Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine

Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: Хмельни́цький, romanizedKhmelnytskyi, pronounced [xmelʲˈnɪtsʲkɪj]), until 1954 Proskuriv (Ukrainian: Проску́рів [proˈskur⁽ʲ⁾iu̯]) is a city in western Ukraine, the administrative center for Khmelnytskyi Oblast (region) and Khmelnytskyi Raion (district). It hosts the administration of Khmelnytskyi urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[2] Khmelnytskyi is located in the historic region of Podolia on the banks of the Buh River. The city received its current local government designation in 1941. The current city's population is estimated 274,582 (2021 est.)[3], making it the second largest city of the former, archaic Podolia region after Vinnytsia and the largest city of the western part of the region.

Khmelnytskyi
Хмельницький
Об'єднаний банк (домовласник Ніренберг), Хмельницький вул. Проскурівська, 47.JPG
Аптека та помешкання домовласника Л. І. Деревоїда Хмельницький вул. Проскурівська, 13.JPG
Проскурівська 15 Хмельницький.jpg
Хмель Будинок офіцерів.jpg
Храм Георгія Побідоносця. 2017р.jpg
Міська рада. Ніч.jpg
Flag of Khmelnytskyi
Coat of arms of Khmelnytskyi
Khmelnytskyi is located in Khmelnytskyi Oblast
Khmelnytskyi
Khmelnytskyi
Location of Khmelnytskyi in Ukraine
Khmelnytskyi is located in Ukraine
Khmelnytskyi
Khmelnytskyi
Khmelnytskyi (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 49°25′0″N 27°00′0″E / 49.41667°N 27.00000°E / 49.41667; 27.00000Coordinates: 49°25′0″N 27°00′0″E / 49.41667°N 27.00000°E / 49.41667; 27.00000
Country Ukraine
Oblast Khmelnytskyi Oblast
RaionKhmelnytskyi Raion
First mentioned1431
City rightsSeptember 22, 1937
Government
 • MayorOleksandr Symсhyshyn [uk][1] (Svoboda[1])
Area
 • Total90 km2 (30 sq mi)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total274,582
 • Density2,822/km2 (7,310/sq mi)
Postal code
29000
Area code(s)+380 382
Websitehttp://www.khmelnytsky.com

HistoryEdit

The city foundation date is uncertain. The territory, where Khmelnytskyi is situated, has been inhabited for a very long time. Many archaeological discoveries have been discovered in the city suburbs. For example, to the East of Lezneve district, there was a settlement from the Bronze Age 2000 B.C., and from Scythian times from 7–3 century B.C.[4] The first mention of the city was written with Cyrillic alphabet. The earliest known mention in historical sources was in 1431,[5] when it was known as Płoskirów (Ploskirov, Плоскиров) and was part of the Kingdom of Poland. It was a royal city.

Polish rule was briefly interrupted by Ottoman one between 1672 and 1699. During this period, it was nahiya centre in Mejibuji sanjak in Podolia Eyalet as Poloskiruf.[6] After the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the city was annexed by the Russian Empire and was renamed Proskurov (Проскурoв). According to the Russian census of 1897, Proskurov with a population of 22,855 was the fifth largest city of Podolia after Kamianets-Podilskyi, Uman, Vinnytsia and Balta. In 1920 it became part of Soviet Ukraine. In 1954 the city was finally renamed Khmelnytskyi (Хмельницький) in the honor of the 300th anniversary of a treaty negotiated by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

After new archival sources presented at the 2006 conference City of Khmelnytskyi in the Context of Ukrainian History post-dated the city’s earliest mention from 1493 to 1431, it changed its official 513th anniversary commemoration to its 575th.[7]

PogromsEdit

A series of anti-Jewish pogroms have been carried out in the region, known together as the Proskurov pogrom. According to Vinnytsia's city archives the pogrom was conducted on the Friday night of February 15, 1919 by one of the otamans (generals) of the Ukrainian People's Army, Otaman Semysenko (also rendered as Semesenko). Estimates vary as to the number of victims, some putting the death toll at 1,500 Jews in Proskurov alone, with 600 more killed in nearby Filshtein.[8]

The Chief Otaman Petliura had been appointed head of state just two days prior to the tragedy, on February the 13th. Petliura issued Order 131 in which he mentioned the fact that numerous Jewish parties in Ukraine (Bund, Poale Zion, Folks-Partei, Unificationists) rose to defend the sovereignty of the Ukrainian Republic and were cooperating with the Ukrainian government. He condemned such pogroms, calling those initiating them deserters and enemies of the State that must be liquidated. The order was co-signed by the Chief of Staff, Otaman Yunakiv. The order was published in the Ukraina newspaper on February 20 (March 4, old style). Later, Petliura issued a special order to execute Semysenko for being the pogrom initiator. According to sources the order was carried out[9] on March 20, 1920.[citation needed] Other sources claim that he was released.[9]

During the Schwartzbard trial, at the end of which Petliura's assassin was pardoned on the grounds of self-trail (revenge), the main argument of the defense was that Schwartzbard had acted as an avenger of the Jews killed in pogroms perpetrated during Petliura's rule.

World War IIEdit

 
A street corner during the German occupation

The town was occupied by the German Army from July 8, 1941 to March 25, 1944. On November 4, 1941, 5300 Jewish inhabitants of the town and surrounding villages were shot by an Einsatzgruppe.[10] A ghetto was formed on December 14, 1941, where all surviving Jewish inhabitants had to resettle and were subjected to forced labor. They were subsequently killed in the fall of 1942. More than 9500 Jews were killed in the town in total.[11]

After World War IIEdit

Khmelnytskyi was home to the 19th Division of the 43rd Rocket Army of the Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces during the Cold War.[12] The intercontinental ballistic missile silos of the division that were housed there were removed and destroyed, partially with U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction funding, during the 1990s.

Until 18 July 2020, Khmelnytskyi was incorporated as a city of oblast significance and served as the administrative center of Khmelnytskyi Raion though it did not belong to the raion. In July 2020, as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Khmelnytskyi Oblast to seven, the city of Khmelnytskyi was merged into Khmelnytskyi Raion.[13][14]

Geography and natural resourcesEdit

 
Khmelnytskyi's riverside skyline on the Southern Bug, early 2010s.

Khmelnytskyi is the regional center of the Khmelnytskyi region which is located in the western part of Ukraine in the middle of Podillia, its total area makes up 8,624 ha (21,310 acres). Khmelnytskyi has a favorable geographical position. Khmelnytskyi is crossed by one of the longest rivers of Ukraine – the Southern Bug. Coincidentally, through the western portion of the city flows small river Ploska.

The climate of Khmelnytskyi is moderately continental. The average temperature of Khmelnytskyi in its warmest month (July) is 20 to 22 °C (68 to 72 °F), and the average temperature in the coldest month (January) is −5 to −6 °C (23 to 21 °F). The maximum temperatures in the summer on average reaches 36 to 38 °C (97 to 100 °F), and the minimum temperatures in the winter on average is −24 to −30 °C (−11 to −22 °F). Khmelnytskyi's average annual temperature is 7 to 8 °C (45 to 46 °F). Khmelnytskyi's average annual precipitation is 510 to 580 mm (20.08 to 22.83 in).

The most abundant make up for the ground in Khmelnytskyi are layers of the following overburden: loess and loess-type rocks. The ground-climatic conditions of Khmelnytskyi are favorable for the cultivation of winter wheat and rye, sugar beet, potato and other crops. Khmelnytskyi is also ideal for the development of gardening and vegetable growing. In the territory of Khmelnytskyi there are the vegetations of two geobotanical zones of Ukraine: Polissya and forest-steppe. Khmelnytskyi and its greater region supplies many rock products, particularly building materials such as: limestone, plaster, chalk, tripoli powder, crystal layers (granites, gneisses), sand, sandstones, and also graphite, saponite, kaolin, phosphorite, lithographic stone and roofing slate. There are also deposits of peat, bitumen, shale and oil.

Climate data for Khmelnytskyi (1981–2010, extremes 1955-2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
17.1
(62.8)
23.0
(73.4)
26.5
(79.7)
31.7
(89.1)
33.9
(93.0)
35.5
(95.9)
34.0
(93.2)
30.4
(86.7)
26.6
(79.9)
20.0
(68.0)
12.8
(55.0)
35.5
(95.9)
Average high °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.1
(41.2)
13.4
(56.1)
19.8
(67.6)
22.1
(71.8)
24.2
(75.6)
23.8
(74.8)
18.4
(65.1)
12.3
(54.1)
4.7
(40.5)
−0.4
(31.3)
11.8
(53.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
1.1
(34.0)
8.2
(46.8)
14.2
(57.6)
16.9
(62.4)
18.8
(65.8)
18.2
(64.8)
13.2
(55.8)
7.7
(45.9)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
7.5
(45.5)
Average low °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−6.1
(21.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
3.5
(38.3)
9.0
(48.2)
12.1
(53.8)
14.0
(57.2)
13.2
(55.8)
8.9
(48.0)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.3
(22.5)
3.6
(38.5)
Record low °C (°F) −30.5
(−22.9)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−7.2
(19.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
2.2
(36.0)
3.6
(38.5)
2.1
(35.8)
−5.0
(23.0)
−11.4
(11.5)
−17.8
(0.0)
−25.4
(−13.7)
−30.5
(−22.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.1
(1.22)
31.5
(1.24)
31.9
(1.26)
45.5
(1.79)
58.5
(2.30)
96.6
(3.80)
106.9
(4.21)
71.3
(2.81)
58.8
(2.31)
37.1
(1.46)
38.8
(1.53)
37.8
(1.49)
645.8
(25.43)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.2 7.9 7.7 8.0 8.9 10.9 10.8 7.9 8.3 7.0 8.0 9.2 102.8
Average relative humidity (%) 87.0 84.4 79.5 69.5 67.9 73.4 74.5 73.1 77.5 81.2 87.5 88.3 78.7
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[15]
Source 2: Climatebase.ru (extremes)[16]

DemographicsEdit

According to a 2017 survey, 94% of the population are ethnic Ukrainians and 3% are Russians.[17]

The average life expectancy of its inhabitants is 65 years for men, and 75 years for women.[when?]

EducationEdit

Khmelnytskyi hosts 6 universities, 2 academies, 3 institutes, 12 colleges, 4 technical schools and 15 representative offices of other Ukrainian HEIs.[18][19]

TransportEdit

 
Khmelnytskyi railway station

Khmelnytskyi has infrastructure for transportation connections with Moscow, Prague, Bratislava, Warsaw, Budapest, Belgrade and all major Ukrainian cities. The distance from Khmelnytskyi to Kyiv by railway is estimated to be 366 km (227 mi), by highway it is estimated to be 384 km (239 mi). The highways Kyiv-Lviv, Odessa-Lviv and Chernivtsi-Kyiv pass through Khmelnytskyi. The city is served by the Khmelnytskyi Ruzhychna Airport. Khmelnytskyi's airport has a 2,200 m (7,217.85 ft) concrete runway; at the airport there is a check point for crossing the state border of Ukraine.

SportsEdit

 
Podillya Stadium

Khmelnytskyi is home to the competitive football team FC Dynamo Khmelnytskyi.

Points of interestEdit

 
Proskurivska street
 
Church of St. Anne in Khmelnytsky
  • Proskurivska street, a modern central pedestrian street of the city, preserved buildings of the end of the 19th - the beginnings of 20th century in the styles of modernist, eclecticisms, Baroque, stone (characteristic only for Proskuriv).
  • The house of the former Oleksiyivske real school (now it is the building of the City Executive Committee)
  • The house of O. Brusilov (now is the House of Ceremonial events)
  • The church of Nativity of the Virgin (the first stone construction in the city)
  • The Protection cathedral
  • St. George church
  • Andriy Pervozvannyi church in "Dubovo" district

Notable people from KhmelnytskyiEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit

Khmelnytskyi is twinned with:

In January 2016 the Khmelnytskyi city council terminated its twinned relations with the Russian cities Tver and Ivanovo due to the Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present).[20]

Views of KhmelnytskyiEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Small biography on Oleksandr Symсhyshyn, Civil movement "Chesno" (in Ukrainian)
  2. ^ "Хмельницкая громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
  3. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  4. ^ ЮНЕСКО", Опубліковано Євроклуб "Кур'єри. "Волонтерська турбота про духовні скарби Хмельниччини: Участь європейського клубу "Кур'єри ЮНЕСКО" гімназії №2 м. Хмельницького зі статусом "Асоційована школа ЮНЕСКО" у проекті "Волонтерська турбота про духовні скарби Хмельниччини"". Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  5. ^ Mykhailovskyi, Vitalii (2004), "Source References about Proskuriv in the 15th Century", in Pavlo Sokhanʹ (ed.), Ukrainian Archeographic Yearbook, new series (in Ukrainian), Kyiv, New York City: Institute of Ukrainian Archeography, pp. 771–2, Wikidata Q12164093
  6. ^ http://i.piccy.info/i9/50c7ec080439bb1790d77fec4b180a08/1437042927/139143/831035/The_Eyalet_of_Kamanice.jpg Map of Podolia Eyalet
  7. ^ "За п'ятнадцять років Хмельницький постаршав на 63 роки - vsim.ua". Новини Хмельницького за сьогодні (in Ukrainian). 2006-03-12. Retrieved 2021-06-30.
  8. ^ David B. Green (15 February 2016). "1919: Cossacks Start Pogrom in Ukraine, Killing Jews but Sparing Property". Haaretz. This Day in Jewish History. Tel Aviv. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  9. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) Proskurivsky pogrom. Petliura's fault? by Henry Abramson, Ukrayinska Pravda (25 February 2019)
  10. ^ Husson, Edouard (11 November 2008). "L'Ukraine et le début de la " solution finale de la question juive en Europe " - Le meurtre des Juifs d'Ukraine par les nazis et leurs collaborateurs - Introduction historique". Centre Européen de Recherche et d'Enseignement sur la Shoah à l'Est. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  11. ^ "До 70-річчя останнього розстрілу в'язнів проскурівського гетто". biznes.km.ua. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  12. ^ Feskov, V.I.; Kalashnikov, K.A.; Golikov, V.I. (2004). The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945–91. Tomsk: Tomsk University Publishing House. p. 133. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7.
  13. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 2020-07-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  14. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України.
  15. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  16. ^ "Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  17. ^ "Public Opinion Survey of Residents of UkraineJune 9 – July 7, 2017" (PDF). iri.org. August 2017. p. 83. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2017.
  18. ^ "Higher education institutions raiting (Khmelnytskyi)". Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  19. ^ "List of higher education institutions in Khmelnytskyi". Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  20. ^ (in Ukrainian) Chernivtsi decided to terminate the relationship with twin two Russian cities, The Ukrainian Week (February 27, 2016)

External linksEdit