), 3rd year
  • Sersan Mayor Satu Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet First Sergeant Major), 4th year

Note: Taruna refers to cadets in the Military Academy, Kadet refers to cadets in the Naval Academy, and Karbol refers to cadets in the Air Force Academy, respectively.

Until 1999, before the Indonesian National Police officially separated from the armed forces, the Indonesian Police Academy ("AKPOL") also stood under the National Armed Forces Academy but now has separated from the Military and is under the auspices of the President of Indonesia controlled by the National Police Headquarters (Mabes Polri), where in the other hand the Armed Forces (Army, Naval, and Air Force) Academies of Indonesia is under the auspices of the Ministry of Defense controlled by the Armed Forces Headquarters (Mabes TNI). Presently, the Police Academy is located in Semarang (Central Java), and is supervised under the supervision of the Chief of Indonesian National Police (Kapolri).

IranEdit

Imam Ali Officers' University (Persian: دانشگاه افسری امام علی; acronym:[13] دا اف, DĀʿAF), formerly known as Officers' School (Persian: دانشکده افسری) is the military academy of Ground Forces of Islamic Republic of Iran Army, located in Tehran, Iran. Cadets of the academy achieve the second Lieutenant rank upon graduation and join one of Islamic Republic of Iran Army branches.

ItalyEdit

High School level institutions (only for Classical and Scientific Liceum, starting from grade 10):

The 2009–2010 school year has been the first one with girls attending those schools.

University level institutions:

JapanEdit

Korea, NorthEdit

Korea, SouthEdit

The three main military academies:

Other military academies:

MalaysiaEdit

Secondary level institutions
University level
Specialist training & staff institutions

Reserve Officer Training Units (Malay: Pasukan Latihan Pegawai Simpanan or PALAPES) or ROTU exists only in public universities in Malaysia. This is a tertiary institution based officer commissioning program to equip students as officer cadets with military knowledge and understanding for service as Commissioned Officers in the reserve components of the various branches of the Malaysian Armed Forces.

MexicoEdit

MoldovaEdit

MyanmarEdit

NamibiaEdit

NetherlandsEdit

New ZealandEdit

Tier One – Initial Officer Training

Tier Two – Junior Officer Education

Tier Three – Senior Officer Education

NigeriaEdit

High school training:

Undergraduate officer training:

Postgraduate officer training:

NorwayEdit

Undergraduate officer training

Postgraduate training

PakistanEdit

 
Pakistan Military Academy Passing out Parade

PanamaEdit

Centro de Enseñanza Superior Dr. Justo Arosemena
http://www.policia.gob.pa/direcciones/dnrrhh/ces.html

ParaguayEdit

PeruEdit

Undergraduate officer training

PhilippinesEdit

The Philippines patterned all its military academies after the United States Military Academy (WEST POINT) and the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

These colleges are operated by the Philippine Government which serves 4 years of different baccalaureate degrees:

Aside from the PMA and the PMMA, all three branches of the AFP have their own Officer Candidate Course Programs for both men and women, patterned after their US counterparts.

The nation's higher military colleges are:

PolandEdit

PortugalEdit

Pre-University level institutionEdit

Undergraduate officer trainingEdit

Postgraduate and staff trainingEdit

No longer operationalEdit

RomaniaEdit

RussiaEdit

 
Moscow Strategic Rocket Forces Academy

See also: Cadet Corps (Russia), Military academies in Russia

The first stage of training:

  • The Cadet Corps is an admissions-based military middle school for young boys that was founded in the Russian Empire in the year 1732, soon becoming widespread throughout the country.
  • Kronstadt S.C.C.
  • Moscow Representative Sea Cadet Corps of the Navigation and Mathematics School
  • Moscow Sea Cadet Corps Heroes of Sevastopol

The second stage of training:

  • Suvorov Military School are a type of boarding school in modern Russia for boys of 14-18. Education in such these schools focuses on military related subjects.

The third stage of training:

  • Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces
  • Gagarin Air Force Academy (now the Gagarin-Zhukovsky Combined Air Force Academy)
  • Military Engineering-Technical University
  • Saint Petersburg Mining Institute
  • Fleet Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov Naval Academy
  • Alexander Popov Naval Radio-electronic Academy
  • Military Materiel Security Academy
  • Pacific Naval Institute
  • Moscow Peter the Great Strategic Rocket Forces Academy
  • Baltic Naval Institute
  • Sevastopol Black Sea Higher Naval Institute
  • Military University of the Ministry of Defense of Russia
  • Yekaterinburg Force Command School of Artillery
  • Air General Staff Center of Missile and Air Defense Excellence
  • Khabarovsk Military Commanders Training Academy
  • Civil Defense Academy of the Ministry of Emergency Situations
  • Sergey Kirov Military Communications Academy
  • Military Medical Academy
  • St. Petersburg Academy of Physical Culture, Fitness and Sports
  • Marshal Aleksander Vasilevsky Military Academy of the Armed Forces Air Defense Branch
  • Moscow Border Guards Superior College
  • Military University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs

The fourth stage of training:

SerbiaEdit

SingaporeEdit

South AfricaEdit

SpainEdit

Sri LankaEdit

The General Sir John Kotelawala Defense University, was established in 1980 and is named after Gen. Sri John Kotelawala the 2nd Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. Taking cadets from all three armed services, 3 non-university level Military Academies, one for each armed service providing basic training for officer and a Command and Staff College for senior officers of the three armed services.

University
Officer training
Staff training

SwedenEdit

TanzaniaEdit

ThailandEdit

TurkeyEdit

UgandaEdit

UkraineEdit

Officer training:

A number of universities have specialized military institutes, such as the Faculty of Military Legal Studies at Kharkiv's National Yaroslav Mudryi Law Academy of Ukraine, however, the primary Ukrainian military academies are the following:

Staff colleges:

  • National Defense University of Ukraine, Kiev[25]

United KingdomEdit

 
The 149th Sovereign's Parade in front of Old College, RMA Sandhurst.

Pre-University level institutionEdit

  • Duke of York's Royal Military School - Military based secondary school in Dover, Kent; students are influenced to join the forces after education, but have no commitment to do so.

There are also numerous Cadet forces that operate for all branches of the armed forces for children aged 10–20. These are not designed to recruit people into the armed forces but rather are simply Ministry of Defence sponsored youth organisations.

Undergraduate ServiceEdit

Although an undergraduate degree is not a pre-requisite for Officer training, the majority of potential Officers will have attended University before joining the Armed Forces. At some universities there may be the option for people to join either a University Royal Naval Unit, a University Officer Training Corps (UOTC) or a University Air Squadron; which are designed to introduce students to life in the Forces and show them the careers that are available. People sponsored under the Defence Technical Undergraduate Scheme will join one of the four Support Units attached to universities participating in DTUS. There is a requirement for bursars of DTUS to join the military for 3 years after completion of their degree, there no requirement for students of any other organisation to join the military after they finish their degree programs; and the great majority have no further contact with the armed forces. Although service with these organisations may give some initial benefit to cadets attending the military colleges/academies, the next stage of the officer training programs assumes no prior military experience/knowledge, and those that did not partake in military activities at university are not disadvantaged.

Officer trainingEdit

There are now four military academies in the United Kingdom. Although the curriculum at each varies due to the differing nature of the service a man or woman is joining, it is a combination of military and academic study that is designed to turn young civilians into comprehensibly trained military officers.

Officer Training for the Reserve Forces (e.g. Army Reserve, Royal Naval Reserve, RAF Reserves & Royal Marine Reserves) also takes place at the relevant military academies, but under a different curriculum and the courses tend to be concentrated into a much shorter period.

Postgraduate and staff trainingEdit

No longer operationalEdit

United StatesEdit

IntroductionEdit

In the United States, the term "military academy" does not necessarily mean a government-owned institution run by the armed forces to train its own officers. It may also mean a middle school, high school, or college, whether public or private, which instructs its students in military-style education, discipline and tradition. Students at such civilian institutions can earn a commission in the U.S. military through the successful completion of a Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps program along with their college or university's academic coursework.

Most state-level military academies maintain both a civilian student body and a traditional corps of cadets. The only exception is the Virginia Military Institute, which remains all-military.[26]

Federal Service AcademiesEdit

The colleges operated by the U.S. Federal Government are referred to as the Federal Service Academies and are:

Post-graduate SchoolEdit

Senior and junior military collegesEdit

There is one all-military state-sponsored military academy:

In addition, these five institutions that were military colleges at the time of their founding now maintain both a corps of cadets and a civilian student body. Many of these institutions also offer on-line degree programs:

Along with VMI, these institutions are known as the Senior Military Colleges of the US.

Today five institutions are considered Military Junior Colleges (JMC). These five military schools participate in the Army's two-year Early Commissioning Program, an Army ROTC program where qualified students can earn a commission as a Second Lieutenant after only two years of college. The five Military Junior Colleges are as follows:

Merchant Marine Academies that have military academy style operationsEdit

There are six (6) state-operated Merchant Marine academies:

These merchant marine academies operate on a military college system. Part of the training that the cadets receive is naval and military in nature. Cadets may apply for Naval Reserve commissions upon obtaining their Merchant Marine Officer's licenses. Most if not all also offer some form of military commissioning program into the active duty US Navy, US Marine Corps, or US Coast Guard.

US Staff CollegesEdit

The United States staff colleges, mandated to serve the needs of officers for post-graduate studies and other such graduate institutions as mandated by the Department of Defense are:

United States Air Force Air University attached staff collegesEdit

Staff Colleges of the United States ArmyEdit

Staff Colleges of the United States Navy and the United States Marine CorpsEdit

Joint Service staff collegesEdit

Other post-graduate colleges operated by the DoDEdit

VietnamEdit

Pre-collegiate institutionsEdit

A military school teaches children (primarily boys) of various ages (elementary school, middle school or high school) in a military environment which includes training in military aspects, such as drill. The vast majority are in the United States and Russia. Many military schools are also boarding schools, and others are simply magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are privately run institutions, though some are public and are run either by a public school system (such as the Chicago Public Schools) or by a state.

A common misconception results because some states have chosen to house their juvenile criminal populations in higher-security boarding schools that are run in a manner similar to military boarding schools. These are also called reform schools, and are functionally a combination of school and prison. They attempt to emulate the environment of military boarding schools in the belief that a strict structured environment can reform these children. This may or may not be true. However, their environment and target population are different from those of military schools.[28]

Popular culture sometimes shows parents sending or threatening to send unruly children off to military school (or boarding school) to teach them good behavior (e.g., in the "Army of One" episode of The Sopranos, Tony and Carmela Soprano consider sending their son, AJ, to the Hudson Military Institute). A similar situation appears in Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, while other fictional depictions don't show military academies as punishment (threats) (ex. Damien: Omen II and The Presidio.

Adult institutionsEdit

A college-level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military. It is part of a larger system of military education and training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy. The amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, and the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.

Military academies may or may not grant university degrees. In the U.S., graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course (nowadays undertaken mainly but not exclusively by university graduates) is dedicated to military training.

There are two types of military academies: national (government-run) and state/private-run.

  • Graduates from national academies are typically commissioned as officers in the country's military. The new officers usually have an obligation to serve for a certain number of years. In some countries (e.g. Britain) all military officers train at the appropriate academy, whereas in others (e.g. the United States) only a percentage do and the service academies are seen as institutions which supply service-specific officers within the forces (about 15 percent of US military officers).
  • State or private-run academy graduates have no requirement to join the military after graduation, although some schools have a high rate of graduate military service. Today, most of these schools have ventured away from their military roots and now enroll both military and civilian students. The only exception in the United States is the Virginia Military Institute which remains all-military.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Cadet, Linton Hall, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Scrounge Press, 2014. ISBN 9781495931963 Memoir of cadet who attended a military school for boys ages 6 to 16.

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Royal Danish Naval Academy". Royal Danish Defence College (in Danish). Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  2. ^ "Woolwich History". 
  3. ^ Richard A Harmon. "Perspectives in the History of Military Education and Professionalism" (PDF). 
  4. ^ Major-General John Gaspard Le Marchant (1766-1812) Defence Academy
  5. ^ H16511 Dr. Richard Arthur Preston "To Serve Canada: A History of the Royal Military College of Canada" 1997 Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1969.
  6. ^ 4237 Dr. Adrian Preston & Peter Dennis (Edited) "Swords and Covenants" Rowman And Littlefield, London. Croom Helm. 1976.
  7. ^ H16511 Dr. Richard Preston "R.M.C. and Kingston: The effect of imperial and military influences on a Canadian community" 1968
  8. ^ H1877 R. Guy C. Smith (editor) "As You Were! Ex-Cadets Remember". In 2 Volumes. Volume I: 1876-1918. Volume II: 1919-1984. Royal Military College. [Kingston]. The R.M.C. Club of Canada. 1984
  9. ^ "To Serve Canada: A History of the Royal Military College since the Second World War", Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1991.
  10. ^ https://portail.polytechnique.edu/orientation4a/choisir-sa-4a/choix-de-4a-des-promotions-precedentes
  11. ^ http://eta.mod.gov.ge/index.php?page=home&lang=1
  12. ^ http://www.rashtriyamilitaryschools.in/aboutus.html
  13. ^ پارسینه|Parsine. "اسم هاي مخفف در نيروهاي مسلح". پارسینه|Parsine (in Persian). Retrieved 2016-09-11. 
  14. ^ List of Uganda Military Schools Archived 2015-02-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ One Thousand Somalis Graduate From Bihanga Military School
  16. ^ Kalama Warfare Training School Opened in 2005 at Kabamba
  17. ^ Colonel Geoffrey Kyazze is Commandant of KWTS
  18. ^ Kalama Warfare Training School Located at Kabamba Archived 2014-11-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ Oliver Tambo Leadership School Located at Kaweweta, Nakaseke District Archived 2011-09-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ South Africa Donates Equipment to Oliver Tambo School Archived 2012-11-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ About Uganda Airforce Academy
  22. ^ The NUST Located at Lugazi Archived 2012-11-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ About Uganda Urban Warfare Training School Archived 2015-02-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ "History of Academy". Army Academy named after hetman Petro Sahaydachyi. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  25. ^ (in Ukrainian) Official website of National Defense University of Ukraine
  26. ^ Standberry, Lee (9 May 2012). "Top 10 Military Colleges in America". TopTenz.net. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016. Unlike other military colleges (the federal service academies), all of VMI’s students are members of the Corps of Cadets. This tradition of not offering civilian programs is in keeping with VMI efforts to offer students 'a Spartan, physically and academically demanding environment combined with strict military discipline.' 
  27. ^ Georgia Military School – Reviews, Tuition, Athletics
  28. ^ Linton Hall Cadet, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Arlington, Virginia.: Scrounge Press, 2014 ISBN 978-1-4959-3196-3 describes a military school for boys ages 6-16.