The Puerto Rico Portal
Puerto Rico (Spanish for 'Rich Port'; abbreviated PR), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit. 'Free Associated State of Puerto Rico') and in previous centuries called Porto Rico in English, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida.
Puerto Rico is an archipelago among the Greater Antilles located between the Dominican Republic and the U.S. Virgin Islands; it includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is approximately 3.2 million, more than 20 U.S. states. Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government, though Spanish predominates.
Originally populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493. It was contested by various other European powers, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, and settlement primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain. By the late 19th century, a distinct Puerto Rican identity began to emerge, based on a unique creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous, African, and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico, which remains an unincorporated territorial possession, making it the world's oldest colony.
Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, and can move freely between the island and the mainland. As it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the U.S. Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. Puerto Rico's sole congressional representation is through one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner. As residents of a U.S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level, do not vote for the president or vice president of the U.S., and in most cases do not pay federal income tax. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U.S. citizens of the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate.
Recognized content -
Entries here consist of Good and Featured articles, which meet a core set of high editorial standards.
This list of Governors of Puerto Rico includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The position was first established by the Spanish Empire during the 16th century following the archipelago's colonization.
The first person to officially occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1509.
At the time, the Spanish monarchy
was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office. The first native Puerto Rican
to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II
, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the empire's government or the Roman Catholic Church
. In 1898, the United States invaded Puerto Rico and the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States. During the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States
. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act
as a federal law, this act established a civilian government in the island. In 1947, the federal Elective Governor Act was enacted, which created a new system where, since 1948, the governor is elected
through a democratic process every four years. The governor is in charge of Puerto Rico's executive branch and is responsible for appointing executive branch agency heads, including the Secretary of State, who fulfills the role of lieutenant governor, the legislative branch's Ombudsman
and all judges in the judicial branch. Read more...
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represents the best of what Wikipedia
has to offer. The following Puerto Rico-related articles and lists have been designated as Featured
) by the community, as a result of many collaborative efforts of users and readers just like you.
Selected anniversaries for August
- August 2, 1797 - The Municipality of Juncos was founded.
- August 4, 1909 - Birth of Manuel Méndez Ballester, journalist, radio and television broadcaster, and teacher (d. 2002)
- August 5, 1898 - American troops arrive and capture the town of Guayama, an event known as the Battle of Guayama.
- August 8, 1508 - The first settlement on the island, Caparra, is established by Juan Ponce de León.
- August 8, 1511 - Pope Julius II established the first Roman Catholic diocese in Puerto Rico, one of the first three in the entire New World.
- August 9, 1898 - The town of Coamo is besieged and subsequently seized by American troops in the Battle of Coamo.
- August 9, 1898 - American troops face small remnants of Spain's 6th Provisional Battalion at the Guamani River, an event known as the Battle of Guamani.
- August 10, 1815 - The Royal Decree of Grace was issued, allowing foreigners to enter Puerto Rico and opening the port to trade with nations other than Spain.
- August 10, 1898 - American troops face Spanish soldiers in Hormigueros in the Battle of Silva Heights.
- August 10, 1966 - Birth of Juan Rivera, professional wrestler
- August 11, 1815 - The Municipality of Adjuntas was founded.
- August 11, 1903 - Death of Eugenio María de Hostos, educator and independence advocate (b. 1839)
- August 12, 1898 - The Battle of Aibonito Pass, the last battle of the Puerto Rican Campaign of the Spanish–American War, occurred.
- August 17, 1773 - The Municipality of Cayey was founded.
- August 18, 1934 - Birth of Roberto Clemente, Major League Baseball player and first Hispanic American to be selected to the Hall of Fame (d. 1972)
- August 25, 1928 - Birth of Miguel Ángel Álvarez, also known as "El Men", comedian and actor.
- August 27, 1974 - Birth of José Vidro, Mayor League Baseball designated hitter
- August 28, 1957 - Birth of Luis Guzmán, actor
Selected article -
Puerto Rico Highway 10 (PR-10) is a major highway in Puerto Rico. The primary state road connects the city of Ponce in the south coast to Arecibo in the north; it is also the shortest route between the two cities.
Construction on the modern PR-10, a new 68.26-kilometer (42.41 mi) highway, began in 1974. The highway is being built parallel to the old PR-10; that road is now signed PR-123
. Most of the new PR-10 is now complete, with an approximately 10-kilometer (6.2 mi) stretch still remaining to be finished. In its current state it is a freeway only in the completed portions, which consists of over three-fourths of the highway. Read more...
Selected biography -
Posada with the New York Yankees in 2009
Jorge Rafael Posada Villeta (born August 17, 1971) is a Puerto Rican former professional baseball catcher who played 17 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Yankees. Posada recorded a .273 batting average, 275 home runs, and 1,065 runs batted in (RBIs) during his career. A switch hitter, Posada was a five-time All-Star, won five Silver Slugger Awards, and was on the roster for four World Series championship teams.
Drafted by the Yankees in 1990, Posada was originally an infielder
before moving to catcher during his minor league
career. He debuted in the major leagues in 1995, but it was not until 1998 that he found regular playing time. A solid-hitting catcher, Posada established himself as a mainstay in the Yankees lineup and as one of the "Core Four
" players who contributed to the Yankees' winning seasons. In 2003, he finished third in voting for the American League
(AL) Most Valuable Player Award
and became only the second Yankees catcher after Yogi Berra
to hit 30 home runs in a season. Posada added one of his best seasons in 2007 at age 35 when he batted .338. Following a stint as designated hitter
in 2011, he retired. Read more...
Did you know -
- ... that Major General Luis R. Estéves, the first Puerto Rican to graduate from West Point, graduated first in his class, which included Dwight D. Eisenhower and Omar Bradley?
- ... that Puerto Ricans commanded by Brigadier General Ramón de Castro fought alongside the Continental Army during the American Revolution as part of the troops under the command of General Bernardo de Gálvez?
- ... that Lt. General Pedro del Valle played an instrumental role in World War II when he and the Marines under his command defeated the Japanese forces in Okinawa and that he was in charge of the reorganization of the island?
- ... that Sergeant Alexander Joseph Foley (U.S.M.C.), born in Hackersville, Pa. in 1866 and recipient of the Medal of Honor during the Boxer Rebellion is buried in the island municipality of Culebra?
- ... that the Commander of the Cuban Liberation Army, General Juan Ríus Rivera, was a Puerto Rican who also participated in the Grito de Lares revolt?
- ... that Brigadier General Antonio Valero de Bernabé "The Puerto Rican Liberator", who fought against Napoleon Bonaparte in Spain and later for Mexico's independence against Spain, helped liberate South America from Spanish Colonial rule alongside Simón Bolívar?
- ... that Sergeant First Class Agustín Ramos Calero born in Isabela, with 22 decorations was the most decorated Hispanic soldier in the United States military during World War II?
- ... that Tech4 Carmen Contreras-Bozak, was the first Hispanic to join the Women's Army Corps and that she served in Algiers during World War II?
- ... that In 1980, Linda García Cubero, Class of 1980 United States Air Force Academy, was the first Hispanic woman to graduate from a military academy?
- ... that Brigadier General Mihiel "Mike" Gilormini, who together with Brig. Gen. Alberto A. Nido and Col. José Antonio Muñiz co-founded the Puerto Rico Air National Guard, served with the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces during World War II?
The following are images from various Puerto Rico-related articles on Wikipedia.
"El desastre es la colonia" (the disaster is the colony), words seen on light meter six months after Hurricane Maria
Raising the US Flag over San Juan, October 18, 1898.
Picture by journalist Carlos Torres Morales of the Ponce massacre, March 21, 1937.
The 45-star flag, used by the United States during the invasion of Puerto Rico, was also the official flag of Puerto Rico from 1899 to 1908.
US and Puerto Rico flags on a building in Puerto Rico
Flag flown by Fidel Vélez and his men during the "Intentona de Yauco" revolt.
Hurricanes Irma and Maria sharply reduced the availability of electricity throughout the island
El Imparcial headline: "Aviation (US) bombs Utuado" during Nationalist revolts.
'La escuela del Maestro Cordero' by Puerto Rican artist Francisco Oller.
Sugar cane workers resting at the noon hour, Rio Piedras. Photograph by Jack Delano, a photographer for the Farm Security Administration. Ca. 1941.
Map of the departments of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886).
The first Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, established in 1900 CE.
The Revolutionary flag of Lares.
"The first Puerto Rican Flag" used in the unsuccessful Grito de Lares (Lares Uprising).
Royal Decree of Graces, 1815, which allowed foreigners to enter Puerto Rico.
Selected quote -
||And yet, despite this assault on their will and their historical destiny, the people of Puerto Rico have preserved their culture, their Latin character, their national feelings, which in themselves give proof of the implacable desire for independence lying within the masses on that Latin American island.
|— Che Guevara, speech given to the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1964.
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