Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Shadow congressperson

The offices of shadow U.S. Senator and shadow U.S. Representative are elective offices in the District of Columbia and other unincorporated territories of the United States. While the holders of these offices are not seated in either house of the United States Congress, they promote efforts by both the district as well as unincorporated territories to gain full voting rights.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Historically, shadow congressmen were elected by organized incorporated territories prior to their admission to the Union.[1]

The first shadow senators, William Blount and William Cocke of the Southwest Territory, were elected in March 1796, before being seated as senators representing the newly formed state of Tennessee. Michigan, California, Minnesota, Oregon, and Alaska likewise elected shadow senators before statehood. The Alaska Territory also elected the first shadow U.S. Representative, Ralph Julian Rivers, in 1956. All were eventually seated in Congress as voting members, except for Alaska Shadow Sen. William A. Egan, who instead became governor.[1] The election of shadow congresspersons from the District of Columbia is authorized by a "state" constitution, which was ratified by D.C. voters in 1982 but was never approved by Congress.[2]

District of Columbia officeholdersEdit

Shadow SenatorsEdit

The voters of the District of Columbia elect two shadow U.S. Senators who are known as U.S. Senators by the District of Columbia, but who are not officially sworn or seated by the U.S. Senate. Shadow senators were first elected in 1990.

The current shadow senators are Paul Strauss and Michael Donald Brown.[3]

List of SenatorsEdit

Class 1

Class 1 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012. The next election will be in 2018.

C
o
n
g
r
e
s
s

Class 2

Class 2 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014. The next election will be in 2020.

# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
e
r
m
T
e
r
m
Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
1 Florence Pendleton Democratic January 3, 1991 –
January 3, 2007
Elected in 1990. 1 102nd Congress 1 Elected in 1990.
Retired.
January 3, 1991 –
January 3, 1997
Democratic  
Jesse Jackson
1
103rd Congress
Re-elected in 1994. 2 104th Congress
105th Congress 2 Elected in 1996. January 3, 1997 –
present
Democratic  
Paul Strauss
2
106th Congress
Re-elected in 2000.
Lost re-election.
3 107th Congress
108th Congress 3 Re-elected in 2002.
109th Congress
2  
Mike Brown
Democratic January 3, 2007 –
present
Elected in 2006. 4 110th Congress
111th Congress 4 Re-elected in 2008.
112th Congress
Re-elected in 2012. 5 113th Congress
Independent 114th Congress 5 Re-elected in 2014.
115th Congress
To be determined in the 2018 election. 6 116th Congress
117th Congress 6 To be determined in the 2020 election.
# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
e
r
m
  T
e
r
m
Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
Class 1 Class 2

Shadow RepresentativesEdit

The voters of the District of Columbia elect one Shadow Representative who is recognized as equivalent to U.S. Representatives by the District of Columbia, but is not recognized by the U.S. government as an actual member of the House of Representatives. A shadow representative was first elected in 1990. The current shadow representative is Franklin Garcia.

DC's shadow U.S. Representative should not be confused with the non-voting delegate who represents the District in Congress.

List of RepresentativesEdit

Puerto Rico officeholdersEdit

Shadow senators and congressmembers for Puerto Rico were first appointed by pro-statehood Governor Ricardo Rosselló in 2017, and sworn in in August[7] following confirmation by the Senate of Puerto Rico.[8]

Shadow SenatorsEdit

List of SenatorsEdit

Class 1

Class 1 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012. The next election will be in 2018.

C
o
n
g
r
e
s
s

Class 2

Class 2 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014. The next election will be in 2020.

# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
e
r
m
T
e
r
m
Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
1 Zori Fonalledas New Progressive/
Republican
August 15, 2017 –
present
Appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate in 2017. 1 115th Congress 1 Appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate in 2017. August 15, 2017 –
present
New Progressive/
Democratic
 
Carlos Barceló
1
To be determined in the 2018 election. 2 116th Congress
117th Congress 2 To be determined in the 2020 election.
# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
e
r
m
  T
e
r
m
Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
Class 1 Class 2

Shadow RepresentativesEdit

List of RepresentativesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Strauss, Paul. "A Brief History of the Shadow Senators of the United States". Paul Strauss – United States Senator for the District of Columbia. Archived from the original on February 11, 2003. 
  2. ^ Sheridan, Mary Beth (2008-05-29). "D.C. Seeks to Fund Lobbying Effort for a Voting House Member". The Washington Post. p. B01. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  3. ^ Election profiles Michael D. Brown (D), The Washington Post, 2006, retrieved, September 30, 2012.
  4. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (February 18, 2010). "Ray Browne, fought for D.C. voting rights, dies at 71". The Washington Post. 
  5. ^ "District of Columbia Election Results". New York Times. Dec 17, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Franklin for DC". Franklin Garcia for DC. Jan 2, 2015. 
  7. ^ http://thehill.com/latino/346633-puerto-rico-swears-in-congressional-delegation
  8. ^ http://caribbeanbusiness.com/puerto-rico-governor-designates-four-members-for-equality-commission/

External linksEdit