Cadets of the Nigerian Police Academy.

A police academy is a training school for new police recruits, also known as a law enforcement academy. Some are known as colleges or universities. They all have various background checks, examination, physical requirements, medical requirements, legal training, driving skills, equipment training and firearm training for new police recruits. The academy prepares the recruits for the police force they will be assigned to when they graduate.

Police academies by countryEdit


In Australia, each of the states and mainland territories run a centralised academy for training of personnel of law enforcement agencies within the state or territory.

Police academies ensure that officers meet basic local, state, and federal standards. Graduation from an approved academy program is usually required before a new police officer is placed on active duty.

The New South Wales Police Academy, Victoria Police Academy, Queensland Police Academy, Tasmania Police Academy, South Australia Police Academy, Northern Territory Police Academy, Western Australia Police Academy and the Queensland Police Academy are the state police initial training institutions. The smaller yet distinguished Australian Federal Police College located in Barton, Canberra trains AFP initial recruits.


In Azerbaijan, Police Academy was established in 1921 by the people's internal Affairs commissariat of Azerbaijan Republic and it continued to function till 1936 in Baku. In 1936, the main building of the Academy was moved to Mərdəkan (district around Baku).

In 1957, It became Baku private secondary Police School of USSR MIA. The graduates were granted with high-educated lawyers diploma. Initially, education was two years here. In 1957-1961 the school trained personnel for Georgia, Dagestan, Kabarda- Balkaria, Altay, Irkutsk, Krasnodar, Kuybishev, Novosobirsk, Kemerova, Saratov and other cities in the territory of USSR.[1]

The main purpose of the Academy is to prepare educated staff in higher law and organize additional training for employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

All candidates are expected to pass an entry examination that includes mainly fitness requirements. Male and female students must pass a fitness test for entering the Academy. A candidate who does not fit in physical fitness requirements, or fail assessments of selection or medical commissions of MIA is considered to be disqualified from the competition. Being a citizen of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a must. A candidate with a criminal background cannot qualify for the police force. The successful candidates graduate from the academy after studying for 5 years.

During the course, the students of Academy are provided with dormitories, uniforms, scholarships, and meals. Boys and girls are placed in different dormitories located within the territory of the Academy.

After graduation, the candidates get different police ranks and they are assigned to the relevant positions in the departments of Ministry of Internal Affairs bodies. The Academy also learn the relevant experiences of other countries by sending its employees to Germany, Austria, England, Spain, Hungary, Poland, as well as Russia and so on.[2]


In Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Police Academy imparts training to the new entrants of Bangladesh Police. It also arranges other courses including refreshers' course. Each position requires different training and terms.[3]

  • Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP): Bangladesh Police Academy (1 year), foundation training at Bangladesh Public Administration Training Center (BPATC)
  • Sub Inspector: Bangladesh Police Academy (1 year)
  • Sergeant: Bangladesh Police Academy (6 months)
  • Constable: Bangladesh Police Academy (6 months)


In the Republic of Cyprus the Cyprus Police Academy (Greek: Αστυνομική Ακαδημία Κύπρου) is the main educational institution for law enforcement officers. It was founded in 1990 in succession to the Police Training School. It is recognised as a higher education institution by the Cyprus Council for the Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications and operates under the Ministry of Justice and Public Order as a Police Unit in the organisational structure of the Cyprus Police. It works on a permanent basis, both for the education of Cadet Constables and for the training of all Police members irrelevant of their rank as part of their continuing education. Some law relevant courses are also conducted for non-Police Officers.

Czech RepublicEdit

The Police Education and Training Unit (PETU) was established in 2015 and is the head of all education and training for the Czech Republic police.[4] In the Czech Republic the Police Academy is a university-level College, where security specialization for police, public administration, and private security services are taught. Some branches are open to civilians and some are only for police officers, firefighters, soldiers, etc. The schools are open to recruits with bachelor's degrees, master's, and doctoral degrees.

Basic training centers for new police officers are called "secondary police schools" and every police officer must go through one of these centers. In this system, "senior police schools" still exist that have the educational status of "higher learning", where specializations are offered.

Municipal police may have several training centers whereas some larger cities have their own, while others conduct training in privately licensed agencies.


The Estonia police was originally established in 1918 and then re-established in 1991 after losing independence to the Soviet Union. Estonia police consists of three units: Central Criminal Police, the Central Law Enforcement and the Forensic Service Center. In Estonia, the Estonian Academy of Security Science is located in Tallinn. The academy consists of four colleges; these include the Police and Border Guard colleges in Muraste and Paikuse. Estonia police are the first to use Blockchain technology which allows for better policing of the people.[5]


Finish Police recruits are trained in the Police College of Finland, or POLAMK. It is located in Tampere, Finland and consists of various teaching facilities and related premises, including a vehicle training track and a training area for realistic police operations. POLAMK requires its candidates to be Finnish citizens who have completed at least a vocational qualification or upper secondary school studies or the matriculation examination, of good health, have no criminal background, and to possess certain traits evaluated by psychological exams. The Security Intelligence Service will perform a basic security background check of the applicant. Matters considered in the security check include penalties and convictions, arrests for drunkenness, racist attitudes and security and other risks. Applicants must possess at least a short-term driving licence by the end of the application period. At least one year's work experience by the end of the application period. A maximum of 9 months of the military service will be counted as work experience.[6] The basic police training lasts in its entirety for 3 years.


Indonesian Police Academy
Indonesian Police Academy Cadets

In Indonesia, the National Police Academy (Indonesian: Akademi Kepolisian abbreviated "AKPOL") is the main institute, training center, and school for recruits joining the Indonesian National Police Force to become highly trained and professional officers. After 4 years being a cadet in the Police Academy, they will graduate with the rank of Police Inspector 2nd Class (Inspektur Polisi Dua), equivalent to Second Lieutenant in the Military. They graduate as first line supervisors with the rank of junior first ranking officers in the Indonesian National Police and can be deployed to different units within the force. The academy is located in Semarang, Central Java and is part of the International Association of Police Academies (Interpa).

Cadet ranks in the Academy are as shown below:

  • Cadet Enlisted Candidate (Calon Bhayangkara Taruna) - Trainee for the first 4 months
  • Cadet Enlisted Second Class (Bhayangkara Dua Taruna) - First Year
  • Cadet Enlisted First Class (Bhayangkara Satu Taruna) - Second Year
  • Cadet Brigadier Second Class (Brigadir Dua Taruna) - Third Year
  • Cadet Brigadier First Class (Brigadir Satu Taruna) - Fourth Year
  • Cadet Brigadier (Brigadir Taruna) - Graduating year (After this rank, they will graduate and achieve the rank of "Police Inspector")

Until 1999, before the Indonesian National Police officially separated from the armed forces (ABRI), the Indonesian Police Academy ("AKPOL") also stood under the National Armed Forces Academy but now has separated from the Military and is under the auspices of the President of Indonesia controlled by the National Police Headquarters (Mabes Polri). Although separated from the service academies, cadets from both institutions still maintain cooperative relationships with the conduct of annual joint exercises. The NPA's new cadets and 4th class cadets, alongside their armed forces counterparts, have a joint 4th class cadet training program since 2008, after completing it the police officer cadets spend the remaining 4 years of study in Semarang.


In India, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy is the national institute for training of Indian Police Service (IPS) officers before they are sent to their respective Indian state cadres for carrying out their duties. The academy is located in Hyderabad, India.


In the Republic of Ireland, the Garda Síochána College in Templemore is the only police academy, where all trainees for the Garda Síochána and Garda Síochána Reserve study.


For prospective candidates to the Polizia di Stato, basic education is conducted at the Scuola Superiore di Polizia while the Scuola di perfezionamento per le Forze di Polizia conducts advanced education and implements courses on new legislation, regulations and operational techniques.[7]


In Malaysia, there are fifteen police academies, one of them being the Royal Malaysia Police College in Kuala Lumpur which is a combination of four police training institutes, namely the Kuala Kubu Baru Police College, the Special Branch Training School, the College of Criminal Investigation, and Traffic School which train higher-ranking officers. The college will soon be upgraded to a Police University in collaboration with the Sultan Idris Education University.


The National Police Academy (NPA), formerly known as Central Police Training Centre (CPTC), was established with the onset of the police regulation of 1993. CPTC was founded in 1956.

New ZealandEdit

The Royal New Zealand Police College is the central training institution for police recruits and police officers in New Zealand.


The Norwegian Police University College offers education for the police force of Norway, including a three-year basic education and a possible expansion with a Master's degree.


During the 1980s, the Philippine National Police Academy in Cavite served as a school for selected enlisted personnel and civilians to join as a Police/Fire Lieutenants in the defunct Integrated National Police. After the merging of the Philippine Constabulary and INP in January 1, 1991 it became the primary officers school for the new Philippine National Police, the Bureau of Fire Protection and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, all under the Department of the Interior and Local Government. The Philippine National Police Academy graduates are automatically appointed as Inspectors/Lieutenants in the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire Protection, and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology according to their choice of public safety curriculum during their cadetship. This is under the supervision of the DILG and the Philippine Public Safety College.


The Polish Police college is located in the town of Szczytno. Police schools are in Piła, Słupsk, Katowice, and Legionowo. Border guard training centers are located in Kętrzyn, Koszalin, and Lubań. Poland also has a "higher educational institution" called Wyższa Szkoła Policji. At this institution officers are educated on skill sets as well as their studies "In addition to academic studies, officer candidates are trained in modern policing techniques, weapons' handling, and informatics."


The Romanian Police academy is located in Bucureşti. They are training only officers (Bachelor (3 years), master degree (2 years) and Dr (3+1 years)).

The border police school and training center is located in Oradea Avram Iancu. The Coast Guard center is in Constanta. Centers for training border police personnel are in Iași and Orsova.


In Serbia, future police officers are trained at the Basic Police Training Centre in Sremska Kamenica, the former Police High School. The training lasts for 1 year and is followed by a 6-month probation period at the Regional Police Departments. The skills the young men and women acquire are for general jurisdiction police officers, and after they are employed, they can specialise in a line of work (traffic police, border police, special forces, etc.). There is also the Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies, the higher education institution established as a legal successor of the Advanced School of Internal Affairs, formed in 1972; and Police Academy, formed in 1993.

Slovak RepublicEdit

In the Slovak Republic, the Police College (University) offers courses in security specialization for police, public administration, and private security services. Some branches are open to civilians, and some are only for police officers, firefighters, soldiers, etc. The schools are open to bachelor's degrees, master's, and doctoral degrees.

The basic training centers for new police officers are called 'secondary police schools'; all police officers must pass through them.


In Slovenia, the police academy conducts training programs, education, and training for the police and for external users. All candidates need to have a high-school education of some sort before attending. Candidates spend eighteen months in basic training in order to become a police officer, followed by a six-month evaluation period. Advanced police school courses last two years, and require one to have been a police officer for at least two years.[citation needed]


In Spain, there is a Ministry of the Interior's National Police centralized academy near Ávila (40°39′58″N 4°39′14″W / 40.666044°N 4.653832°W / 40.666044; -4.653832.) The Guardia Civil runs two centralized academies, one for enlisted guardias and sub-officers in Baeza (Jaén, 37°59′44″N 3°28′50″W / 37.995590°N 3.480421°W / 37.995590; -3.480421) and another one for commanding officers in two campuses at Aranjuez (40°03′08″N 3°36′03″W / 40.052223°N 3.600720°W / 40.052223; -3.600720) and El Escorial (40°35′58″N 4°07′56″W / 40.599491°N 4.132105°W / 40.599491; -4.132105) (Madrid). The autonomous Catalan and Basque police forces —the Mossos d'Esquadra and the Ertzaintza— also have their own centralized academies in Mollet del Vallès (Barcelona, 41°33′05″N 2°13′17″E / 41.551442°N 2.221305°E / 41.551442; 2.221305) and Arcaute (Álava, 42°51′29″N 2°37′07″W / 42.858187°N 2.618719°W / 42.858187; -2.618719). No candidates with a criminal record are accepted.

Candidates attend these centralized public academies after passing the police force's entry examination, so they are already enlisted and will automatically become police officers if they don't fail the course or drop out. Their training is thus free of charge and the candidates are paid a police cadet's wage as members of the force. Basic training ranges from 5 months for an entry-level policía nacional or guardia civil to 9 months for a mosso, but it actually takes about 18 months to two years including the practice placement and additional training. Local police forces including Madrid's or Barcelona's are often trained at these large public academies too. High-rank or highly specialized courses are longer and eventually similar to a college degree.

The Spanish police academies must not be confused with the many fee-paying private academias training potential candidates to pass the entry examination beforehand. While these private academies may be helpful, studying at them is not requested or asked and potential candidates can take the entry examination on their own.

Sri LankaEdit

Sri Lanka established the Sri Lanka Police Academy in 2008, bringing together several police training institutions including the Sri Lanka Police College.


Since 2015, police training is entirely outsourced by the Swedish Police Authority, and is carried out at three universities: Växjö, Umeå, and Södertörn.[8] The training covers five terms, and the last two include six months of paid workplace practice as a Police Trainee. Applicants must have basic eligibility for higher education, the personal qualities deemed necessary for the profession, and meet a number of physical requirements of the job.[9]


The Police Academy was established in 1937 to recruit police chiefs. In 1938, a police college (high school) was established in Ankara in order to prepare students for the Police Academy. Today, the police academy recruits police officers in 26 schools located in different parts of Turkey, and police chiefs in one school located in Ankara.

United Arab EmiratesEdit

In UAE, the Emirates either train their own police force or outsource training to academies of other Emirates. There are mainly two academies, one in Abu Dhabi and the other in Dubai.

Abu DhabiEdit

In the Abu Dhabi Police Academy, the study programme includes practical and field training. After successful completion of the programme the student is awarded a bachelor's degree in Law and Policing Sciences.

An Institute for officer training affiliated with the Police College was established in 1992. In 2002, the system of study in the college was changed to incorporate training theory programs and field work.

The four years of study are divided into two levels of study consisting of eight terms:

Basic level – two yearsEdit

One year for theoretical study and another for field work.

Advanced level – two yearsEdit

These two levels are preceded by an introductory period for the physical and psychological preparation of the students. After successful completion of the study and training programmes the student will be awarded a bachelor's degree in Police Sciences and Criminal Justice.


The Dubai Police Academy was founded in 1987, and was granted autonomy from the police force as long as it retained some affiliation with Dubai Police General Headquarters. It was fully inaugurated in 1989 in the presence of Sheikh Maktoum Bin Rashid Al Maktoum. In 1992, degrees offered by the academy were made equal to degrees from universities.

The first class was from 1987 to 1988, and consisted of 51 cadets and 30 full-time students, some of whom were existing police officers; they graduated in 1991. During the academic year of 1996–1997, students from other Arabic countries such as Yemen and the Palestinian Territories were admitted.

United KingdomEdit

England and WalesEdit

All candidates for the 43 police forces for England and Wales must be over the age of 18½; of a reasonable standard of physical fitness, with good health and eyesight; and be a British citizen, a Commonwealth citizen with no restrictions on his or her stay here, or a citizen of the Republic of Ireland. All serve two years as probationary constables, which will be spent training in both academic and practical situations. From 2007, all training was managed by the now defunct National Policing Improvement Agency with the College of Policing taking over in 2013.


All new police officers in Scotland attend an initial 11-week training course at the Scottish Police College at Tulliallan Castle.[10] The college has been operating since 1954 and hosts the initial training of new officers as well as a range of courses such as the training of traffic officers and detectives.[11] Many courses have received accreditation from the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) or are credit rated on the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF). Training ranges from a SCQF Level 7 for the probationer training delivered to new recruits (equivalent to an entry level higher education course)[12] to degree level qualifications for more specialised or senior roles such as detective training or courses for senior officers.[13]

United StatesEdit

Police academies exist in every state and at the federal level. Each state has an agency which certifies police academies and their programs. Most states have minimum physical and academic standards for cadets to achieve before they can enter an academy and graduate. There may be additional or higher standards required for later certification as a police officer. While some states allow open enrollment in police academies, many require cadets to be hired by a police department in order to attend. Departments and/or state certifying agencies may also require individuals to pass background checks, psychological evaluations, polygraph exams, drug screenings and qualify with a firearm and demonstrate driving skills, as conditions of employment/certification.


While some federal law enforcement agencies have their own training requirements and training facilities, 91 federal law enforcement agencies (including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and United States Marshals Service),[14] requires agents/officers and prospective agents/officers to attend basic and in-service training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC). FLETC, which is operated by the Department of Homeland Security, is headquartered in Glynco, Georgia and has training sites in Artesia, New Mexico, Charleston, South Carolina and Cheltenham, Maryland.[15]


In Connecticut, police officer recruits receive a certification to enforce the General Statutes. Their training is conducted at "The Connecticut Police Academy" located at 285 Preston Avenue, in Meriden, CT.[16] In order to become a certified police officer, a recruit must be a legal United States resident at least 21 years of age, have a high school diploma or equivalent, possess a valid drivers license, and not be convicted of any felonies.[17] The to be officers then have to attend an 818-hour basic training course that covers various aspects of police work.[18] This basic training course is certified by Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA).


In Florida, police academies are primarily run by community colleges or state agencies. All law enforcement officers in the state are certified as such by a governing body appointed by the governor called the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission under the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. All applicants must pass a state examination and be hired by a law enforcement agency within 4 years to be considered certified.


All law enforcement officers in Kentucky (except as listed below) hired after 1998 are required to complete the minimum screening, physical training and classroom requirements of the Kentucky Police Officer Professional Standards (POPS) prior to being certified and acting as a law enforcement officer.[19] Larger agencies, such as the Kentucky State Police as well as the Louisville Metro Police and the Lexington Division of Police, operate their own police academies and may have requirements that exceed the minimum POPS standards. Agencies in Kentucky who do not run their own academies send their prospective officers to a 16-week basic training class at the Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice Training Academy, operated by the Kentucky Justice and Public Safety Cabinet and located on the campus of Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, in order to complete their POPS requirements.[19] The only exception to POPS training and certification are officers hired prior to 1998 and elected law enforcement officers whose duties and requirements are set forth in the Kentucky Constitution. These include sheriffs, constables, coroners and jailers (but generally not their deputies). Many of these office holders, however, hold POPS certification from previous employment as a law enforcement officer prior to their election and others will receive POPS certification or approved equivalent training before taking office.


In Maryland, the Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission is the civilian governing body that sets standards for law enforcement personnel within the state. Most major law enforcement agencies operate their own academy in which recruits must pass over 550 objectives including (but not limited to): criminal and traffic law, officer safety techniques, defensive tactics, report writing, a 40-hour block of emergency vehicle operations, a 40-hour block of First Responder, and a 40-hour block of weapon training.[20] Most agencies operate non-resident academies; however, the Maryland State Police requires recruits to live at the academy and, dependent on their performance level for the week, may leave campus for the weekend.[21] Many colleges such as the University of Maryland and other community colleges offer police academy instruction as well.[22]


In Michigan, in order to become law enforcement officers, any and all applicants have the option to be certified by the Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards or MCOLES. All persons wishing to become police officers in the State of Michigan must be certified through MCOLES. Cadets must pass a physical fitness exam as well as a reading and writing exam. Applicants also cannot have any felonies, weapons violations, or a history of domestic violence posted on their criminal records. Police academies are most often part of community colleges, city or county police and sheriff departments, or the Michigan State Police.

At the end of the police academy, candidates take the MCOLES test. Upon successful completion, candidates are 'certifiable' and have a period of one year to obtain a job (if not sponsored by an agency). If a candidate is unable to obtain a police job within that year, and if the candidate wishes to be considered in the future, he/she must attend a two-week re-certification course, which adds another year to the window of opportunity.

New HampshireEdit

New Hampshire's PSTC (Police Standards and Training Council) provides all initial training and maintains certification standards for every full and part-time law enforcement officer in the state. This includes anyone who has the power of arrest (except federal officers) under New Hampshire law. PSTC also provides initial training and certification for correctional officers employed directly by the State. All recruits must have at least a conditional offer of employment from a law enforcement agency, have a background check and pass a medical exam and a physical fitness test. Each agency may add other qualifications such as education, polygraph and drug exams. The PSTC law enforcement academies require each recruit to qualify with a firearm, demonstrate driving skills, maintaining physical fitness, pass subject matter exams and, scenario evaluations as a condition of certification.[23]

Most agencies in the state use a Field Training Officer program to provide additional training and evaluation of new hires.


The agency which certifies police academies in Texas is the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement (TCOLE). Many major cities and sheriff's offices operate their own training academies, while some smaller municipalities cooperate to maintain regional academies. Some community colleges also offer police training courses. There are three state-level law enforcement academies: the Texas Department of Public Safety trains state troopers, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department trains game wardens, and the Texas Department of Criminal Justice trains state corrections officers. Police academies typically last from 18 to 30 weeks, though there are many variations. All police cadets are required to obtain at least a Basic Peace Officer Proficiency Certification from TCOLE before beginning active duty; some academies require their cadets to obtain an Intermediate certification before graduating. TCOLE also offers certifications for jailers and corrections officers, who must also undergo training prior to being commissioned (albeit typically much less than full-fledged police officers).


The basis of the Utah basic training for police academy is to protect the community and the citizens the police are serving. They do this by basic training, firearms training, curriculum development, canine training, defensive tactics, emergency vehicle operations, and physical fitness. Training for Utah officers is broken into two separate sections, called blocks. The two blocks are special functions and law enforcement. In order to be certified in the state of Utah an individual must successfully finish both courses of training. This training is provided so that the officers may be as professional and as up to date as possible. Along with the original training, officers are also required to do an additional 40 hours of training annually in order to stay up to date on all current laws and police procedures.[24]


The Vietnam People's Police Academy is one of the leading schools of the Vietnam People's Public Security, training officers with university degrees and postgraduate degrees. The People's Police Academy is a training centre under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Security. The school is located in Tu Liem district, Hanoi, Vietnam.


In 1968, the People's Police was established within the Department of the Public Security Police Central (now known as the Academy of the People's Security).


  • Training police officers with university degrees and postgraduate courses; create resource staff for force People's Police of Vietnam
  • Look at the scientific topics of the National Crime Prevention; Administration of State Security Order, Criminal Law, Works of Justice investigation
  • International Training Cooperation with foreign police.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Akademiya haqqında".
  2. ^ "Police Academy".
  3. ^ "Bangladesh Police". Retrieved 2018-05-04.
  4. ^ "Police of the Czech Republic" (PDF).
  5. ^ "e-Police — e-Estonia". Retrieved 2018-05-04.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Södertörns högskola får utbilda poliser" (in Swedish). Swedish Police Authority. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  9. ^ "Polisutbildningen: För dig som söker mer än ett jobb" (PDF) (in Swedish). Swedish Police Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  10. ^ "Training - Police Officers - Police Scotland". Police Service of Scotland - Training Information. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  11. ^ "Police Scotland College - About Us - Police Scotland". Police Service of Scotland - About Us. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  12. ^ "Recruit Training - International Development Unit - Police Scotland". Police Service of Scotland - International Development Unit. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  13. ^ "Scottish Police Service Qualifications Framework" (PDF). Scottish Qualifications Authority. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  14. ^ "Current Partners - FLETC". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  15. ^ "Locations - FLETC". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  16. ^ POST. "Police Officer Standards and Training Council". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  17. ^ "POSTC: Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 2015-05-05.
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b "Welcome to the Department of Criminal Justice Training". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  20. ^ "". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  21. ^ Archived October 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Archived June 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "NH Police Standards and Training Council". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  24. ^ "Utah Department of Public Safety". The Academy - Basic Training Bureau. State of Utah. March 8, 2013. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.