Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Tacna is a city in southern Peru and the regional capital of the Tacna Region. A very commercially active city, it is located only 35 km (22 mi) north of the border with Arica y Parinacota Region from Chile, inland from the Pacific Ocean and in the valley of the Caplina River. It is Peru's tenth most populous city.

Tacna
San Pedro de Tacna
Top:Monument at Battle of Tacna in Intiorko Hills, 2nd left:Ferroviaria Railroad Station, 2nd right:Cerrado Peru Arena (Coliseo Cerrado Peru), 3rd left:Tacna Cathedral, 3rd right:Tacna Municipal Hall, Bottom:Jorge Basadre Stadium (Estadio Jorge Basadre)
Top:Monument at Battle of Tacna in Intiorko Hills, 2nd left:Ferroviaria Railroad Station, 2nd right:Cerrado Peru Arena (Coliseo Cerrado Peru), 3rd left:Tacna Cathedral, 3rd right:Tacna Municipal Hall, Bottom:Jorge Basadre Stadium (Estadio Jorge Basadre)
Flag of Tacna
Flag
Coat of arms of Tacna
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): La Ciudad Heroica
(The Heroic City)
Tacna is located in Peru
Tacna
Tacna
Coordinates: 18°03′20″S 70°14′54″W / 18.05556°S 70.24833°W / -18.05556; -70.24833
Country  Peru
Region Tacna Region
Province Tacna Province
District Tacna District
Government
 • Mayor Ing. Fidel Carita Monroy (2011–2014)
Elevation 552 m (1,811 ft)
Population
 • Estimate (2015)[1] 293,116
Demonym(s) Tacneño
Time zone PET (UTC-5)
Website www.munitacna.gob.pe
Tacna Armas Square (Plaza de Armas) in San Martin area

Initially called San Pedro de Tacna, it has gained a reputation for patriotism, with many monuments and streets named after heroes of Peru's struggle for independence (1821–1824) and the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Residents of Tacna are known in Spanish as tacneños.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Francisco Antonio De Zela, a royal accountant (similar in function to a modern-day income tax auditor), initiated the push for Peruvian Independence from Spain in 1811 in Tacna, leading to a series of commemorative actions for the city, culminating in the 1828 declaration of Tacna as the "Heroic City" (La Heroica Ciudad de San Pedro de Tacna) by President José de La Mar.

It was the capital of the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1836–1839)

Tacna's economic prosperity attracted a wave of immigrants from Italy.[citation needed] Today, their Italian Peruvian descendants live in the city and many of them still have Italian surnames. This era of successful commerce and agriculture ended drastically with the start of the War of the Pacific.

During the war, the cities of Tacna and Arica were occupied by the Chilean Army. A peace agreement, the Treaty of Ancón, was signed in 1883. Under the terms of the treaty, Chile was to occupy the provinces of Tacna and Arica for ten years, after which a plebiscite was to be held to determine the region's sovereignty. Tacna remained under Chilean control for 50 years, in Chilean groups and authorities lead a campaign of Chilenization in an attempt to persuade the local population to abandon their Peruvian past and accept Chilean nationality.

However, Peruvian nationalists ensured that the Chilean propaganda failed and the planned plebiscite was never held. Finally, in 1929, the Treaty of Lima was signed in which Chile kept Arica, whilst Peru reacquired Tacna and receiving $6 million indemnity and other concessions.

 
Arco Parabólico, Pileta and Glorieta de Tacna, located in the Av. San Martín
 
Monument to the Battle of Tacna in the Alto de la Alianza.
 
Coctel Mercado Viejo

Today, Tacna is a mostly commercial city with many immigrants from the Puno Region living there. Its economy is based on mercantile activities with the north of Chile (Arica and Iquique). Since it is part of a duty-free zone, Tacna has come to rival Arequipa as southern Peru's main business area. The city has one of the largest artifact markets in the world with imports from Japan and China, and traditional Peruvian handicrafts.

GeographyEdit

ClimateEdit

Tacna has a mild desert climate (BWn, according to the Köppen climate classification).

Climate data for Tacna (Coronel FAP Carlos Ciriani Santa Rosa International Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1949–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
33.8
(92.8)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
30.1
(86.2)
31.6
(88.9)
28.0
(82.4)
27.8
(82)
29.2
(84.6)
30.0
(86)
30.0
(86)
33.8
(92.8)
Average high °C (°F) 27.4
(81.3)
28.1
(82.6)
27.2
(81)
25.0
(77)
22.5
(72.5)
20.2
(68.4)
19.3
(66.7)
19.7
(67.5)
20.9
(69.6)
22.4
(72.3)
24.0
(75.2)
25.9
(78.6)
23.5
(74.3)
Average low °C (°F) 16.3
(61.3)
16.7
(62.1)
15.7
(60.3)
13.4
(56.1)
11.3
(52.3)
9.6
(49.3)
9.0
(48.2)
9.4
(48.9)
10.2
(50.4)
11.6
(52.9)
13.1
(55.6)
14.6
(58.3)
12.6
(54.7)
Record low °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
10.0
(50)
6.1
(43)
3.9
(39)
3.9
(39)
0.4
(32.7)
0.0
(32)
3.9
(39)
3.9
(39)
6.1
(43)
7.2
(45)
7.2
(45)
0.0
(32)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.9
(0.035)
0.8
(0.031)
0.2
(0.008)
0.4
(0.016)
1.5
(0.059)
2.3
(0.091)
4.4
(0.173)
5.6
(0.22)
8.8
(0.346)
3.4
(0.134)
0.5
(0.02)
0.5
(0.02)
29.3
(1.154)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.9 1.2 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 3.4
Average relative humidity (%) 66 65 67 72 76 78 77 78 75 74 71 68 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 217.0 197.8 229.4 222.0 176.7 162.0 173.6 189.1 147.0 232.5 243.0 248.0 2,438.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.0 7.0 7.4 7.4 5.7 5.4 5.6 6.1 4.9 7.5 8.1 8.0 6.7
Source #1: NOAA,[2] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[3]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (precipitation days 1970–1990, humidity 1951–1969, and sun 1930–1937)[4]

TransportEdit

RailEdit

Tacna is served by a cross-border standard gauge railway to Arica, Chile.

It is also the location of the National Railway Museum of Peru.[5]

AirEdit

Tacna is served by the Crnl. FAP. Carlos Ciriani Santa Rosa International Airport, with flights to Arequipa and Lima.

Tourist attractionsEdit

Many monuments are located in this city, including the arch of the Alto de la Alianza, which shows the significance of this town.

Other monuments include a neo-renaissance Cathedral, the Courthouse, the Alameda Bolognesi Walkway and the caves of Toquepala, where archaeologists have found some of the oldest human remains in Peru.

FestivitiesEdit

The most important festivity in the city is the Semana de Tacna ("Tacna Week"), which runs from August 25–30.

On August 28, a large Peruvian flag is shown throughout the city during the Paseo de la Bandera, which celebrates the anniversary of the reincorporation of Tacna into Peruvian sovereignty and is one of the most important patriotic demonstrations in the whole country. This tradition started in 1901, during the Chilean occupation of Tacna, by a group of tacneños who defied the prohibition of showing Peruvian flags imposed by the Chilean authorities.

There is an agrarian and industrial fair as part of these celebrations.

In September, the festival of the Señor de Locumba is celebrated, which draws thousands of faithful people from all over the world.

ReligionEdit

The major religion in Tacna is Catholicism but, in 2008 the first mosque in Peru was completed in Tacna, the Mosque Bab ul Islam founded by Pakistani immigrants.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Perú: Población estimada al 30 de junio y tasa de crecimiento de las ciudades capitales, por departamento, 2011 y 2015. Perú: Estimaciones y proyecciones de población total por sexo de las principales ciudades, 2012-2015 (Report). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. March 2012. Retrieved 2015-06-03. 
  2. ^ "Tacna Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  3. ^ "Station Capitan Ciriani" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  4. ^ "Klimatafel von Tacna, Prov. Tacna / Peru" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  5. ^ Southern Peru Railroads

External linksEdit