For a topic outline on this subject, see List of basic Ecuador topics.


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Ecuador (/ˈɛkwədɔːr/ (audio speaker iconlisten) EK-wə-dor; Spanish pronunciation: [ekwaˈðoɾ] (audio speaker iconlisten); Quechua: Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (Spanish: República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechua: Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka), is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometers (621 mi) west of the mainland. The capital is Quito.

The territories of modern-day Ecuador were once home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were gradually incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. The territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 17.1 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European, Native American, and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Native languages are also recognized, including Quechua and Shuar.

The sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic and a developing country that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products. It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. The country is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Mercosur, PROSUR and the Non-Aligned Movement.

One of 17 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights.

According to the Center for Economic and Policy Research, between 2006 and 2016, poverty decreased from 36.7% to 22.5% and annual per capita GDP growth was 1.5 percent (as compared to 0.6 percent over the prior two decades). At the same time, the country's Gini index of economic inequality decreased from 0.55 to 0.47. (Full article...)

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Rumicucho or Pucara de Rumicucho is an archaeological site of the Inca Empire in the parroquia of San Antonio de Pichincha, in Quito Canton, Pichincha Province. Ecuador. Rumicucho is a pucara (hilltop fortress) located 23 kilometres (14 mi) in a straight-line distance north of the city of Quito at an elevation of 2,401 metres (7,877 ft). Rumicucho in the Quechua language means "stone corner", perhaps referring to its strategic location between the territory of the Yumbo people to the east and the chiefdoms of the Pais Caranqui to the north.

The Incas probably built Rumicucho between 1480 and 1500 and ruled this area until the Spanish conquest in the 1530s. (Full article...)


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Ecuador Articles

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The following are images from various Ecuador-related articles on Wikipedia.

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  • ... that Ecuador's biodiversity is amongst the highest in the world? For instance more than 16,000 species of plants, including 4,000 species of orchids.
  • ... that Ana Lucía Armijos, president of the Ecuadorian Monetary Board, went into hiding for a year after the Supreme Court of Ecuador called for her arrest in the case of a $200 million bank bailout?
  • ... that the fastest-growing cities, receiving the least media attention, Esmeraldas, Manta, Salinas, and Machala all being port cities have doubled their growth, and have the most stable economies in the country, leaving Nueva Loja, the only inland city to have equalled that growth?
  • ... that Ecuadorian presidential candidate Ximena Peña previously represented the United States and Canada in the National Assembly?
  • ... that according to oral tradition, the Chachi people originated from the mountains near Ibarra, Ecuador?

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For more information on how you can help, see the WikiProject Ecuador.

Ecuador topics

History Timeline | Rumiñahui | War of Independence | Antonio José de Sucre | History of the Ecuadorian-Peruvian territorial dispute
Geography Cities | Islands | Mountains | Regions | Protected areas | Rivers
Government Constitution | Provinces | Foreign relations | Military | Law | Law enforcement | Courts | Electoral system
Politics Political parties | Elections
Economy Agriculture | Companies | Communications | Transport | Reserve Bank of Ecuador | Stock Exchange
Culture Art | Cinema | Cuisine | Education | Indigenous Ecuadorians | Literature | Music | Public holidays | Media | Sport
Other List of Ecuadorians

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