List of presidents of Peru

  (Redirected from List of Presidents of Peru)

This is a list of those who have served as President of the Republic of Peru (head of state and head of government of Peru) from its establishment to the present. The office was established by the Constituent Congress of Peru (1822), after the resignation of José de San Martín to his position as Protector of Peru and his subsequent departure from Peru. The first president was José de la Riva-Agüero and the current president in office is Francisco Sagasti.

In the history of the position, there has been a series of political crises, caudillos, barracks revolt, civil wars, death of the incumbent, coups d'état, parliamentary attempts to remove the presidency,[1] one autocoup, and vacancies dictated by the congress. The list is based on the work of the historian Jorge Basadre, constitutions, laws, and decrees in each case. Even though they were not presidents, the list includes the liberators José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar due to their historical relevance in the independence of Peru and its consolidation.

PresidentsEdit

Political party:   Independent politician   Military   Civilista Party   Democratic Party   Constitutional Party   Reformist Democratic Party   Revolutionary Union   Conservative Coalition   National Democratic Front   Peruvian Democratic Movement   Popular Action   APRA   Fujimorism   Possible Peru   Peruvian Nationalist Party   Peruvians for Change   Purple Party
#
Presidency
President Term of office Title Form of entry Vice President
Start End
0.5 José de San Martín and the Liberation Army of the South (1820–1823)
  José de San Martín[2]
  United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
Liberator and Protector
August 3, 1821 September 20, 1822 Protector of Peru[3]

Peruvian honors and titles:[4]
First soldier of freedom,
Generalissimo of the arms of Peru,
Founder of the freedom of Peru
1     José de la Riva Agüero[2]
 
February 28, 1823 June 23, 1823 President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[5] None
2     José Bernardo de Tagle[2]
 
August 16, 1823 November 18, 1823 President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[6] None
November 18, 1823 February 10, 1824 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[7] Diego de Aliaga y Santa Cruz[8]
2.5 Simón Bolívar, the Northern Expedition, and the end of colonial era (1823–1826)
   Simón Bolívar[2]
  Gran Colombia
Libertador
February 10, 1824 January 27, 1827 Supreme Political and Military Authority of the Republic of Peru[9]
Dictator of Peru[10][11]
3     José de La Mar[2]
 
June 10, 1827 June 7, 1829 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[12] Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano
4     Agustín Gamarra[2]
 
June 7, 1829 December 19, 1829 Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente ruled temporarily until the arrival of Agustín Gamarra Coup d'état, in cahoots with Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente None
September 1, 1829 December 19, 1829 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[13] Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
December 19, 1829 December 19, 1833 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[14] Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
5     Luis José de Orbegoso[15]
 
December 21, 1833 December 21, 1833 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Election[16] None
6     Felipe Salaverry[17]
 
February 25, 1835 February 7, 1836 Supreme Head of the Republic of Peru Coup d'état[18] None
6.5 War of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation (1836-1839)
Rulers of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation
Result: Victory of Restorative United Army

Consequence: Dissolution of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation

Restorative United Army Peru–Bolivian Confederation
6.6 Restoration of the Republic of Peru
7     Agustín Gamarra[19]
 
January 20, 1839[20] August 15, 1839 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Open Cabildo[21][22]
Occupation of Ejercito Unido Restaurador
None
August 15, 1839 July 10, 1840 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[21] None
July 10, 1840 November 18, 1841 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[23] Manuel Menéndez
President of the Council of State
Justo Figuerola
1º Vice President of the Council of State[24]
Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz
2º Vice President of the Council of State
7.5 Military anarchy (1842–1844)
8     Manuel Menéndez[19]
 
November 18, 1841 August 16, 1842 President of the Council of State of Peru Constitutional Succession[25] Justo Figuerola
1º Vice President of the Council of State
Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz
2º Vice President of the Council of State
9     Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz[19]
 
October 20, 1842 March 15, 1843 2º Vice President of the Council of State of Peru Constitutional Succession[25][26][27] None
10     Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco[19]
 
March 27, 1843 April 7, 1843 Pezet ruled temporarily until the arrival of Vivanco Coup d'état conspired between Vivanco and Pezet None
April 7, 1843 June 17, 1844 Supreme Director of Peru Coup d'état[28][29] None
10.5 Military anarchy (1842–1844)
11     Manuel Menéndez[19]
 
October 7, 1844 April 20, 1845 President of the Council of State of Peru Spare in office[30] None
12     Ramón Castilla[31]
 
April 20, 1845 April 20, 1851 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[32][33] None
13     José Rufino Echenique[31]
 
April 20, 1851 January 5, 1855 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[34] None
14     Ramón Castilla[31]
 
January 5, 1855 October 24, 1858 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Coup d'état[35] José María Raygada

(Prime Ministe)

Miguel de San Román

(Prime Ministe)

October 24, 1858 October 24, 1862 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[36] Juan Manuel del Mar
15     Miguel de San Román[31]
 
October 24, 1862 April 3, 1863 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election   Juan Antonio Pezet

Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho

16     Juan Antonio Pezet[31]
 
August 5, 1863 November 8, 1865 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional Succession Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
17     Mariano Ignacio Prado[31]
 
November 28, 1865 February 15, 1867 Provisional Supreme Chief of the Republic of Peru Coup d'état[37][38] None
February 15, 1867 August 31, 1867 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[39] None
August 31, 1867 January 7, 1868 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[40] None
18     Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho[41]
 
January 7, 1868 August 2, 1868 Vice President of the Republic of Peru Pezet Constitutional Succession[42] None
19     José Balta[41]
 
August 2, 1868 July 22, 1872 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[43]   Mariano Herencia Zevallos

Francisco Diez-Canseco Corbacho

20     Manuel Pardo y Lavalle[41]
 
August 2, 1872 August 2, 1876 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[44] Manuel Costas Arce

2.º Francisco Garmendia Puértolas

20.5 War of the Pacific started on April 5, 1879
21     Mariano Ignacio Prado[41]
 
August 2, 1876 December 18, 1879 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[45] Luis La Puerta

2º José Francisco Canevaro

22     Luis La Puerta[41]
 
December 18, 1879 December 23, 1879 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional Succession[46] José Francisco Canevaro
23     Nicolás de Piérola[41]
 
December 23, 1879 July 28, 1881 Supreme Head of the Republic of Peru Open cabildo[47] None
July 31, 1881 December 28, 1881 President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by the National Assembly of Ayacucho[48] None
24     Francisco García Calderón[49]
 
March 12, 1881 July 10, 1881 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Council of Notables[50] None
July 10, 1881 November 6, 1881 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Ratified by the Congress of Chorrillos[51][52] Lizardo Montero

Andrés Avelino Cáceres

25     Lizardo Montero[49]
 
September 28, 1881 October 28, 1883 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional Succession

(Vice President)

None
26     Miguel Iglesias[49]
 
December 30, 1882 March 1, 1884 Regenerating President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Constituent Assembly of the North[53] None
March 1, 1884 December 3, 1885 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Constituent Assembly[54][55] None
26.5 War of the Pacific ended on April 4, 1884
27     Andrés Avelino Cáceres[49][56]
 
June 3, 1886 August 10, 1890 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Remigio Morales Bermúdez

Aurelio Denegri

28     Remigio Morales Bermúdez[56]
 
August 10, 1890 April 1, 1894 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Pedro Alejandrino del Solar

Justiniano Borgoño

29     Justiniano Borgoño[57]
 
April 1, 1894 August 10, 1894 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Sucesión Constitucional

(Vicepresidente)

None
30     Andrés Avelino Cáceres[57]
 
August 10, 1894 March 20, 1895 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election César Canevaro

Cesáreo Chacaltana

31     Nicolás de Piérola[57]
 
September 8, 1895 September 8, 1899 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Guillermo Billinghurst

Augusto Seminario y Váscones

32     Eduardo López de Romaña[57]
 
September 8, 1899 September 8, 1903 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Isaac Alzamora

2.º Federico Bresani

33     Manuel Candamo[57]
 
September 8, 1903 May 7, 1904 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election 1.º Lino Alarco (†)

2.º Serapio Calderón

34     Serapio Calderón[57]
 
May 7, 1904 September 24, 1904 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(2º Vice President)

None
35     José Pardo y Barreda[58]
 
September 24, 1904 September 24, 1908 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election 1.º José Salvador Cavero Ovalle

Vacant

36     Augusto Leguía[58]
 
September 24, 1908 September 24, 1912 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue

Belisario Sosa

37     Guillermo Billinghurst[58]
 
September 24, 1912 February 4, 1914 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Roberto Leguía

Miguel Echenique

38     Oscar Benavides[58]
 
February 4, 1914 May 15, 1914 President of the Governing Board of Peru Coup d'état[59] None
May 15, 1914 August 18, 1915 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[60] None
39     José Pardo y Barreda[58]
 
August 18, 1915 July 4, 1919 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Ricardo Bentín Sánchez

2.º Melitón Carvajal

40     Augusto Leguía[58]
 
July 4, 1919 October 12, 1919 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Coup d'état None
October 12, 1919 October 12, 1924 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election César Canevaro

Agustín de la Torre González

October 12, 1924 October 12, 1929 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election César Canevaro

Agustín de la Torre González

October 12, 1929 August 25, 1930 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election César Canevaro

Agustín de la Torre González

41     Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro[61]
 
Aug 27, 1930 March 1, 1931 President of the Military Junta of the Government of Peru Coup d'état None
    Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro[61]
 
December 8, 1931 April 30, 1933 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election None
42     Oscar Benavides[62]
 
April 30, 1933 December 8, 1939 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[63] Ernesto Montagne Markholz

Antonio Rodríguez Ramírez

43     Manuel Prado Ugarteche[64][65]
 
December 8, 1939 July 28, 1945 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Rafael Larco Herrera

Carlos Gibson

44     José Luis Bustamante y Rivero[66]
 
July 28, 1945 October 29, 1948 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election José Gálvez Barrenechea

Eduardo Ganoza y Ganoza

45     Manuel Odría[67][68]
 
November 1, 1948 June 1, 1950 President of the Military Junta of the Government of Peru Coup d'état Zenón Noriega Agüero
July 28, 1950 July 28, 1956 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Héctor C. Boza Aizcorbe

Federico Bolognesi Bolognesi

46     Manuel Prado Ugarteche[69]
 
July 28, 1956 July 18, 1962 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Luis Gallo Porras

2.º Carlos Moreyra y Paz Soldán

47     Ricardo Pérez Godoy[70]
 
July 18, 1962 March 3, 1963 President of the Military Junta of the Government of Peru Coup d'état Pedro Vargas Prada
48     Nicolás Lindley López[71]
 
March 3, 1963 July 28, 1963 President of the Military Junta of the Government of Peru Succession

(De facto)

None
49     Fernando Belaúnde Terry[72]
 
July 28, 1963 October 3, 1968 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Edgardo Seoane

Mario Polar Ugarteche

50     Juan Velasco Alvarado[73][74]
 
October 3, 1968 August 30, 1975 President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces of Peru Coup d'état Edgardo Mercado Jarrín
51     Francisco Morales Bermúdez[75]
 
August 30, 1975 July 28, 1980 President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces of Peru Coup d'état Pedro Richter Prada
52     Fernando Belaúnde Terry[76][77]
 
July 28, 1980 July 28, 1985 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Fernando Schwalb

Javier Alva Orlandini

53     Alan García[78]
 
July 28, 1985 July 28, 1990 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Luis Alberto Sánchez

2.º Luis Alva Castro

54     Alberto Fujimori[79][80]
   
July 28, 1990 April 5, 1992 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Máximo San Román

2.º Carlos García y García

April 22, 1992 January 9, 1993 President of the Government of Emergency and National Reconstruction of Peru Coup d'état None
January 9, 1993 July 28, 1995 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Ratified by Democratic Constituent Congress Jaime Yoshiyama
July 28, 1995 July 28, 2000 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Ricardo Márquez Flores

César Paredes Canto

July 28, 2000 November 21, 2000 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Francisco Tudela

Ricardo Márquez Flores

55     Valentín Paniagua
 
November 22, 2000 July 28, 2001 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(Presidente del Congreso)

None
56     Alejandro Toledo
 
July 28, 2001 July 28, 2006 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Raúl Díez Canseco Terry

2.º David Waisman

57     Alan García
 
July 28, 2006 July 28, 2011 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Luis Giampietri

Lourdes Mendoza del Solar

58     Ollanta Humala
 
July 28, 2011 July 28, 2016 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Marisol Espinoza

Omar Chehade

59     Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
   
July 28, 2016 March 23, 2018 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election   Martín Vizcarra

Mercedes Aráoz

60     Martín Vizcarra
 
March 23, 2018 November 9, 2020 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(1º Vice President)

  Mercedes Aráoz
61     Manuel Merino
 
November 10, 2020 November 15, 2020 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(President of Congress)

None
62     Francisco Sagasti
   
November 17, 2020 Incumbent Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(President of Congress)

None

Timeline from 1980Edit

Francisco SagastiManuel MerinoMartín VizcarraPedro Pablo KuczynskiOllanta HumalaAlan GarcíaAlejandro ToledoValentín PaniaguaAlberto FujimoriAlan GarcíaFernando Belaúnde Terry

AddendumEdit

Those who are mentioned in the following list were sworn in as presidents of Peru, because of a political crisis, however, they never came to govern:[81]

#
Presidency
President Term of office Title Form of entry Vice President
Start End
  Máximo San Román

 

April 21, 1992 January 6, 1993[81] Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru[82] Constitutional succession

(1º Vice President)

Carlos García y García
  Mercedes Araóz

 

September 30, 2019 October 1, 2019[83][84] Acting President[85] Constitutional succession

(2º Vice President)

None

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cfr. Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal (2007). Presidential impeachment and the new political instability in Latin America. Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 298. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  3. ^ "Decreto del general José de San Martín asumiendo el mando supremo político y militar".
  4. ^ "BIOGRAFÍA LIBERTADOR DON JOSÉ DE SAN MARTÍN".
  5. ^ "Nombramiento de José de la Riva Agüero como Presidente de la República, 28 febrero de 1823" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Nombramiento del Gran Mariscal José Bernardo de Tagle como Presidente de la República del Perú, 16 agosto de 1823" (PDF).
  7. ^ "Se nombra Presidente Constitucional de la República al Gran Mariscal José Bernardo Tagle y Portocarrero, 18 noviembre de 1823" (PDF).
  8. ^ Castañeda Jiménez. "Manuel José de Salazar y Baquijano" (PDF). Congress of the Republic of Peru. Retrieved December 14, 2020. El Congreso aprobó tal designación el 18 de noviembre de 1823 y estableció que su mandato fuese de cuatro años. Nombró igualmente, el mismo día a Diego de Aliaga y Santa Cruz, hijo segundo del Conde de San Juan de Lurigancho, como vicepresidente de la República.
  9. ^ "Decreto disponiendo que el Libertador Simón Bolívar asuma la suprema autoridad política y militar".
  10. ^ "Decreto encargándole la autoridad suprema, 1 de setiembre de 1826".
  11. ^ "Proclama al despedirse del Perú, 3 de setiembre de 1826".
  12. ^ "Decreto mandando cumplir la ley que lo nombra Presidente de la República y vicepresidente a Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano, 10 de junio de 1827" (PDF).
  13. ^ "Ley nombrándo Presidente de la República al Gral. Agustín Gamarra y Vicepresidente al general Antonio G. de La Fuente, 31 de agosto de 1829" (PDF).
  14. ^ "Ley proclamándolo Presidente de la República, 19 de diciembre de 1829".
  15. ^ Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 68. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  16. ^ "Ley nombrándo Presidente Provisional de la República al Gran Mariscal Luis José de Orbegoso, 20 de diciembre de 1833" (PDF).
  17. ^ Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú. Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 140. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  18. ^ "Decreto asumiendo el mando de la República, Gral. Felipe Santiago Salaverry del Solar, 25 de febrero de 1835" (PDF).
  19. ^ a b c d e Basadre, Jorge (2014). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 130. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  20. ^ * Proclaimed (Open cabildo): August 24, 1838
  21. ^ a b "Ley nombrándolo Presidente Provisorio al General Agustín Gamarra, 15 de agosto de 1839" (PDF).
  22. ^ "Acuerdo del Cabildo abierto encargando al Mariscal Agustín Gamarra el Poder Ejecutivo el 24 de agosto de 1838".
  23. ^ "Ley proclamándolo Presidente Constitucional de la República al Gran Mariscal Agustín Gamarra, 11 de julio de 1840" (PDF).
  24. ^ Castañeda Jiménez. "JUSTO MODESTO FIGUEROLA DE ESTRADA" (PDF). Congress of the Republic of Peru. Sitio Web del Museo del Congreso y de la Inquisición. Retrieved December 15, 2020. Figuerola fue nombrado Primer Vicepresidente del Consejo de Estado, cuyo titular era Manuel Menéndez Gorozabel.
  25. ^ a b Congress of the Republic of Peru (November 10, 1839). "Constitución del Perú (1839)". Art. 82º.- Cuando vacare la Presidencia de la República por muerte, pacto atentatorio, renuncia o perpétua imposibilidad física o moral, se encargará provisionalmente del Poder Ejecutivo el Presidente del Consejo de Estado, quien en estos casos convocará a los Colegios Electorales dentro de los primeros diez días de su Gobierno para la elección del Presidente.
  26. ^ Congress of the Republic of Peru (November 10, 1839). "Constitución del Perú (1839)". Art. 101º.- Para reemplazar al Presidente del Consejo en cualquiera ocurrencia, hará sus veces el Vicepresidente que también nombrará el Congreso, y asimismo un tercero para los casos
  27. ^ "Proclama al Perú del Vicepresidente del Consejo de Estado, encargado del Poder Ejecutivo de la República, General Francisco Vidal, el 29 de octubre de 1842".
  28. ^ "Proclama del Gral. Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco Iturralde, Supremo Director a los habitantes de la capital el 8 de abril de 1843".
  29. ^ "Decreto declarando nulos sus actos administrativos del titulado Supremo DIrector, 12 de octubre de 1844".
  30. ^ "Resignando la autoridad en el Presidente del Consejo de Estado".
  31. ^ a b c d e f Basadre, Jorge (2014). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 222. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  32. ^ "Ley proclamándolo Presidente Constitucional de la República al General Ramón Castilla, 19 de abril de 1845".
  33. ^ "Juramento del Presidente de la República" (PDF).
  34. ^ "Ley 2 abril 1851 proclamando Presidente de la República al general Echenique" (PDF).
  35. ^ "Proclama del libertador Ramón Castilla a los pueblos del Perú, el 6 de enero de 1855".
  36. ^ "Proclamando Presidente de la República al Gran Mariscal Ramon Castilla" (PDF).
  37. ^ "Decreto asumiendo el mando, bajo la denominación de Jefe Supremo Provisorio de la República, 28 de noviembre de 1865".
  38. ^ "Decreto asumiendo el mando, bajo la denominación de Jefe Supremo Provisorio de la República, 28 de" (PDF).
  39. ^ "Ley que lo nombra Presidente Provisorio de la República, 15 de febrero de 1867".
  40. ^ "Ley que lo proclama Presidente de la República el 29 de agosto de 1867" (PDF).
  41. ^ a b c d e f Basadre, Jorge (2014). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 102. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  42. ^ "Bando reconociendo la autoridad del Segundo Vicepresidente de la República, Gral. Pedro Diez Canseco, 7 de enero de 1868".
  43. ^ "Ley 1 de agosto Proclamando Presidente Constitucional de la República al ciudadano Don Jose Balta" (PDF).
  44. ^ "Ley que proclama Presidente Constitucional de la República a Manuel Pardo y Lavalle, 1 de agosto de 1872".
  45. ^ "Ley 1 de agosto de 1876 eligiendo y proclamando Presidente Constitucional a Mariano Ignacio Prado" (PDF).
  46. ^ "Decreto 18 de diciembre de 1879. Asumiendo la Presidencia de la República el primer Vice-Presidente, Luis La Puerta" (PDF).
  47. ^ "Cabildo Abierto le encarga la suprema magistratura, Lima, 23 de diciembre de 1879".
  48. ^ "La asamblea nacional nombrea Nicolas de Piérola Presidente de la República, Ayacucho, 31 de julio 1881".
  49. ^ a b c d Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 208. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  50. ^ Cuya Vera, Ricardo (October 13, 2017). "Francisco García Calderón Landa: Presidente del Perú". en Lima, los “vecinos notables” se reunieron el 12 de marzo de 1881 y eligieron a Francisco García Calderón como Presidente Provisional de la República.
  51. ^ Ayllón Dulanto, Fernando. "FRANCISCO GARCÍA CALDERÓN LANDA" (PDF). El Congreso ratificó el nombramiento de García Calderón como Presidente Provisorio
  52. ^ "Mensaje a la nación ante el Congreso de Chorrillos el 10 de julio de 1881".
  53. ^ "Ley eligiéndolo Presidente Regenerador de la República al General Miguel Iglesias, Cajamarca, 30 de diciembre de 1882".
  54. ^ "Decreto nombrándo al Gral. Miguel Iglesias Presidente Provisorio de la República, 1 de marzo de 1884".
  55. ^ "Renuncia del Presidente Provisorio de la República, Gral. Miguel Iglesias, 3 de diciembre de 1885".
  56. ^ a b Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 200. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  57. ^ a b c d e f Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 66. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  58. ^ a b c d e f Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 186. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  59. ^ "Proclama del coronel don Oscar Benavides, quien se ha hecho cargo del mando supremo de la República" (PDF).
  60. ^ "RESOLUCIÓN LEGISLATIVA Nº 1958 ENCARGA LA PRESIDENCIA PROVISORIA DE LA REPÚBLICA AL CORONEL ÓSCAR R. BENAVIDES".
  61. ^ a b Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 284. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  62. ^ Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 25. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  63. ^ "MENSAJE DEL PRESIDENTE DEL PERÚ, GENERAL DE DIVISIÓN ÓSCAR R. BENAVIDES LARREA, ANTE EL CONGRESO NACIONAL, EL 30 DE ABRIL DE 1933". www.congreso.gob.pe. Retrieved 2021-01-23.
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