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The Indonesian Marine Corps (Indonesian: Korps Marinir) officially known as KORMAR or simply "Marinir", Tentara Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Laut, ("KORMAR", TNI-AL); officially translated as: Marine Corps, Indonesian Navy[1] is currently an integral part of the Indonesian Navy (TNI-AL) and sized at the military corps level unit as the naval infantry and main amphibious warfare force of Indonesia. There are future plans to expand the Indonesian Marine Corps to become an independent, uniformed force. It is commanded by a two star marine general (note that it does not use the Admiral title). It has two divisions, which are:

  • Pasukan Marinir I / "PASMAR I" (Marine Force I) based in Jakarta for operations in the western fleet of Indonesia
  • Pasukan Marinir II / "PASMAR II" (Marine Force II) based in Surabaya for operations in the eastern fleet of Indonesia.
Korps Marinir
LOGO MARINIR.png
Indonesian Marine Corps Coat of Arms
Active 15 November 1945
Country  Indonesia
Allegiance Presidential Standard of Indonesia.svg President of Indonesia
Branch Indonesian Navy
Type Naval Infantry
Size 2 Divisions and 1 Independent Brigade
Part of Indonesian National Armed Forces Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI)
Nickname(s) KORMAR, Purple Berets
Motto(s) Jalesu Bhumyamca Jayamahe (Sanskrit): On the Water and Land, We are Glorious
Colours   Purple
Anniversaries 15 November
Engagements Various anti-guerrilla operations in Indonesia, including Aceh and East Timor
Website www.marinir.tnial.mil.id
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief President Joko Widodo
Minister of Defence Ryamizard Ryacudu
Indonesian National Armed Forces Commander General Gatot Nurmantyo
Indonesian Navy Chief of Staff Admiral Ade Supandi
Commandant Major General Bambang Suswantono
Indonesian Marines with their distinctive purple berets

The two marine divisions (PASMAR I and II) are each led by a one star admiral (Brigadier General/Commodore).

The Indonesian Marine Corps was formally a special operations force for the Indonesian Navy (TNI-AL), then named Korps Komando Operasi or "KKO" (Commando Operations Corps). It was actively involved in various confrontations and conflicts involving Indonesia during the past. Now it still forms as one of the biggest corps within the Indonesian Armed Forces especially the Navy and usually deploys troops to UN Peacekeeping missions abroad with other service branches of the Indonesian Armed Forces.

The Indonesian Marine Corps maintains a joint special operations unit, known as Detasemen Jala Mangkara or "DENJAKA" (Jala Mangkara Detachment) created on the 1st of December 1984, and draws operators from the Komando Paukan Katak, TNI-AL or "KOPASKA" (The Indonesian Navy's Frogman Commando Force) and Batalyon Intai Ampibi, TNI-AL or "YONTAIFIB" (Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, Indonesian Marine Corps). This unit has conducted anti piracy and hostage rescue operations in the current pirating in Somalia.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Corps Mariniers (CM), the predecessor of the marine corps was established on 15 November 1945 at Navy Base IV of ALRI (Angkatan Laut Republik Indonesia) in Tegal. The marine corps was initially formed as a training for Indonesian seamen who joined the Navy, in order to fight on the ground when there is an emergency. Marines eventually were forced to join guerrilla warfare on land due to lack of sea defense equipments. In other places, the Corps were widely known as the "ALRI Gunung" (Navy of the Mountains) because it is more frequent fighting in the jungle and the foot of the mountain, rather than at sea. But they are not included yet in the marine corps for this latest new corps at that time only exist in Navy Base IV in Tegal, not in other naval bases. The marine corps from Tegal sent troops to Semarang front of the Revolution 25 times to aid the People's Security Army (TKR) whose personnel were losing to the Dutch. In the midst of the revolutionary period, precisely on 17 March 1948 there have been a reorganization and rationalization of the marine corps. At that time, because the marine corps had a lot of combat experience on the ground, the government , through the Ministry of Defense, decided to separate it from the Navy.

 
Indonesian marine corps battling Permesta insurgents, 1950–1960s

Corps Mariniers was then merged into the Diponegoro Division of the army by the name of Samudera Regiment and was divided into five battalions. Marine soldiers who wishto remain in the navy must submit a written request to the Minister of Defence and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. On October 9, 1948, the Minister of Defense ratified Decree No. A / 565/1948, declaring the establishment of the marine corps. Nevertheless, the acceptance of new personnel only started after the Round Table Conference (RTC) in 1949. Selection reception was held at the main naval base in Surabaya. Approximately 1,200 recruits were selected to join the new naval amphibious forces. After being examined, it turns out 95 percent of the 1,200 people who received it are personnel are formerly part of the Corps Mariniers established in Tegal. Of all the personnel of the Korps Komando Operasi Angkatan Laut (KKO AL) listed in its 1950 personnel roster, 90 percent of the personnel were veterans of the Corps Mariniers of 1945. Therefore, the existence of marine Corps formed in 15 November 1945 as mentioned in the previous paragraphs, jis ustified as the forerunner of the Navy Marine Corps today.[2]

The marine crops has been active in various military operations in Indonesia. One of the largest amphibious military operations would have been Operation Jayawijaya in which thousands of marines were planned to land on Biak in 1963 as a part of the Trikora Campaign to take West Irian from Dutch control. The operation was aborted as a consequence deals preceding the New York Agreement.[3]

At the height of the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, Harun Hj Mohd Said and Usman Ali (hereinafter known as Usman Harun), two members of the Marine Corps were dispatched to Singapore using rubber boats. Their main task is to infiltrate and sabotage the interests of Malaysia and Singapore. In practice, these operations are only able to blow up the MacDonald House and cause civilian and non-military casualties. In that incident, 20 fruit shops around the hotel was heavily damaged, 24 pieces sedan vehicles were destroyed, 30 people died, 35 people suffered serious injuries and mild. This incident is known as the MacDonald House bombing. Usman and Harun were unable to escape from Singapore and was eventually arrested and sentenced to death by the Singapore government.[4]

In 1999 a plan was proposed to expand the Kormar from its strength of 13,000 troops. Based on this plan, every Kormar's base would have three combat brigades: the Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery and would be supported by one Combat Support Regiment and one Administration Support Regiment. The expansion will create three Kormar bases: Surabaya for Eastern area command, Jakarta for Central area command, and Rate Island in Lampung for Western area command. Now the Indonesian Marine Corps has an estimated 29,000 troops in two Marine Forces (PASMARs) and one independent infantry marine regiment, when combined equal to one over-strength infantry division, which includes its own sizeable mechanised amphibious and artillery units.

Following a reorganisation introduced in March 2001, the corps consisted of the 1st Marine Corps Group (1,3,5 Battalions) at Surabaya, and the Independent Marine Corps Brigade (2,4,6, Battalions) at Jakarta (JDW 11 April 2001). The 8th Bn was formed in January 2004 and the 9th Bn was due to be formed in April 2004. They were planned to be part of a new group that would include the 7th Bn and support elements. (JDW 18 February 2004, p. 18) The same Jane's Defence Weekly story (Robert Karniol, 'Indonesia Reinforces Marines') said the Marine Corps leadership is reported to have ambitions for the service to expand to at least two full divisions. However it was reported that the army was opposed, 'perhaps reflecting its leadership's concern over influence.'

OrganizationEdit

 
Indonesian Marines
 
Marine Corps Headquarters in Central Jakarta
 
Indonesian Marines Color Guard
 
Indonesian Marines Taifib snipers
 
Indonesian Marines demonstrating to USMC Marines

Currently the power of the Marine Corps of the Navy is divided into 2 Marine Forces (Pasmar 1) in Sidoarjo and (Pasmar 2) in Central Jakarta, each is headed by a One Star Marine General. Each Pasmar oversees the Marine Infantry Brigade, the Marine Combat Support Regiment ("Menbanpurmar"), the Marine Artillery Regiment ("Menartmar") and the Marine Cavalry Regiment ("Menkavmar"). The current 3rd Marine Infantry Brigade covers 10 Marine Infantry Battalions. The elite unit of the Marine Corps of the Navy is called the Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion ("Taifib") and the Navy's anti-terror unit called the Jala Mengkara (Denjaka) Detachment. Kopaska is Indonesian Navy's elite frogman unit.

Organizational Command StructureEdit

1st Marine ForceEdit

Pasmar I

    • 1st Marine Infantry Brigade located in Sidoarjo
      1. Brigade HQ
      2. 1st Marine Infantry Battalion
      3. 3rd Marine Infantry Battalion
      4. 5th Marine Infantry Battalion
    • 1st Marine Artillery Regiment
      1. 1st Marine Air Defense Artillery Battalion
      2. 1st Marine Howitzer Battalion
      3. 1st Marine Multiple Rocket Launcher Battalion
    • 1st Marine Cavalry Regiment
      1. Regiment HQ
      2. 1st Marine Amphibious Landing Vehicle Battalion
      3. 1st Marine Amphibious Tank Battalion
      4. 1st Marine Artillery Carrier Amphibious Vehicle Battalion
    • 1st Marine Combat Support Regiment
      1. Regiment HQ
      2. 1st Marine Motorized Transport Battalion
      3. 1st Marine Communication and Electronics Battalion
      4. 1st Marine Supply and Equipments Battalion
      5. 1st Marine Combat Engineers Battalion
      6. 1st Marine Medical Battalion
      7. 1st Marine Military Police Battalion
    • Marine Base Surabaya
      1. Headquarters and HQ Services
      2. Transport Detachment (Denang)
      3. Supply Detachment (Denbek)
      4. Maintenance Detachment (Denhar)
      5. Marine Band Detachment Surabaya (Densik)
      6. General Maintenance Detachment (Denpum)
      7. Public Relations Detachment (Denpum)
      8. Ewa Pangalila Marine Hospital
    • V Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • VI Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • VII Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • VIII Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • IX Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • X Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • XI Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • XIII Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • XIV Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • 1st Marine Taifib Battalion, Special Forces (1st Marine Force)

2nd Marine ForceEdit

Pasmar II

    • 2nd Marine Infantry Brigade, located in Cilandak, South Jakarta
      1. 2nd Marine Infantry Battalion
      2. 4th Marine Infantry Battalion
      3. 6th Marine Infantry Battalion
    • 2nd Marine Artillery Regiment
      1. 2nd Marine Air Defense Artillery Regiment
      2. 2nd Marine Howitzer Battalion
      3. 2nd Marine Multiple Rocket Launcher Battalion
    • 2nd Marine Cavalry Regiment
      1. 2nd Marine Amphibious Landing Vehicle Battalion
      2. 2nd Marine Amphibious Tank Battalion
      3. 2nd Marine Artillery Carrier Amphibious Vehicle Battalion
    • 2nd Marine Combat Support Regiment
      1. 2nd Marine Motorized Transport Battalion
      2. 2nd Marine Communication and Electronics Battalion
      3. 2nd Marine Supply and Equipments Battalion
      4. 2nd Marine Combat Engineers Battalion
      5. 2nd Marine Medical Battalion
      6. 2nd Marine Military Police Battalion
    • Marine Base Jakarta
      1. Transport Detachment (Denang)
      2. Supply Detachment (Denbek)
      3. Maintenance Detachment (Denhar)
      4. Marine Band Detachment Jakarta (Densik)
      5. General Maintenance Detachment (Denpum)
      6. Public Relations Detachment (Denpum)
    • I Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • II Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • III Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • IV Marine Base Defense Battalion
    • XII Marine Base Defense Battalion
  • 3rd Marine Infantry Brigade Bandar Lampung
    1. 7th Marine Infantry Battalion
    2. 8th Marine Infantry Battalion
    3. 9th Marine Infantry Battalion
    4. 10th Marine Infantry Battalion
  • 2nd Marine Taifib Battalion, Special Forces (2nd Marine Force)

Independent units:

  • Combat Scout team (Regu Pandu Tempur)
  • Indonesian Naval special forces: Denjaka, Taifib (Marines), and Kopaska
  • Marines Hospital, located in Cilandak, Jakarta
  • Marine Corps Training Command located in Grati, Pasuruan, East Java

Special UnitsEdit

TaifibEdit

 
Taifib member during training exercise

Batalion Intai Amfibi or Taifib is the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, which also has capabilities as Para-Commandos. They were officially formed on 18 March 1961 as marine commandos. Set at battalion strength, "Taifib" is the elite amphibious reconnaissance unit of the Indonesian Marine Corps. It was first used in the Irian Jaya (Papua) during Operation Trikora in April 1962. Starting from November 1971 it was called "Batalyon Intai Amphibi" ("Yon Taifib") or Amphibious Recon Battalion. To become a Yontaifib troop, a candidate is selected from the Marine Corps who has already fulfilled the thorough mental and physical requirements, and who at least has actively served the corps for two years. The certification of amphibious reconnaissance is so difficult that the passing rate of these candidates in each class is only ten percent.

DenjakaEdit

 
Jala Mangkara Detachment personnel

Detasemen Jala Mangkara or Denjaka is the special operations and counter-terrorism forces of the Indonesian Navy. This is a combined detachment formed from selected personnel of the Navy's Underwater Special Frogmen Unit (Kopaska) and the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion (KIPAM aka. Taifib). The unit was formed in 1984 by the Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces to counter maritime strategic threats including terrorism and sabotage. Despite the specific reason for its formation, as in the case of any other special operations forces around the world, the detachment is also fully trained in conducting reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, and clandestine behind-enemy-lines operations. Denjaka's primary task is to develop anti-terrorism, anti-sabotage and other clandestine operations capabilities in support of maritime counter-terrorism, counter-sabotage and other special operations as directed by the chief of the armed forces.

Marine Corps Training CommandEdit

The Marine Corps Training Command (Komando Latih Marinir) located in Grati, Pasuruan, East Java oversees the following:

  • Special Forces Training Center (Pusat Latihan Pasukan Khussus - Puslatsus)
  • Amphibious Forces Training Center (Pusat Latihan Pasukan Pendarat - Puslatpasrat) trains Marines in:
  1. Amphibious operations
  2. Shooting Coordination Exercise
  3. Personnel Embarkation and De-embarkation Exercise
  4. Materialistic courses
  • Marine Combat Training Centers (Pusat Pelatihan Tempur Marinir):
  • Amphibious Landings and Combat Readiness Training Center (Pusat Latihan Pendarat Amfibi & Kesiapan Tempur)

List of CommandantsEdit

List of Indonesian Marine Corps Commandants
Rank Name From Until Remarks
Rear Admiral Agoes Soebekti 1945 1950
Major General KKO R. Soehadi 1950 1961
Lieutenant General KKO Hartono 1961 1968
Lieutenant General KKO Moekijat 1968 1971
Major General H. Moh. Anwar 1971 1977
Lieutenant General TNI (Mar) Kahpi Suriadiredja July 1977 May 1983
Major General TNI (Mar) Muntaram May 1983 January 1987
Major General TNI (Mar) Aminullah Ibrahim January 1987 August 1990
Major General TNI (Mar) Baroto Sardadi August 1990 November 1992
Major General TNI (Mar) Gafur Chaliq December 1992 April 1994
Major General TNI (Mar) Djoko Pramono April 1994 February 1996
Lieutenant General TNI (Mar) Suharto February 1996 1999
Major GeneralTNI (Mar) Harry Triono 1999 20 November 2002
Major GeneralTNI (Mar) Achmad Rifai 20 November 2002 9 November 2004
Lieutenant General TNI (Mar) Safzen Noerdin 9 November 2004 6 June 2007
Lieutenant GeneralTNI (Mar) Nono Sampono 6 June 2007 18 October 2008
Major GeneralTNI (Mar) Djunaidi Djahri 18 October 2008 3 September 2009
Lieutenant GeneralTNI (Mar) Alfan Baharudin 3 September 2009 12 September 2012
Major GeneralTNI (Mar) A Faridz Washington 12 September 2012[5] 2015
Major GeneralTNI (Mar) Buyung Lalana 2015 2016
Major GeneralTNI (Mar) R.M. Trusono 2016 2017
Major General TNI (Mar) Bambang Suswantono 2017 Present

Heavy equipmentEdit

Land vehiclesEdit

Name Image Role Origin Versions Quantity Notes
Tanks
PT-76   Medium tank   USSR PT-76B 70[6] All re-gunned with Cockerill 90mm with assistance from private company and received improved fire control system and engine upgrade. Not all operational.
Armoured vehicle
AMX-10P   Infantry fighting vehicle   France AMX-10P Marine (90mm, 20mm & 12.7mm variants) 54[7][8]
BTR-50   Amphibious armoured personnel carrier   USSR BTR-50PK 70[7] All upgraded with new engine, radio system and smoke grenade launchers on some vehicles.[9]
BMP-2   Infantry fighting vehicle   Slovakia BVP-2 40[10]
BMP-3   Infantry fighting vehicle   Russia BMP-3F
BREM-L
54[7][8] 100 mm gun/launcher 2A70 (able to fire shells or the 9M117 Bastion ATGM), 30 mm autocannon 2A72
LVT7   Armoured personnel carrier   United States LVT-P7A1 10[11] All donated from South Korea.
K-61   Amphibious vehicle   USSR K-61 (PTS) Unknown [12]
PTS   Amphibious vehicle   USSR PTS-10 Unknown [13]
BTR-4   Armoured personnel carrier   Ukraine BTR-4M BAU Parus module
BTR-4M RCWS turret
5[14][15] [16]
BTR-80   Armoured personnel carrier   Russia BTR-80A 12[17] Currently deployed by Indobatt Contingent on UNIFIL mission in Lebanon.
Artillery
RM-70   Multiple Rocket Launcher   Czechoslovakia
  Czech Republic
RM-70 Grad
RM-70 Vampir
17 9 RM-70 Grad acquired around 2003, 8 new RM-70 Vampir acquired in 2016[18][19]
Type 90B MLRS   Multiple Rocket Launcher   China Type 90B 4 [20]
LG1   Howitzer   France LG1 Mark I 20

Light WeaponryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.marinir.mil.id Archived 29 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ "NEWS STORY: Riwayat Marinir yang Pernah Dipisahkan dari TNI AL". Okezone.com. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  3. ^ "INDONESIA: OPERATION "DJAJAWIDJAJA" OF THE NAVY". Reuters. 10 December 1963. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  4. ^ "TNI AL, Lemah di Laut tapi Ingin Berkuasa di Darat". KOMPASIANA. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  5. ^ IDB (12 September 2012). "Sertijab Dankormar". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  6. ^ http://koarmatim.tnial.mil.id/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=2780:37-unit-tank-bmp-3f-rusia-kembali-perkuat-alutsista-tni-al&Itemid=191
  7. ^ a b c NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "Russia to deliver 37 BMP-3F amphibious armoured infantry fighting vehicles to Indonesia". Army Recognition. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  9. ^ Bocquelet, David (22 November 2014). "BTR-50". Tanks Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  10. ^ "BMP-2 : Tank Amfibi "Sangar" & Battlle Proven". IndoMiliter. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  11. ^ "Korsel Hibahkan 10 Tank Amfibi Buatan AS untuk RI". Kompas. 14 November 2009. Archived from the original on 17 November 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  12. ^ "K-61 : Si "Penyambung Lidah" Operasi Amfibi Korps Marinir". indomiliter.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2016. 
  13. ^ "PTS-10 : Kendaraan Angkut Amfibi Terbesar Korps Marinir TNI AL". Indomiliter.com (in Indonesian). 15 May 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  14. ^ "SpetsTechnoExport of Ukraine awarded contract to supply 5 BTR-4 8x8 armoured to Indonesia". Armyrecognition.com. 24 January 2014. 
  15. ^ "Ukraine to supply 50 BTR-4 armoured personnel carriers to Naval Forces of Indonesia (TNI AL)". March 15, 2014. 
  16. ^ http://www.armyrecognition.com/january_2014_global_defense_security_news_industry/spetstechnoexport_of_ukraine_awarded_contract_to_supply_5_btr-4_8x8_armoured_to_indonesia_2401143.html
  17. ^ "BTR-80A : Monster Amfibi Korps Marinir". IndoMiliter. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  18. ^ "KORPS MARINIR ADAKAN PELATIHAN RM MULTI LAUNCH ROCKET SYSTEM KAL.122 MM VAMPIRE". www.marinir.tnial.mil.id. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  19. ^ "RM70 Vampir: MLRS Terbaru Artileri Marinir TNI AL, Andalkan Platform Heavy Truck Tatra T815-7". Indomiliter.com (in Indonesian). 11 June 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  20. ^ http://www.janes.com/article/66543/indonesia-takes-delivery-of-122-mm-rocket-systems-from-china

External linksEdit