Colombian Aerospace Force

(Redirected from Colombian Air Force)

The Colombian Air Force (FAC, Spanish: Fuerza Air Colombiana) is the aerospace force of the Republic of Colombia. The Colombian Air Force is one of the three institutions of the Military Forces of Colombia charged, according to the 1991 Constitution, working to exercise and maintain control of Colombia's air and to defend its sovereignty, territorial integrity and constitutional order. It is one of the largest air forces in the Americas (after the United States and Brazil) and has increased its activity due to important roles in the fight against narco-terrorism. Its main force includes 21 IAI Kfirs as defense fighters and 12 Cessna A-37 Dragonfly plus 24 Embraer 314 Super Tucano for counterinsurgency.

Colombian Air Force
Fuerza Aérea Colombiana
Emblem of the Colombian Air Force
Founded15 February 1921; 103 years ago (1921-02-15)
Country Colombia
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Space warfare
  • 25,000 active personnel
  • 270 aircraft [1]
Part ofColombian Armed Forces
MarchColombian Air Force Hymn
Mascot(s)Capitan Paz
Anniversaries8 November
Engagements Edit this at Wikidata
Commander of the Aerospace ForceMajor General Ramsés Rueda Rueda
Deputy Commander and Aerospace Force Chief of StaffMajor General Jorge Tadeo Borbon
Inspector GeneralMajor General Rodrigo Valencia Guevara
Major General Alberto Alejandro Pauwels Rodriguez
Fin flash
Aircraft flown
AttackA-29, A-37, AC-47T
FighterIAI Kfir
HelicopterUH-60, UH-1, Bell 212, AH-60
ReconnaissanceSA2-37A/B, Skymaster C-337H, Super King Air, SR-560
TrainerT-34, Cessna 172S, T-27, T-90, Bell 206, T-6 Texan II
TransportC-130, C-295, C-212

The FAC has been used in observation and aerial combat missions since the Colombian-Peruvian war of 1932 and also operated during the Second World War in the islands of San Andrés.

The service's name was changed from the Colombian Air Force to the Colombian Aerospace Force in 2023.[citation needed]





Military aviation began in Colombia in 1919 with the creation of a military aviation school for the Colombian Army. Previously by Law 15 of 1916 of September 7 two commissions were sent overseas to study new technological advancements in aviation, infantry, cavalry, engineering and trains. Officers pertaining to the Colombian Army were also sent to take a course on flight training on techniques and tactics. The school was then created in Colombia along with the Colombian National Army Aviation as a fifth regiment by Law 126 of 1919 of December 31 authorized by President of Colombia, Marco Fidel Suárez. The unit was officially activated on February 15, 1921 in Flandes, Department of Tolima with the support of a French mission led by Lieutenant Colonel Rene Guichard. The Aviation School initially had 3 Caudron G.3 E-2, 3 Caudron G.4 A-2 and four Nieuport Delage 11 C-1. The school was closed due to financial hardships in 1922.

The School of Military Aviation was reopened on November 8, 1924 in Madrid, Department of Cundinamarca with the support of a Swiss mission headed by Captain Henry Pillichody. The aircraft used for training were 4 Wild WT and 8 Wild X performing the first air review on August 7, 1927. Then on December 28, 1928 the first combat aircraft was shown in Colombia, the Curtiss Falcon O-1.

War with Peru

The Hawk II F11C-origin, helped in fighting Guepí in Peruvian garrison, which lasted eight hours

On September 1, 1932, Peruvian civilians crossed into Colombian territory and invaded the town of Leticia in the Colombian Amazon claiming that the town was Peruvian territory. The Colombian military aviation only had 11 instructors, four Curtiss-Wright CW-14R Osprey air combat support planes and one Curtiss Falcon O-1. The military aviation then received full financial support from the Congress of Colombia. Colombia bought aircraft from Germany and the United States, while others were activated from the airline operating in Colombia SCADTA (Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transporte Aéreo) and their pilots, which included some German citizens, one of these was Major Herbert Boy. The imported aircraft were 4 Junkers F.13, 4 Junkers W 34 and 3 Junkers K 43, 6 Junkers Ju 52, 2 Dornier Merkur II, 4 Dornier Wal, 20 Curtiss Falcon F-8F and 30 Curtiss Hawk II F-11C.

The contingent was then sent to southern Colombia to fight Peruvian forces with the main mission of delivering supplies to the front lines, aerial reconnaissance and air to land attacks. The fleet was divided into three squadrons with Puerto Boy as the main camp site. Support bases were in Caucaya airstrip (Puerto Leguízamo), El Encanto, Puerto Arica, La Pedrera and Tarapacá. The main combat operations started on February 14, 1933 in Tarapacá where the Peruvian garrison was bombed by seven Colombian aircraft and later assaulted by land forces. Later, on March 26, in the village of Guepi eleven Colombian planes and two cannon boats (MC Cartagena y MC Santa Marta) bombarded Peruvian positions and took over the town.

The last military actions of the conflict with Peru were on May 8, 1933 and in which there was an aerial engagement between the two forces. Peruvian planes were attacking the fluvial fleet of Colombia over the Algodón River and were surprised by the Colombian squadron. One of the Peruvian aircraft, a Douglas O-38P was gunned down and taken to Colombian territory. On May 24, 1933 a cease fire was declared after an agreement was reached with the intervention of the League of Nations. The town of Leticia was returned to Colombia. The captured plane was then returned to Peru. As a result of the war, four pilots died in four accidents during non-combat related actions. Among these was one of the German pilots. Four planes were lost in these accidents a Falcon O-1, an Osprey C-14, a Junkers F-13 and a Curtiss F-11.

World War II

The AT-6 Texan served during World War II, defending the country's Caribbean coast

The diplomatic breach between Colombia and the Axis countries (Germany, Italy and Japan) was declared on December 18, 1941, when President Eduardo Santos took the decision following the Japanese attack on military bases, naval and U.S. carriers at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Thereafter, the Colombian government introduced special measures to limit and counter the Axis military action in areas of national jurisdiction. On June 23, 1942 a German submarine attacked and sank the Colombian schooner Resolute, 50 miles northwest of the island of San Andrés. The same schooner had rescued some Marine officers and 23 British Royal Navy survivors of a capsized ship, 200 miles north of Cartagena just five days before.

Following these events, the government decided to patrol and monitor the Pacific Coast and the Colombian Caribbean coast. The Palanquero Air Base commanders moved one fighter squadron and a Combat Reconnaissance Squadron, consisting of F-8 Falcon aircraft, to Barranquilla. In 1943, the Falcons were relieved of their mission and replaced by the AT-6 Texan. This squadron was active until 1945, when the AT-6 were transferred back to Palanquero Air Base.

Early 1930s to present

  • During the period of La Violencia, The Air Force had the necessity to expand its radius of action, so in 1947 the aeródromo nacional de Apiay was created, named the 17 of November 1948 Base Aérea de Apiay, today it home of the Comando Aéreo de Combate No. 2. In this period, the Air Force became more involved in counterinsurgency tasks and B-26C Invaders were acquired. Also, in 1954, the jet age began for the Colombian Air Force with the arrival of 6 Silver Star T-33 and six Canadian Sabre Mark IV F-86 in 1956. The F-86 were retired from service 1966, while the T-33 continued to operate until 1972 when 18 Mirage 5 fighters arrived in three different versions. Sixteen F-80 Shooting Stars were also delivered.
  • In 1952, Hiller UH-12 helicopters arrived to the country, initially acquired for the Ministerio de Obras Públicas, but later assigned to the Air Force. In consequence, in 1954, the first helicopter base was created in Melgar, Tolima. Nowadays this base is known as Base Aérea “Capitán Luis F. Gómez Niño”, home of the Comando Aéreo de Combate No. 4 and the Joint Helicopter School of the Armed Forces. In 1959, with the inauguration of the El Dorado International Airport, the Base Aérea de Transporte Militar was created, later renamed as Base Aérea “Brigadier General Camilo Daza”, home today of the Comando Aéreo de Transporte Militar (CATAM). In 1962 in order to integrate economically and socially the furthest regions of the country the Servicio Aéreo a Territorios Nacionales Satena was created.
  • Around 1960 the military transport element expanded, with the acquisition of the C-130 Hercules, other types incorporated during the sixties were, the UH-1 Huey, T-37 Tweet and T-41 Mescalero.
  • In 1977, to increase control in the northern part of the country, the Grupo Aéreo del Norte was created in Malambo, Atlántico, home today of the Comando Aéreo de Combate No. 3. In 1979, the Grupo Aéreo del Caribe (GACAR) was created, to defend the sovereignty of San Andrés and Providencia from the pretensions of Nicaragua. In 1983, the Grupo Aéreo de Oriente was created in Marandúa, Vichada to exert more control of the airspace in the eastern part of the country.
  • Further expansion took place in the eighties with considerable deliveries of the A-37 Dragonfly, which had earned fame over Vietnam. At the end of the decade a batch of Kfir C2 fighters was delivered from Israel and subsequently upgraded to Kfir C7 by the Comando Aéreo de Mantenimiento (CAMAN) in Madrid in the nineties. The Mirages were upgraded to the same standard by CAMAN, with the installation of canards and improved fuel systems. Both types are also equipped for air-to-air refuelling from the FAC's sole Boeing 707 tanker and transport aircraft. The nineties saw the delivery of specialised COIN-aircraft like the OV-10A Bronco and Embraer Tucano trainers, some of the latter are able to carry bombs and unguided rockets. These aircraft operate mainly over the east of the country, where the Los Llanos region has a high level of guerrilla activity. They regularly deploy to Puerto Carreño under the command of the Grupo Aéreo del Oriente formed in 2000. To deal with continuing guerrilla activity, Escuadrones Aerotácticos (tactical squadrons) were formed at the main FAC bases in the late nineties, consisting of several types of helicopters and AC-47 gunships supplied by their respective Grupos.
    A Colombian Air Force AH-60L Arpía III firing its flares
  • Finally in 1990 the Base Aérea de Rionegro, Antioquia is activated, center of operations of the UH-60 Black Hawk, today this base is called Comando Aéreo de Combate No. 5.
  • The 1999 'Plan Colombia' emphasizes on technology, rather than on large numbers of new aircraft being procured, although several new UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters entered FAC service in recent years, including a dedicated attack variant developed by the Colombian Air Force in conjunction with Elbit Systems and Sikorsky, the AH-60L Arpía. Other recently acquired types include Schweizer SA2-37A Condors and Cessna 560 Citations equipped with cameras and sensors to monitor guerrilla and narcotic related activities. Technology upgrades are scheduled for the Bronco fleet, the venerable AC-47 gunships and Huey-helicopters.
  • The Colombian Air Force monitors the country's airspace and intercepts suspicious flights, occasionally forcing non-compliant aircraft to the ground. A Hawker 800 carrying 1.2 tonnes of cocaine was shot to the sea in 2015.[3]



Combat Air Commands (Comando Aéreo de Combate or CACOM):

Transportation and Maintenance:

Air Groups:





As of 2010,[1] the Aerospace Force fields approximately 13,500 personnel, including 2,171 officers, 3,304 Non-commissioned officers, 903 student officers, 4,673 soldiers, these usually allocated to base security, Military Police etc., and 2,382 civilians, the latter usually dedicated to specialized technical or professional activities, e.g. medical, communications, etc.

Ranks & Insignias


The tables below display the rank structures and rank insignias for the Colombian Aerospace Force personnel.[30][n 1]


Rank group General/Flag/Air officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
  Colombian Aerospace Force[31]
General del aire Mayor general del aire Brigadier general del aire Coronel Teniente coronel Mayor Capitán Teniente Subteniente
English - General of the Air - Major General of the Air Brigadier General of the Air Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant

Non-Commissioned Officers and Airmen

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
  Colombian Aerospace Force[31]
Técnico jefe de comando conjunto Técnico jefe de comando Técnico jefe Técnico subjefe Técnico primero Técnico segundo Técnico tercero Técnico cuarto Aerotécnico
English Joint Command Chief Technician Command Chief Technician Senior Chief Technician Chief Technician Technician First Class Technician 2nd Class Technician 3rd Class Junior Technician Airman



Current inventory

An IAI Kfir on take off
An A-29B Super Tucano takes off from Davis–Monthan AFB
A FAC Boeing 737 at Zürich Airport
A Bell 206 fly over during the Colombian Bicentennial
A CASA CN-235 in Flight
Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
IAI Kfir Israel multirole 19 2 aircraft provide training[32]
Basler BT-67 United States attack / CAS AC-47T 6[32] modified DC-3 with turboprop engines, and mounted guns
A-37 Dragonfly United States light attack / COIN 12[33]
EMB 314 Super Tucano Brazil light attack / COIN 23[32]
Reconnaissance Aircraft
Cessna 208 United States reconnaissance 6[32]
Cessna Citation V United States surveillance Ultra 5[32]
CASA CN-235 Spain reconnaissance 1[32]
Boeing KC-767 United States aerial refueling / transport MMTT 1[32] tanker transport conversion by Israeli Aerospace Industries
Boeing 727 United States VIP transport 1[32]
Boeing 737 United States VIP transport 4[32]
C-130 Hercules United States transport C-130B/H 8[32]
CASA C-212 Spain transport 4[32]
CASA C-295 Spain utility transport 7[32]
Cessna 208 United States utility transport 10[32]
Embraer EMB 110 Brazil utility / transport 2[32]
Turbo Commander United States transport 2[32] one provides maritime patrol
Super King Air United States transport 90/350 11[32] 3 provide electronic warfare
Piper PA-34 United States light transport 1[32]
Piper PA-31T United States light transport 1[32]
Bell 212 United States utility 11[32]
Bell UH-1 United States utility 49[32] 2 are Bell 205s
Sikorsky UH-60 United States SAR / COIN U/M/AH-60L 24[32]
MD 500 Defender United States light utility 530 4[32]
Trainer Aircraft
Bell 206 United States rotor-craft trainer 47[32]
Cessna T-37 United States jet trainer 17[32]
EMB 312 Tucano Brazil advanced trainer 14[32]
Beechcraft T-6 Texan II United States advanced trainer T-6C 5 3 on order[32]
Boeing Insitu ScanEagle United States surveillance 6[34][35]
Elbit Hermes 450 Israel surveillance 6[36]
Elbit Hermes 900 Israel surveillance 2[36]

Former aircraft


Previous aircraft operated were the Gavilán G358, OV-10A Bronco, IAI Arava.[37][38]

Aircraft identification

Super Tucano of the Colombian Aerospace Force. These aircraft were acquired in 2006

The aircraft used by the Colombian Aerospace Force are identified with the letters "FAC" followed by three or four numbers that are painted on the tail, nose and nose landing gear doors. The serial numbers are assigned according to the aircraft's primary role as follows:

  • 001 Avión Presidencial
  • 002 to 100 trainer
  • 101 to 200 liaison
  • 201 to 300 helicopter
  • 301 to 500 miscellaneous
  • 501 to 600 light transport
  • 601 to 700 transport
  • 701 to 800 advanced trainer
  • 801 to 900 fighter-bomber
  • 901 to 1000 crew-trainer
  • 1001 to 1300 transport
  • 2001 to 2300 Close support
  • 2501 to 2600 bomber
  • 3001 to 3100 Fighter
  • 3101 to 3200 COIN
  • 4001 to 4600 helicopter
  • 5001 to 5600 liaison
  • 5701 to 5800 recon/ELINT

See also



  1. ^ Colombia is not a member of NATO, so there is not an official equivalence between the Colombian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.


  1. ^ a b Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Colombia (November 2010). "Logros de la Política de Consolidación de la Seguridad Democrática, 2010" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  2. ^ (in Spanish)[1]
  3. ^ "Video Shows Shootdown of Hawker 800".
  4. ^ (in Spanish) CACOM 1 – Puerto Salgar (Cundinamarca) – Comando Aéreo de Combate No.1 Archived 2012-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ (in Spanish) Capitán Germán Olano Moreno
  6. ^ (in Spanish) CACOM 2 – Apiay (Meta) – Comando Aéreo de Combate No.2 Archived 2013-05-02 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ (in Spanish) Capitán Luis F. Gómez Niño
  8. ^ (in Spanish) CACOM 3 – Malambo (Atlántico) – Comando Aéreo de Combate No.3
  9. ^ (in Spanish) Mayor General Alberto Pauwels Rodríguez
  10. ^ (in Spanish) CACOM 4 – Melgar (Tolima) – Comando Aéreo de Combate No.4
  11. ^ (in Spanish) Teniente Coronel Luis Francisco Pinto Parra
  12. ^ (in Spanish) CACOM 5 – Rionegro (Antioquia) – Comando Aéreo de Combate No.5 Archived 2007-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ (in Spanish) Coronel Fernando Arturo Lema Posada
  14. ^ (in Spanish) CACOM 6 – Tres Esquinas (Caquetá) – Comando Aéreo de Combate No.6 Archived 2012-02-29 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ (in Spanish) Capitán Ernesto Esguerra Cubides Archived 2012-07-07 at
  16. ^ (in Spanish) CATAM – Aeropuerto El Dorado (Bogotá D.C) – Comando Aéreo de Transporte Militar Archived 2017-10-03 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ (in Spanish) Brigadier General (H) Camilo Daza Álvarez
  18. ^ (in Spanish) CAMAN – Madrid (Cundinamarca) – Comando Aéreo de Mantenimiento Archived 2018-08-26 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ (in Spanish) Mayor (H) Justino Mariño Cuesta
  20. ^ (in Spanish) GACAR – San Andrés Isla (San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina) – Grupo Aéreo del Caribe
  21. ^ (in Spanish) Teniente Coronel Benjamín Méndez Rey
  22. ^ AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. January 2017. p. 21.
  23. ^ (in Spanish) GAORI – Marandúa (Vichada) – Grupo Aéreo del Oriente Archived 2018-11-21 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ (in Spanish) Coronel Luis Arturo Rodríguez Meneses
  25. ^ (in Spanish) EMAVI – Santiago de Cali (Valle) – Escuela Militar de Aviación
  26. ^ (in Spanish) Marco Fidel Suárez
  27. ^ (in Spanish) ESUFA – Madrid (Cundinamarca) – Escuela de Suboficiales FAC
  28. ^ (in Spanish) Captain Andres Maria Diaz Diaz
  29. ^ (in Spanish) IMA – Instituto Militar Aeronáutico Archived 2008-08-20 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Congreso de la República de Colombia (28 July 2010). "Ley 1405 de 2010 Nuevos Grados Militares" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  31. ^ a b "Grados Militares Fuerza Aérea Colombiana". (in Spanish). Colombian Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "World Air Forces 2023". Flightglobal Insight. 2023. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  33. ^ "Two Colombian airplanes burst into flames after colliding midair, both pilots killed". TimesNow. 2023-07-02.
  34. ^ "Fuerza Aérea Colombiana activa escuadrón de aeronaves remotamente tripuladas en el Departamento de Nariño". (in Spanish). Colombian Air Force. 11 May 2018. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  35. ^ "Colombian Air Force activates drone squadron". Forecast International. 15 May 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  36. ^ a b Saumeth, Erich (12 February 2018). "Colombia y sus Elbit Hermes 900". (in Spanish). IDS, S.L. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  37. ^ Sands, Glenn. "Colombian Air Force retires OV-10A Broncos". Air Forces Monthly (#325): 19.
  38. ^ Herk, Hans van. "Colombia Air Force retirements". Retrieved 2023-01-12.