Julian Paul Assange (//; born Julian Paul Hawkins, 3 July 1971) is an Australian computer programmer and the founder of WikiLeaks, an organisation which he founded in 2006. He has won accolades including the Sam Adams Award and Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism.
Assange in the Ecuadorian Embassy, London (August 2014)
|Born||Julian Paul Hawkins
3 July 1971
Townsville, Queensland, Australia
|Residence||Embassy of Ecuador, London, England, UK
(by right of asylum)
|Education||Townsville State High School|
|Occupation||Director and editor-in-chief
|Known for||Founding WikiLeaks; publication and leakage of secret information and news|
|Home town||Melbourne, Victoria, Australia|
|Political party||Independent (since 2015)
(m. 1989; div. 1999)
(esp. 2009; sep. 2012)
|Director and editor-in-chief of WikiLeaks|
4 October 2006
|Preceded by||Organisation established|
|Chairman of the WikiLeaks Party|
2 July 2013 – 23 July 2015
|Preceded by||Party established|
|Succeeded by||Party abolished|
Assange founded WikiLeaks in 2006, but came to global prominence in 2010, when WikiLeaks published a series of leaks provided by Chelsea Manning. These leaks included the Collateral Murder video (April 2010), the Afghanistan war logs (July 2010), the Iraq war logs (October 2010), and CableGate (November 2010). Following the 2010 leaks, the United States government launched a criminal investigation into WikiLeaks and asked allied nations for assistance.
In November 2010, a request was made for Assange's extradition to Sweden, where he had been questioned months earlier over allegations of sexual assault and rape. Assange continued to deny the allegations, and expressed concern that he would be extradited from Sweden to the United States because of his perceived role in publishing secret American documents. Assange surrendered himself to UK police on 7 December 2010, and was held for ten days in solitary confinement before being released on bail. Having been unsuccessful in his challenge to the extradition proceedings, he breached his bail and absconded. He was granted asylum by Ecuador in August 2012. He has since remained in the Embassy of Ecuador in London, and is free to leave but will then be arrested for the criminal offence of breaching his bail conditions. On 19 May 2017, the Swedish prosecutors dropped the investigation into rape accusations against Assange and applied to revoke his arrest warrant, although the Metropolitan Police have indicated that an arrest warrant is still in force for Assange's failure to surrender himself to the British court.
Assange was born in Townsville, Queensland, to Christine Ann Hawkins (b. 1951), a visual artist, and John Shipton, an anti-war activist and builder. The couple had separated before Assange was born.
When he was a year old, his mother married Richard Brett Assange, an actor, with whom she ran a small theatre company. They divorced around 1979. Christine Assange then became involved with Leif Meynell, also known as Leif Hamilton, a member of Australian cult The Family, with whom she had a son before the couple broke up in 1982. Assange had a nomadic childhood, and had lived in over thirty Australian towns by the time he reached his mid-teens, when he settled with his mother and half-brother in Melbourne, Victoria.
He attended many schools, including Goolmangar Primary School in New South Wales (1979–1983) and Townsville State High School, as well as being schooled at home. He studied programming, mathematics, and physics at Central Queensland University (1994) and the University of Melbourne (2003–2006), but did not complete a degree.
In 1987, Assange began hacking under the name Mendax. He and two others—known as "Trax" and "Prime Suspect"—formed a hacking group they called the International Subversives. During this time, he hacked into the Pentagon and other U.S. Department of Defense facilities, MILNET, the U.S. Navy, NASA, and Australia's Overseas Telecommunications Commission; Citibank, Lockheed Martin, Motorola, Panasonic, and Xerox; and the Australian National University, La Trobe University, and Stanford University's SRI International. He is thought to have been involved in the WANK (Worms Against Nuclear Killers) hack at NASA in 1989, but he does not acknowledge this.
In September 1991, Assange was discovered hacking into the Melbourne master terminal of Nortel, a Canadian multinational telecommunications corporation. The Australian Federal Police tapped Assange's phone line (he was using a modem), raided his home at the end of October, and eventually charged him in 1994 with thirty-one counts of hacking and related crimes. In December 1996, he pleaded guilty to twenty-five charges (the other six were dropped), was ordered to pay reparations of A$2,100 and released on a good behaviour bond, avoiding a heavier penalty resulting from the perceived absence of malicious or mercenary intent and his disrupted childhood.
In 1993, Assange gave technical advice to the Victoria Police Child Exploitation Unit and assisted with prosecutions. In the same year, he was involved in starting one of the first public Internet service providers in Australia, Suburbia Public Access Network. He began programming in 1994, authoring or co-authoring the Transmission Control Protocol port scanner
strobe.c (1995); patches to the open-source database PostgreSQL (1996); the Usenet caching software NNTPCache (1996); the Rubberhose deniable encryption system (1997), which reflected his growing interest in cryptography; and Surfraw, a command-line interface for web-based search engines (2000). During this period, he also moderated the AUCRYPTO forum; ran Best of Security, a website "giving advice on computer security" that had 5,000 subscribers in 1996; and contributed research to Suelette Dreyfus's Underground (1997), a book about Australian hackers, including the International Subversives. In 1998, he co-founded the company Earthmen Technology.
Assange stated that he registered the domain leaks.org in 1999, but "didn't do anything with it." He did, however, publicise a patent granted to the National Security Agency in August 1999, for voice-data harvesting technology: "This patent should worry people. Everyone's overseas phone calls are or may soon be tapped, transcribed and archived in the bowels of an unaccountable foreign spy agency." Systematic abuse of technology by governments against fundamental freedoms of world citizens remained an abiding concern — more than a decade later, in the introduction to Cypherpunks (2012), Assange summarised: "the Internet, our greatest tool for emancipation, has been transformed into the most dangerous facilitator of totalitarianism we have ever seen".
On 20 April 2017, United States officials acknowledged to CNN that the Federal government was now preparing to arrest Assange.
After his period of study at the University of Melbourne, Assange and others established WikiLeaks in 2006. Assange is a member of the organisation's advisory board and describes himself as the editor-in-chief. From 2007 to 2010, Assange travelled continuously on WikiLeaks business, visiting Africa, Asia, Europe and North America.
WikiLeaks published secret information, news leaks, and classified media from anonymous sources. By 2015, WikiLeaks had published more than 10 million documents and associated analyses, and was described by Assange as "a giant library of the world's most persecuted documents". The published material between 2006 and 2009 attracted various degrees of publicity, but it was only after it began publishing documents supplied by Chelsea Manning, that WikiLeaks became a household name. The Manning material included the Collateral Murder video (April 2010) which showed United States soldiers fatally shooting 18 people from a helicopter in Iraq, the Afghanistan war logs (July 2010), the Iraq war logs (October 2010), a quarter of a million diplomatic cables (November 2010), and the Guantánamo files (April 2011).
Opinions of Assange at this time were divided. Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard described his activities as "illegal," but the police said that he had broken no Australian law. United States Vice President Joe Biden and others called him a "terrorist". Some called for his assassination or execution. Support came from people including Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, Britain's Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn, Spain's Podemos party leader Pablo Iglesias, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay, Argentina's ambassador to the UK Alicia Castro, and activists and celebrities including Tariq Ali, John Perry Barlow, Daniel Ellsberg, Mary Kostakidis, John Pilger, Ai Weiwei, Michael Moore, Noam Chomsky, Vaughan Smith, and Oliver Stone.
The year 2010 culminated with the Sam Adams Award, which Assange accepted in October, and a string of distinctions in December—the Le Monde readers' choice award for person of the year, the Time readers' choice award for person of the year (he was also a runner-up in Time's overall person of the year award), a deal for his autobiography worth at least US$1.3 million, and selection by the Italian edition of Rolling Stone as "rockstar of the year".
Assange announced that he would run for the Australian Senate in March 2012 under the newly created WikiLeaks Party, and Cypherpunks was published in November. In 2012, Assange hosted a television show on Russia Today, a network funded by the Russian government. In the same year, he analysed the Kissinger cables held at the U.S. National Archives and released them in searchable form. On 15 September 2014, he appeared via remote video link on Kim Dotcom's Moment of Truth town hall meeting held in Auckland.
The following February, he won the Sydney Peace Foundation Gold Medal for Peace with Justice, previously awarded to only three people—Nelson Mandela, the Dalai Lama, and Buddhist spiritual leader Daisaku Ikeda. Two weeks later, he filed for the trademark "Julian Assange" in Europe, which was to be used for "Public speaking services; news reporter services; journalism; publication of texts other than publicity texts; education services; entertainment services." For several years a member of the Australian journalists' union and still an honorary member, he was awarded the Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism in June, and the Walkley Award for Most Outstanding Contribution to Journalism in November, having earlier won the Amnesty International UK Media Award (New Media) in 2009. Assange opened his Twitter account on 14 February 2017 and made his first tweet.
United States criminal investigation
After WikiLeaks released the Manning material, US authorities began investigating WikiLeaks and Assange personally with a view to prosecuting them under the Espionage Act of 1917. In November 2010 US Attorney-General Eric Holder said there was "an active, ongoing criminal investigation" into WikiLeaks. It emerged from legal documents leaked over the ensuing months that Assange and others were being investigated by a federal grand jury in Alexandria, Virginia. An email from an employee of intelligence consultancy Strategic Forecasting, Inc. (Stratfor) leaked in 2012 said, "We have a sealed indictment on Assange." The US government denies the existence of such an indictment.
In December 2011 prosecutors in the Chelsea Manning case revealed the existence of chat logs between Manning and an alleged WikiLeaks interlocutor they claimed to be Assange; he denied this, dismissing the alleged connection as "absolute nonsense". The logs were presented as evidence during Manning's court-martial in June–July 2013. The prosecution argued that they showed WikiLeaks helping Manning reverse-engineer a password, but evidence that the interlocutor was Assange was circumstantial, and Manning insisted she acted alone.
Assange was being examined separately by "several government agencies" in addition to the grand jury, most notably the FBI. Court documents published in May 2014 suggest that Assange was still under "active and ongoing" investigation at that time.
Moreover, some Snowden documents published in 2014 show that the United States government put Assange on the "2010 Manhunting Timeline", and in the same period they urged their allies to open criminal investigations into the editor-in-chief of WikiLeaks. In the same documents there was a proposal by the NSA to designate WikiLeaks as a "malicious foreign actor", thus increasing the surveillance against it.
On 26 January 2015, WikiLeaks revealed that three members of the organisation received notice that "Google had handed over all their emails and metadata to the United States government". In the notifications, there was the list of possible charges that originated the warrant to Google and that the secret grand jury intends to use against WikiLeaks and likely Assange too. They were espionage, conspiracy to commit espionage, theft or conversion of property belonging to the United States government, violation of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and general conspiracy. They carry up to a minimum of 45 years in prison, if they amount to one charge per these five types; otherwise, even more years could be added.
The United States investigation confirmed its ongoing proceedings against WikiLeaks in a 15 December 2015 court submission.
Swedish sexual assault allegations
Assange visited Sweden in August 2010, where he became the subject of sexual assault allegations from two women with whom he had sex. He was questioned, the case was closed, and he was told he could leave the country. In November 2010, however, the case was re-opened by a special prosecutor who said she wanted to question Assange over two counts of sexual molestation, one count of unlawful coercion and one count of "lesser-degree rape" (mindre grov våldtäkt). Assange denied the allegations and said he was happy to face questions in Britain.
In 2010, the prosecutor said Swedish law prevented her from questioning anyone by video link or in the London embassy. In March 2015, after public criticism from other Swedish law practitioners, she changed her mind and agreed to interrogate Assange in the Ecuadorian embassy in London, with interviews finally beginning on 14 November 2016. These interviews involved police, Swedish prosecutors and Ecuadorian officials and were eventually published online. By this time, the statute of limitations had expired on all three of the less serious allegations. Since the Swedish prosecutor had not interviewed Assange by 18 August 2015, the questioning pertained only to the open investigation of "lesser degree rape", whose statute of limitations is due to expire in 2020.
On 19 May 2017, the Swedish authorities dropped their investigation against Assange, claiming they could not expect the Ecuadorian Embassy to communicate reliably with Assange with respect to the case. Chief prosecutor Marianne Ny officially revoked his arrest warrant, but said the investigation could still be resumed if Assange visited Sweden before August 2020. "We are not making any pronouncement about guilt", she said.
Political asylum and life at the Ecuadorian embassy
On 19 June 2012, Ecuadorian Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño announced that Assange had applied for political asylum, that his government was considering the request, and that Assange was at the Ecuadorian embassy in London.
Assange and his supporters state he is concerned not about any proceedings in Sweden as such, but that his deportation to Sweden could lead to politically motivated deportation to the United States, where he could face severe penalties, up to the death sentence, for his activities related to WikiLeaks.
On 16 August 2012, Foreign Minister Patiño announced that Ecuador was granting Assange political asylum because of the threat represented by the United States secret investigation against him and several calls for assassination from many American politicians. In its formal statement, Ecuador reasoned that "as a consequence of [Assange's] determined defense to freedom of expression and freedom of press… in any given moment, a situation may come where his life, safety or personal integrity will be in danger". Latin American states expressed support for Ecuador. Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa confirmed on 18 August that Assange could stay at the embassy indefinitely, and the following day Assange gave his first speech from the balcony. Assange's supporters forfeited £293,500 in bail and sureties. His home since then has been an office converted into a studio apartment, equipped with a bed, telephone, sun lamp, computer, shower, treadmill, and kitchenette.
Just before Assange was granted asylum, the UK Government wrote to Foreign Minister Patiño stating that the police were entitled to enter the embassy and arrest Assange under UK law. Patiño criticised what he said was an implied threat, stating that "such actions would be a blatant disregard of the Vienna Convention". Officers of the Metropolitan Police Service were stationed outside the building from June 2012 to October 2015 in order to arrest Assange for extradition and for breach of bail, should he leave the embassy. The police guard was withdrawn on grounds of cost in October 2015, but the police said they would still deploy "a number of overt and covert tactics to arrest him". The cost of the policing for the period was reported to have been £12.6 million.
In April 2015, during a video conference to promote the documentary Terminal F about Edward Snowden, Bolivia's ambassador to Russia, María Luisa Ramos Urzagaste, accused Assange of putting the life of Bolivian president Evo Morales at risk by intentionally providing the United States with false rumours that Snowden was on the president's plane when it was forced to land in Vienna in July 2013. "It is possible that in this wide-ranging game that you began my president did not play a crucial role, but what you did was not important to my president, but it was to me and the citizens of our country. And I have faith that when you planned this game you took into consideration the consequences", the ambassador told Assange. Assange stated that the plan "was not completely honest, but we did consider that the final result would have justified our actions. We weren't expecting this outcome. The result was caused by the United States' intervention. We can only regret what happened." Later, in an interview with Democracy Now!, Assange explained the story of the grounding of Morales' plane, saying that after the United States cancelled Snowden's passport, WikiLeaks thought about other strategies to take him to Latin America, and they considered private presidential jets of those countries which offered support. The appointed jet was that of Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro, but Assange stated that "our code language that we used deliberately swapped the presidential jet that we were considering for the Bolivian jet [...] and in some of our communications, we deliberately spoke about that on open lines to lawyers in the United States. And we didn’t think much more of it. [...] We didn’t think this was anything more than just distracting." Eventually, the plan was not pursued and, under Assange's advice, Snowden sought asylum in Russia.
Paris newspaper Le Monde in its edition of 3 July 2015 published an open letter from Assange to French President François Hollande in which Assange urged the French government to grant him refugee status. Assange wrote that "only France now has the ability to offer me the necessary protection against, and exclusively against, the political persecution that I am currently the object of." In the letter Assange wrote, "By welcoming me, France would fulfill a humanitarian but also probably symbolic gesture, sending an encouragement to all journalists and whistleblowers ... Only France is now able to offer me the necessary protection ... France can, if it wishes, act."
In a statement issued by the Élysée Palace on 3 July 2015 in response to this letter, the French President said: "France cannot act on his request. The situation of Mr Assange does not present an immediate danger."
On 4 July 2015, in response to the denial of asylum by France, a spokesman for Assange denied that Assange had actually "filed" a request for asylum in France. Speaking on behalf of Assange, Baltasar Garzón, head of his legal team, said that Assange had sent the open letter to French president François Hollande; but Assange had only expressed his willingness "to be hosted in France if and only if an initiative was taken by the competent authorities".
On 16 August 2016, Assange's lawyer in the UK, John Jones, was found dead, according to the first reports after being hit by a train in an apparent suicide. An inquest into his death found that the lawyer was accepted since March to a private psychiatric hospital with several issues of mental health, including bipolar disorder, and closed-circuit television cameras showed no-one was near him when he jumped before the train. Coupled with the death of WikiLeaks lawyer Michael Ratner from cancer in May, the death of both lawyers in such a short time span sparked conspiracy theories, and a tweet by WikiLeaks on 21 August said that an inquest ruled it was not suicide. Some Twitter users took this to imply assassination, but the linked article explained that the inquest found culpability on the part of the hospital for letting Jones outside since suicide requires mental competence.
The next day, on 22 August, a man scaled the embassy's walls, but was caught by the embassy's security.
In September 2016, Assange said he would agree to US prison in exchange for President Obama granting Chelsea Manning clemency. Obama commuted Manning's sentence on 17 January 2017. The next day, at his final presidential news conference, Obama stated, "I don't pay a lot of attention to Mr. Assange's tweets, so that wasn't a consideration in this instance." The same day, Assange's U.S.-based attorney Barry Pollack asserted (without saying when or where) that Assange "had called for Chelsea Manning to receive clemency and be released immediately [emphasis added]." Accordingly, Pollack maintained, the commutation—which specified Manning would be freed four months hence—did not meet Assange's conditions. On 17 May 2017, Manning was released from prison. Two days later, Assange emerged on the embassy's balcony and told a crowd that, despite no longer facing a Swedish sex investigation, he would remain inside the embassy in order to avoid extradition to the United States.
On 17 October 2016 WikiLeaks announced that a "state party" had severed Assange's internet connection at the Ecuadorian embassy. The Ecuadorian government stated that it had "temporarily" severed Assange's internet connection because of WikiLeaks' release of documents "impacting on the U.S. election campaign". In an interview published on 29 December, Assange said, "The internet has been returned".
In the run-up to 2017 Ecuador's general elections, conservative candidate Guillermo Lasso promised that he "will cordially ask Senor Assange to leave" within 30 days of assuming office, should he be elected. The pro-business candidate said the country's London embassy "isn't a hotel" and that Ecuador is in no position to finance the Australian's stay there. After preliminary results in the second round of Ecuador's presidential election showed that Lasso is poised to lose – the WikiLeaks founder responded using the same language."I cordially invite Lasso to leave Ecuador within 30 days (with or without his tax haven millions)," Assange tweeted, referring to the revelations made shortly before the vote.
On 6 June 2017, Assange tweeted his support for NSA leaker Reality Winner, offering a $10,000 reward for information about a reporter for The Intercept who had allegedly helped the U.S. government to identify Winner as the leaker. Assange posted on Twitter: "Reality Leight Winner is no Clapper or Petraeus with 'elite immunity'. She's a young woman against the wall for talking to the press."
On 5 February 2016, the UN's Working Group on Arbitrary Detention concluded that Assange had been subject to arbitrary detention by the UK and Swedish Governments since 7 December 2010, including his time in prison, on conditional bail and in the Ecuadorian embassy. According to the group, Assange should be allowed to walk free and be given compensation.
The UK and Swedish governments rejected the claim. UK Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Philip Hammond, said the claim was "ridiculous" and that the group was "made up of lay people", and called Assange a fugitive from justice. UK and Swedish prosecutors called the group's claims irrelevant. The UK maintained it would arrest Assange should he leave the Ecuadorian embassy. Mark Ellis, executive director of the International Bar Association, stated that the finding is "not binding on British law". United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad al Hussein has said that the finding is based on binding international law.
2016 US presidential election
Criticism of Clinton and the Democratic Party
Assange wrote on WikiLeaks in February 2016: "I have had years of experience in dealing with Hillary Clinton and have read thousands of her cables. Hillary lacks judgement and will push the United States into endless, stupid wars which spread terrorism. ... she certainly should not become president of the United States." On 25 July, following the Republican National Convention (RNC), during an interview by Amy Goodman, Assange said that choosing between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump is like choosing between cholera or gonorrhea. "Personally, I would prefer neither." WikiLeaks editor, Sarah Harrison, has stated that the site is not choosing which damaging publications to release, rather releasing information that is available to them.
On 4 July 2016, during the Democratic Party presidential primaries, WikiLeaks hosted information and content of emails sent or received by candidate Hillary Clinton from her private email server when she was Secretary of State as originally released by the State Department in February 2016, based on a FOIA request.
On 22 July 2016, WikiLeaks released emails and documents from the Democratic National Committee (DNC) seemingly presenting ways to undercut Bernie Sanders and showing apparent favouritism towards Clinton, leading to the resignation of party chairman Debbie Wasserman Schultz. The New York Times reported that "Assange accused Mrs. Clinton of having been among those pushing to indict him..." and that he had timed the release to coincide with the 2016 Democratic National Convention. In an interview with Robert Peston of ITV News Assange suggested that he saw Hillary Clinton as a personal foe.
On 26 August 2016, Assange spoke to Fox News and said that Clinton was causing "hysteria about Russia" after the Democratic Party, along with a number of cybersecurity experts and cybersecurity firms, claimed that Russian intelligence had hacked the e-mails and leaked them to Wikileaks. This statement was repeated in the Russian media outlet RT.
On 4 October 2016, in a WikiLeaks anniversary meeting in Berlin with Assange teleconferencing from his refuge in the Ecuador embassy in London, reporters spoke of a supposed promise to reveal further information against Hillary Clinton which would bring her candidacy down, calling this information "The October Surprise". On 7 October, Assange posted a press release on WikiLeaks exposing over 2000 emails from Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta. The emails, ranging from 2007–2016, revealed excerpts of Clinton's paid Goldman Sachs speech in 2013. In the emails, she explained her relationship to Wall Street and how she had previously represented the community: "even though I represented [people in finance] and did all I could to make sure they continued to prosper, I called for closing the carried interest loophole and addressing skyrocketing CEO pay. So when I raised early warnings about subprime mortgages and called for regulating derivatives and over complex financial products, I didn’t get some big arguments, because people sort of said, no, that makes sense."
According to Harvard political scientist Matthew Baum and College of the Canyons political scientist Phil Gussin, Wikileaks strategically released e-mails related to the Clinton campaign whenever Clinton's lead expanded in the polls. On the eve of the general presidential election, Assange wrote a press release addressing the criticism around publishing Clinton material on WikiLeaks."We publish material given to us if it is of political, diplomatic, historical or ethical importance and which has not been published elsewhere. When we have material that fulfills this criteria, we publish." He explains that the website received pertinent information related to the DNC leaks and Clinton political campaign, but never received any information on Trump, Jill Stein, or Gary Johnson's campaign, and therefore could not publish what they did not have.
Allegations of anti-Semitism
In 2011, the British magazine Private Eye reported that one of Assange's associates in Russia was a Holocaust denier. The magazine further reported that the WikiLeaks founder said that Jewish journalists in Britain were trying to discredit his organisation. Assange responded that the magazine's allegations of anti-semitism are false and stem from "distortions" on the part of its editor, Ian Hislop. On 1 March 2011, Assange released a statement in which he said, "Hislop has distorted, invented or misremembered almost every significant claim and phrase. In particular, 'Jewish conspiracy' is completely false, in spirit and in word. It is serious and upsetting. We treasure our strong Jewish support and staff, just as we treasure the support from pan-Arab democracy activists and others who share our hope for a just world."
Assange is an advocate of information transparency and market libertarianism. He has written a few short pieces, including "State and terrorist conspiracies" (2006), "Conspiracy as governance" (2006), "The hidden curse of Thomas Paine" (2008), "What's new about WikiLeaks?" (2011), and the foreword to Cypherpunks (2012). He also contributed research to Suelette Dreyfus's Underground (1997), and received a co-writer credit for the Calle 13 song "Multi_Viral" (2013).
Assange's book, When Google Met WikiLeaks, was published by OR Books on 18 September 2014. The book recounts when Google CEO Eric Schmidt requested a meeting with Assange, while he was under house arrest in rural Norfolk, UK. Schmidt was accompanied by Jared Cohen, director of Google Ideas; Lisa Shields, vice-president of the Council on Foreign Relations; and Scott Malcomson, the communications director for the International Crisis Group. Excerpts were published on the Newsweek website, while Assange participated in a Q&A event that was facilitated by the Reddit website and agreed to an interview with Vogue magazine.
While in his teens, Assange married a woman named Teresa, and in 1989 they had a son, Daniel Assange, now a software designer. The couple separated and initially disputed custody of their child. Assange was Daniel's primary carer for much of his childhood. In an open letter to French President François Hollande, Assange stated his youngest child lives in France with their mother. He also said that his family had faced death threats and harassment because of his work, forcing them to change identities and reduce contact with him.
Honours and awards
- 2008, Economist New Media Award
- 2009, Amnesty International UK Media Awards
- 2010, TIME Person of the Year, Reader's Choice
- 2010, Sam Adams Award
- 2011, Free Dacia Award
- 2011, Sydney Peace Foundation Gold Medal
- 2011, Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism
- 2011, Walkley Award for Most Outstanding Contribution to Journalism
- 2011, Voltaire Award for Free Speech
- 2012, Big Brother Awards Hero of Privacy
- 2013, Global Exchange Human Rights Award, People's Choice
- 2013, Yoko Ono Lennon Courage Award for the Arts
- 2013, New York Festivals World's Best TV & Films Silver World Medal
- 2014, Union of Journalists in Kazakhstan Top Prize
- Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (1997)
- Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet (2012) OR Books
- When Google Met WikiLeaks (2014) OR Books
- The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to The US Empire (2015) Verso Books
- As himself
- "WikiLeaks Founder on History's Top Leaks". Time Video. New York. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- on YouTube, 5 April 2000. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- "Q&A: Julian Assange and the law". BBC News. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- Pete Yost, "Holder says WikiLeaks under criminal investigation". The Guardian (London). 29 November 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Nick Davies (17 December 2010). "10 days in Sweden: the full allegations against Julian Assange". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- "What next for Julian Assange?". 5 February 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Britain 'sets dangerous precedent' by defying UN report on Assange". The Guardian (London). 24 February 2016.
- "Q&A: Julian Assange and the law". 13 March 2015 – via www.bbc.com.
- Rothwell, James; Ward, Victoria (19 May 2017). "Julian Assange 'to seek asylum in France' after rape investigation dropped by Swedish prosecutors". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Avila, Renata (19 May 2017). "Human Rights Lawyer: Sweden Dropping Investigation of WikiLeaks' Assange is "Long Overdue Decision"". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 2017-05-22.
- Glenda Kwek "Magnet for trouble: how Assange went from simple island life to high-tech public enemy number one," The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Wikileaks founder Julian Assange a born and bred Queenslander," The Courier-Mail, 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Family notices," The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 March 1951. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- David Leigh and Luke Harding, WikiLeaks: Inside Julian Assange's War on Secrecy (London: Guardian Books, 2011; rev. edn. Guardian Books / Faber and Faber, 2013), p. 34.
- Richard Guilliatt, "For John Shipton, the Wikileaks Party isn't just a political cause," The Australian, 15 June 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Robert Manne (March 2011). "The cypherpunk revolutionary: Julian Assange". The Monthly. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
By the time he was addressing audiences worldwide, his 'father'—which Assange informed me is an amalgam of Brett Assange and John Shipton, created to protect their identities
- Raffi Khatchadourian, "No secrets: Julian Assange's mission for total transparency," The New Yorker, 7 June 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "The secret life of Julian Assange," CNN, 2 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Dominic Feain, "WikiLeaks founder's Lismore roots," Northern Star, 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange: 'We just kept moving'". 23 September 2011.
- Leigh and Harding, WikiLeaks, pp. 37–38.
- Massimo Calabresi, "WikiLeaks' war on secrecy: truth's consequences,". Time, 2 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Hans Ulrich Obrist, "In conversation with Julian Assange, Part I," e-flux, May 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Andrew O'Hagan, "Ghosting: Julian Assange," London Review of Books, vol. 36, no. 5 (6 March 2014), pp. 5–26. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Jeremy Geia first Australian to interview Assange," Gilimbaa, 24 October 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Frazer Pearce, "Assange studied at CQU,", The Morning Bulletin, 18 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Meet the Aussie behind Wikileaks," Stuff, 7 August 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2014. First published in The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Sarah Whyte, "Driven to dissent—like father, like son," The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 December 2010. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- Suelette Dreyfus, Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier, with research by Julian Assange (Sydney: Random House, 1997).
- Weinberger, Sharon (7 April 2010). "Who is behind WikiLeaks?". AOL. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- Bernard Lagan, "International man of mystery," The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 April 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Leigh and Harding, WikiLeaks, p. 42.
- Richard Guilliatt, "Rudd Government blacklist hacker monitors police," The Australian, 30 May 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- David Leigh and Luke Harding, "Julian Assange: the teen hacker who became insurgent in information war," The Guardian, 30 January 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Adrian Lowe, "For lonely teenager Assange, a computer was his only friend," The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 January 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- Lauren Wilson, "Assange's hacking offences laid bare," The Australian, 17 January 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- Stuart Rintoul and Sean Parnell, "Julian Assange, wild child of free speech", The Australian, 11 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Leigh and Harding, WikiLeaks, pp. 44.
- Steve Butcher, "Assange helped our police catch child pornographers," The Age, 12 February 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Suburbia Public Access Network. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Julian Assange, "Strobe v1.01 super optimised TCP port surveyor," Seclists.org, 9 March 1995. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Strobe 1.06: A super optimised TCP port surveyor," HP-UX Porting and Archive Centre. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Contributor profiles," Postgresql.org. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- "PostgreSQL commits," Git.postgresql.org. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- NNTPCache Mailing List. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Ryan Singel, "Immune to critics, secret-spilling WikiLeaks plans to save journalism ... and the world," Wired, 3 July 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Suelette Dreyfus, The Idiot Savants' Guide to Rubberhose. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Suelette Dreyfus, "Network: This is just between us (and the spies)," The Independent, 15 November 1999.
- Surfraw: Shell Users' Revolutionary Front Rage Against the Web. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Leigh and Harding, WikiLeaks, p. 45.
- Annabel Symington, "Exposed: Wikileaks' secrets," Wired, 1 September 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Julian Assange, Jacob Appelbaum, Andy Müller-Maguhn, and Jérémie Zimmermann, Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet (New York and London: OR Books, 2012).
- CNN, Evan Perez, Pamela Brown, Shimon Prokupecz and Eric Bradner. "Sources: US prepares charges against WikiLeaks' Assange".
- WikiLeaks' Advisory Board. Wikileaks. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange answers your questions," The Guardian, 3 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Hans Ulrich Obrist, "In conversation with Julian Assange, Part II," e-flux, 30 March 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Julian Assange, "Julian Assange: 'I knew my life would never be the same'," The Independent, 22 September 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Philip Shenon, "Wikileaks founder Julian Assange hunted by Pentagon over massive leak," The Daily Beast, 10 June 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Karhula, Päivikki (5 October 2012). "What is the effect of WikiLeaks for Freedom of Information?". International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Editors, The (16 August 2012). "WikiLeaks – The New York Times". Topics.nytimes.com. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- Der Spiegel - Interview with Julian Assange: 'We Are Drowning in Material', 20 July 2015
- Leaks by Year, WikiLeaks. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Greg Mitchell, The Age of WikiLeaks: From Collateral Murder to Cablegate (and Beyond), (New York: Sinclair Books, 2011), ch. 1.
- "WikiLeaks acting illegally, says Gillard," Sydney Morning Herald, 2 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Dylan Welch, "Julian Assange has committed no crime in Australia: AFP," The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Ewen MacAskill, "Julian Assange like a hi-tech terrorist, says Joe Biden," The Guardian, 20 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Tom Curry, "McConnell optimistic on deals with Obama," NBC News, 5 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell.
- Shane D'Aprile, "Gingrich: Leaks show Obama administration 'shallow,' 'amateurish'," The Hill, 5 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich.
- Martin Beckford, "Sarah Palin: hunt WikiLeaks founder like al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders," The Daily Telegraph, 30 November 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Former Vice-Presidential candidate and Fox News commentator Sarah Palin.
- Kathleen Troia McFarland, "Yes, WikiLeaks is a terrorist organization and the time to act is now", Fox News, 30 November 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Fox News commentator and former Pentagon advisor Kathleen Troia McFarland.
- "Flanagan regrets WikiLeaks assassination remark," CBC News, 1 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Charlie Smith, "Police complaint filed after Tom Flanagan calls for assassination of Wikileaks' Julian Assange," Straight.com. 4 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Tom Flanagan, a former aide to the Canadian prime minister, Stephen Harper. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "Fox News' Bob Beckel calls for 'Ilegally' [sic] killing Assange: 'A dead man can't leak stuff'," The Huffington Post, 7 December 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Fox News commentator Bob Beckel.
- Haroon Sidiqqui and Matthew Weaver, "US embassy cables culprit should be executed, says Mike Huckabee," The Guardian, 1 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Former Governor of Arkansas and Fox News commentator Mike Huckabee.
- Amy Davidson, "Michael Grunwald and the Assange precedent problem," The New Yorker, 18 August 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Time correspondent Michael Grunwald.
- "President Lula shows support for Wikileaks," YouTube, 9 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Wikileaks: Brazil President Lula backs Julian Assange," BBC News, 10 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "When Wikileaks founder Julian Assange met Ecuadorean president Rafael Correa". The Daily Telegraph. 20 June 2012.
- 'Russia: Julian Assange deserves a Nobel Prize' ," The Jerusalem Post, 12 November 2010.
- Luke Harding, "Julian Assange should be awarded Nobel peace prize, suggests Russia," The Guardian, 9 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Jeremy Corbyn: “I think we have to think in terms of the disillusioned who didn’t vote”". New Statesman. 29 July 2015.
- "Podemos denuncia en Londres la "terrible persecución" que sufre Assange". Terra España. 8 November 2014.
- Nebehay, Stephanie (9 December 2010). "UN rights boss concerned at targeting of WikiLeaks". Reuters.
- "Assange recognizes Argentine support". Buenos Aires Herald. 24 September 2012.
- "Craig Murray and Tariq Ali speak in support of WikiLeaks' Julian Assange outside Ecuadorean embassy," Democracy Now!, 20 August 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- James Ball, "WikiLeaks supporters plan US foundation to restore funding," Support Julian Assange Website, 20 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "Whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg: Julian Assange is not a terrorist," Democracy Now!, 31 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Ex-intelligence officers, others see plusses in WikiLeaks disclosures," Institute for Public Accuracy, Media Release, 7 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange: sign the petition," GetUp! Action for Australia, 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- John Pilger, "The war on WikiLeaks: a John Pilger investigation and interview with Julian Assange," John Pilger Website, 13 January 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- John Pilger, "WikiLeaks is a rare truth-teller. Smearing Julian Assange is shameful," John Pilger Website, 14 February 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "'Angry' Julian Assange starts fifth year living in Ecuador’s London embassy". The Guardian. 19 June 2016.
- "Film-maker Michael Moore visits Julian Assange at embassy". Belfast Telegraph. 10 July 2016.
- "Julian Assange's guardian angel," The Daily Beast, 2 November 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- Charles M. Sennott, "A bold stand in support: Vaughan Smith on Julian Assange," Global Post, 15 July 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Michael Moore and Oliver Stone, "WikiLeaks and free speech," The New York Times, 21 August 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Ray McGovern, "Julian Assange honored at London press conference," The Real News, 25 October 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Sylvie Kauffmann, "WikiLeaks: défis et limites de la transparence," Le Monde, 24 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Assange named Le Monde Man of the Year," ABC News, 24 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Megan Friedman, "Julian Assange: readers’ choice for Time’s person of the year 2010," Time Newsfeed, 13 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Barton Gellman, "Runners-Up Julian Assange," Time, 15 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Paul Sonne, "Assange memoir sold in U.S., U.K.," The Wall Street Journal, 27 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Ravi Somaiya, "WikiLeaks founder signs book deal," The New York Times, 27 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Kevin Dolak, "Julian Assange signs $1.3 million book deal," ABC News, 26 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Nick Squires, "WikiLeaks: Julian Assange crowned 'Rock Star of the Year' by Italian Rolling Stone," The Daily Telegraph, 14 December 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Nick Pisa, "Bare-chested Julian Assange dubbed Rockstar of the Year by Italy's Rolling Stone," The Daily Mail, 15 December 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange to run for Australian senate", The Guardian, 17 March 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Misha Schubert, "Assange on the run ... for the Senate," The Sydney Morning Herald, 18 March 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Erlanger, Jo Becker, Steven; Schmitt, Eric (31 August 2016). "How Russia Often Benefits When Julian Assange Reveals the West's Secrets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- Mark Duell, "So that's what Assange has been doing inside the embassy!" The Daily Mail, 8 April 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Kissinger Cables: Wikileaks publishes 1.7m US diplomatic documents from 1970s," The Daily Telegraph, 8 April 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Michael Safi & Hannah Jane Parkinson (15 September 2014). "Kim Dotcom accuses New Zealand government of mass spying – live updates". The Guardian.
- Isabel Hayes, "Julian Assange awarded Sydney peace medal," The Sydney Morning Herald, 2 February 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Word mark Number 009734096: Julian Assange," Markify. Application filed 14 February 2011, trademark registered 23 June 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Josh Halliday, "WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange applies to trademark his name," The Guardian, 28 February 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Patrick Barkham, "Why is Julian Assange trademarking his name?" The Guardian, 1 March 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Journalists' union shows support for Assange," ABC News, 23 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Alex Massie, "Yes, Julian Assange is a journalist," The Spectator, 2 November 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Star lawyer Alan Dershowitz: Assange is a new kind of journalist," Der Spiegel, 22 February 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Jason Deans, "Julian Assange wins Martha Gellhorn journalism prize," The Guardian, 2 June 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Joel Gunter, "Julian Assange wins Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism," Journalism.co.uk, 2 June 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Glenn Greenwald, "WikiLeaks wins major journalism award in Australia," Salon, 27 November 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Margaret Simons, "Walkley Awards decide Julian Assange is a journalist," Crikey, 28 November 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Dan Nystedt, "Wikileaks leader talks of courage and wrestling pigs," Computerworld, 27 October 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Philip Dorling, "Are Assange's fears justified?" The Sydney Morning Herald, 23 June 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Glenn Greeenwald, "FBI serves grand jury subpoena likely relating to WikiLeaks". Salon. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Glenn Greeenwald, "WikiLeaks grand jury investigation widens". Salon. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Fw: Assange-Manning Link Not Key to WikiLeaks Case, 2011-01-26," WikiLeaks. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Mark Hosenball, "Despite Assange claims, U.S. has no current case against him". Reuters, 22 August 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- Sari Horwitz, "Assange not under sealed indictment, U.S. officials say", The Washington Post. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Kim Zetter, "Jolt in WikiLeaks case: Feds found Manning-Assange chat logs on laptop," Wired, 19 December 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Ellen Nakashima, "Bradley Manning case: Investigators show evidence of WikiLeaks link, Assange chats," The Washington Post, 20 December 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Gretchen Gavett "New evidence of Assange-Manning link," PBS, 19 December 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Interview Julian Assange," Frontline, PBS, 4 April 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2014. The interview is also available at WikiLeaks. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Jim Miklaszewski, "U.S. can't link accused Army private to Assange", NBC News, 24 January 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- David Usborne, "Bradley Manning court-martial hears 'evidence of online chats' with Wikileaks founder Julian Assange". The Independent (London). 12 June 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Adam Klasfield, "The only chats recovered between Pfc. Bradley Manning and an online chat buddy," Courthouse News Service, 12 June 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014
- David Carr and Ravi Somaiya, "Assange, back in news, never left U.S. radar", The New York Times, 24 June 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Philip Dorling, "Assange targeted by FBI probe, US court documents reveal," The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 May 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Snowden Documents Reveal Covert Surveillance and Pressure Tactics Aimed at Wikileaks and Its Supporters, 18 February 2014
- U.S. Urges Allies to Crack Down on WikiLeaks, 10 August 2010
- Google hands data to US Government in WikiLeaks espionage case, 26 January 2015
- Manning v. U.S. Department of Justice and FBI (D.D.C. 15 December 2015). Text
- Esther Addley, "Julian Assange has had his human rights violated, says Ecuador foreign minister". The Guardian (London). 17 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Explained: Assange to be interviewed over sexual assault allegations". 14 November 2016.
- Domonoske, Camila (14 November 2016). "Prosecutors Question Julian Assange Over Sex-Crime Accusations". the two-way. © 2016 npr. NPR. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Caroline Hawley (12 August 2015). "Assange Assault Inquiry to Be Dropped". BBC News.
- "Wikileaks' Assange inquiry by Sweden 'improper'." BBC News, 8 February 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- Nick Davies, "10 days in Sweden: the full allegations against Julian Assange," The Guardian, 17 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- David Allen Green, "The legal mythology of the extradition of Julian Assange," New Statesman, 3 September 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Anya Palmer, "Why doesn't Sweden interview Assange in London?" Blogpost. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange: Sweden drops rape investigation". BBC News. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Addley, Esther; Travis, Alan (19 May 2017). "Swedish prosecutors drop Julian Assange rape investigation". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Andrew Hough, "Julian Assange: WikiLeaks founder seeks political asylum from Ecuador". The Daily Telegraph (London). 19 June 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Alexandra Topping, Shiv Malik, and David Batty, "Julian Assange requests asylum at Ecuador embassy". The Guardian (London). 20 June 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Donna Bowater, "WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange to remain in Ecuadorian Embassy". The Daily Telegraph (London). 29 June 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange asylum bid: ambassador flies into Ecuador for talks with President Correa". The Daily Telegraph (London). 23 June 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "Declaración del Gobierno de la República del Ecuador sobre la solicitud de asilo de Julian Assange", Comunicado No. 042, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Integration of Ecuador, 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Lee Ferran and Raisa Bruner, "Ecuador grants WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange political asylum", ABC News, 16 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange: Ecuador grants WikiLeaks founder asylum", BBC News, 16 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "U.K.: WikiLeaks' Assange won't be allowed to leave", CBS News, 16 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Statement of the Government of the Republic of Ecuador on the asylum request of Julian Assange". Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Julian Assange row: Ecuador backed by South America". BBC News. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange: UK embassy 'threat' angers South American leaders". The Guardian (London). 20 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "American states back Ecuador over Assange", Google News (Agence France-Presse), 25 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "OAS urges Ecuador, Britain to end row peacefully". Xinhua News Agency (Beijing). 25 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Nathan Gill and Randy Woods, "Correa says Assange may stay in Ecuador embassy indefinitely", Bloomberg Businessweek, 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014. Archived 21 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Ricardo Patiño: Ecuador 'acts on principles'," Al Jazeera, 26 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Ecuadorians rally behind Assange asylum bid," Al Jazeera, 21 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Full transcript of Julian Assange's speech outside Ecuador's London embassy". The Independent (London). 19 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange urges US to end WikiLeaks 'witch-hunt'," BBC News, 19 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "'Do some research!' Christine Assange steamrolls Western journalism,". Russia Today, 21 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "US denies 'wild' Julian Assange witch-hunt claim," Herald Sun, 21 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Professor Tricia David and other sureties for Julian Assange," Westminster Magistrates' Court, 8 October 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange: Bail cash decision delayed," BBC News, 3 October 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Atika Shubert, "Embassy life like 'a space station,' Assange says," CNN, 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Ben Child, "Oliver Stone meets Julian Assange and criticises new WikiLeaks films," The Guardian, 11 April 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Alexandra Valencia, "Ecuador says UK violating human rights of WikiLeaks' Assange," Reuters, 29 May 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Pearse, Damien (16 August 2012). "Julian Assange can be arrested in Ecuador embassy, UK warns". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "The Guardian newspaper:Julian Assange: Police end guard at Wikileaks founder's embassy refuge". BBC News. 12 October 2015.
- "Bolivia Accuses Assange of Putting Evo Morales' Life at Risk". teleSUR. 13 April 2015.
- Democracy Now: Assange on the Untold Story of the Grounding of Evo Morales’ Plane During Edward Snowden Manhunt, 28 May 2015
- "Julian Assange: 'En m'accueillant, la France accomplirait un geste'". Le Monde (in French). Paris. 3 July 2015.
- "Julian Assange denies making asylum request that was refused by France". The Guardian. London. 4 July 2015.
- "France rejects Julian Assange's asylum request". The Guardian. London. 3 July 2015.
- Britain’s top human rights lawyer who represented Julian Assange and worked alongside George Clooney’s wife Amal dies in apparent suicide, Neil Syson, 21 April 2016 (The Sun)
- William McLennan (19 August 2016). "Concerns raised over hospital's treatment of 'brilliant' barrister who was hit by train". Camden New Journal. Archived from the original on 2016-08-21.
- Inquest rules that death of Julian Assange's lawyer, John Jones QC, was not 'suicide', opening door to law suits WikiLeaks tweet, 21 August 2016 (Twitter.com)
- Man jumps wall at embassy holding Assange, Press Association, 22 August 2016 ([news.com.au Australian News website])
- WikiLeaks (15 Sep 2016). "If Obama grants Manning clemency". Twitter.
- "Obama commutes Chelsea Manning sentence". BBC News. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "Obama's Last News Conference: Full Transcript and Video". The New York Times. 18 January 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Assange lawyer: Manning commutation doesn't meet extradition offer's conditions". The Hill. 18 January 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Shubailai, Nadine (17 May 2017). "Chelsea Manning released: The past 'is only my starting point, not my final destination'". ABC News.
- "Julian Assange emerges on embassy balcony to say he will not 'forgive or forget' as Swedish rape investigation is dropped". The Telegraph. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Couts, Andrew. "WikiLeaks publishes more Podesta emails after Ecuador cuts Assange's internet". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Bennett, Cory. "Ecuador admits restricting internet access for WikiLeaks over election meddling". Politico. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Julian Assange: "Donald? It's a change anyway"". The Greanville Post.
- "Who is Reality Winner? Accused leaker wanted to 'resist' Trump". Fox News. June 6, 2017.
- "WikiLeaks offers $10,000 to get Intercept reporter fired". The Hill. June 6, 2017.
- "Wikileaks' Julian Assange tweets support for NSA 'whistleblower' Reality Leigh Winner". Daily Express. June 6, 2017.
- "Britain, Sweden should accept ruling on Julian Assange: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights". Firstpost (India). 6 February 2016.
- The Working Group on Arbitrary Detention Deems the deprivation of liberty of Mr. Julian Assange as arbitrary. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). 5 February 2016.
- "UK, Sweden reject UN ruling on Assange". Sky News Australia. 5 February 2016.
- Hammond calls U.N. Assange report 'ridiculous', Reuters
- "Svenska åklagarna: FN-gruppens rapport betydelselös" svt.se
- "Philip Hammond rejects 'ridiculous' UN decision on Julian Assange". The Guardian (London). 5 February 2016.
- "Britain: WikiLeaks founder faces arrest regardless of U.N. panel ruling". The Washington Post. 4 February 2016.
- "Julian Assange Q&A: what now for the WikiLeaks founder? e". The Guardian (London). 5 February 2016.
- "Britain, Sweden should accept Assange ruling: UN rights chief". Haveeru.com. 10 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
- "Why Julian Assange Doesn’t Want Hillary Clinton to Be President". The Observer. 24 June 2016.
- "Assange Warns More Leaks Coming, Compares Trump and Clinton to 'Cholera and Gonorrhea'". Haaretz. 27 July 2016.
- Julian Assange: Choosing Between Trump or Clinton is Like Picking Between Cholera or Gonorrhea, 25 July 2016 (Democracy Now! website)
- "Assange: 2016 election is like choosing between 'cholera or gonorrhea'". Politico. 27 July 2016.
- "How Julian Assange Turned WikiLeaks Into Trump's Best Friend". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Carissimo, Justin (4 July 2016). "WikiLeaks publishes more than 1,000 Hillary Clinton war emails". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- Schleifer, Theodore; Scott, Eugene (24 July 2016). "DNC treatment of Sanders at issue in emails leaked to Wikileaks". CNN. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- Peters, Maquita (23 July 2016). "Leaked Democratic Party Emails Show Members Tried To Undercut Sanders". NPR.org. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- Assange, Avowed Foe of Clinton, Timed Email Release for Democratic Convention," The New York Times, 26 July 2016.
- "Assange on Peston on Sunday: 'More Clinton leaks to come'". ITV News. 12 June 2016.
- "Assange blasts media for 'politicization' of election campaign in Fox interviews". Fox News. August 26, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Lake, Eli (25 July 2016). "Cyber-Experts Say Russia Hacked the Democratic National Committee". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Assange slams Clinton for ‘Russian hysteria’ & US media for politicized election coverage 26 August 2016
- How Julian Assange turned WikiLeaks into Trump's best friend, Max Chafkin & Vernon Silver, 10 October 2016 (Bloomberg website)
- "WikiLeaks – The Podesta Emails". wikileaks.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "WikiLeaks releases excerpts from Clinton's Wall Street speeches". NY Daily News. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "WikiLeaks – The Podesta Emails". wikileaks.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "WikiLeaks Appears To Release Hillary Clinton's Paid Speech Transcripts". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "Why it's entirely predictable that Hillary Clinton's emails are back in the news". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- "Assange Statement on the US Election". wikileaks.org. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Jim Sciutto, Nicole Gaouette and Ryan Browne (14 October 2016). US finds growing evidence Russia feeding emails to WikiLeaks. CNN. Retrieved: 14 October 2016.
- Hannity, Sean (January 3, 2017). "Julian Assange on Sean Hannity". Fox News. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
- Goodman, Amy (April 12, 2017). "Julian Assange on Trump, DNC Emails, Russia, the CIA, Vault 7 & More". Democracy now.
- "British magazine: Assange says Jewish conspiracy trying to discredit WikiLeaks". haaretz.com. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Quinn, Ben (1 March 2011). "Julian Assange 'Jewish conspiracy' comments spark row". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Service, Haaretz (11 February 2011). "British Magazine: Assange Says Jewish Conspiracy Trying to Discredit WikiLeaks". Haaretz. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
- Andy Greenberg, "An interview with WikiLeaks' Julian Assange," Forbes, 29 November 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "State and Terrorist Conspiracies," 10 November 2006. Retrieved 12 March 2014. This file contains both 2006 papers; they are also available elsewhere online.
- "Conspiracy as Governance," 3 December 2006. Retrieved 12 March 2014. This file contains both 2006 papers; they are also available elsewhere online.
- "The Hidden Curse of Thomas Paine," 29 April 2008. This version is at Guernica Magazine. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "What’s new about WikiLeaks?" New Statesman, 14 April 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "When Google Met WikiLeaks". OR Books. OR Books. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- DW Gibson (24 October 2014). "Julian Assange Talks to Vogue.com About His New Book, When Google Met WikiLeaks". Vogue.com. Condé Naste Digital. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- Taylor Wofford (16 September 2014). "WikiLeaks Founder Julian Assange Answers Questions About His New Book on Reddit". Newsweek. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- Julian Assange (23 October 2014). "Assange: Google Is Not What It Seems". Newsweek. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- Nick Johns-Wickberg, "Daniel Assange: I never thought WikiLeaks would succeed," Crikey, 17 September 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Assange fears for his children's safety," News Online, 30 September 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Julian Assange: "En m’accueillant, la France accomplirait un geste humanitaire"". Le Monde. 3 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Index on Censorship Award winners 2008". Index on Censorship. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- "Amnesty International Media Awards 2009: full list of winners". The Guardian. 3 June 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Julian Assange: Readers’ Choice for TIME’s Person of the Year 2010". TIME. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- "Julian Assange". Sam Adams Associates for Integrity in Intelligence. 23 October 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Julian Assange Given Press Freedom Award". CBS News. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- "Sydney Peace Medal: Julian Assange". Sydney Peace Foundation. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Previous Winners". The Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Walkley Winners Archive". The Walkley Foundation. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Liberty Victoria overview 2010-2011". Liberty Victoria. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Big Brother Award 2012". Big Brother Award. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- "Past Honorees". Global Exchange Human Rights Awards. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- "Yoko Ono Lennon Presents 2013 Courage Award to Julian Assange". Imagine Peace. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Piece #1 – The Julian Assange Show with Hassan Nasrallah". New York Festivals. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- "Kazakh Journalists' Union Honors WikiLeaks Founder". Radio Free Europe. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- Assange, Julian. "When Google Met WikiLeaks". OR Books. OR Books. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Assange, Julian. "The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire". Verso Books. Verso Books. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "The Engineer". IMDb. IMDb. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- ""Terminal F/Chasing Edward Snowden"". The Film Sufi. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Benjamin Lee (25 August 2015). "Citizenfour director to preview Assange documentary at New York film festival". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Nick Cohen, You Can't Read this Book: Censorship in an Age of Freedom (2012).
- Suelette Dreyfus, Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (1997), with research by Julian Assange.
- Andrew Fowler, The Most Dangerous Man in the World: The Explosive True Story of Julian Assange and the Lies, Cover-ups and Conspiracies He Exposed (2011).
- David Leigh and Luke Harding, WikiLeaks: Inside Julian Assange's War on Secrecy (2011).
- Andrew O'Hagan, Julian Assange: The Unauthorised Autobiography (2011).
- Raffi Khatchadourian, "No secrets: Julian Assange's mission for total transparency," The New Yorker, 7 June 2010.
- Robert Manne, "The cypherpunk revolutionary: Julian Assange," The Monthly, March 2011. Reprinted in Robert Manne, Making Trouble: Essays Against the New Australian Complacency (Melbourne: Black Inc. Publishing, 2011).
- Andrew O'Hagan, "Ghosting: Julian Assange," London Review of Books, vol. 36, no. 5 (6 March 2014).
- Underground: The Julian Assange Story (2012), Australian TV drama that premiered at the 2012 Toronto International Film Festival.
- Julian (2012), Australian short film about nine-year-old Julian Assange. The film won several awards and prizes.
- The Fifth Estate (2013), thriller.
- Mediastan (2013), documentary produced by Assange; to challenge that of The Fifth Estate.
- We Steal Secrets: The Story of WikiLeaks (2013), American documentary.
- Risk (2016), American documentary.