Location of Azuay Province in Ecuador.
Cantons of Azuay Province
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23 archaeological localities have been identified by previous studies in this area. Lithic workshops or camp sites of hunter-gatherer societies occupied the region by 12,700 to 9900 cal. BP. The early studies were done by Mathilde Temme.
Recent microbotanical studies from Cubilan recovered maize starches from milling and scrapping lithic tools associated with contexts dated to 8078-7959 cal. BP (about 6,000 BC). This is the oldest evidence of maize in South American highlands.
Other food plants such as manioc, chili pepper, and wild yam were also identified.
Recent data has suggested that humans dispersed maize into the upper lowland of northwest Colombia at some time within a date range of 8997-8277 cal. BP. Later, human groups dispersed maize into the mid-elevation forests of the Colombian Andes by 8000-7600 cal. BP. For the coastal lowlands of Ecuador (Las Vegas), the recent dates for maize are at c. 8053-7818 cal. BP.
- Cantons of Ecuador at statoids.com
- Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Guachamín-Tello, Ana M.; Romero-Bastidas, Martha E.; Constantine-Castro, Angelo R. (2015). "Late ninth millennium B.P. use of Zea mays L. at Cubilán area, highland Ecuador, revealed by ancient starches". Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.08.025. ISSN 1040-6182.
- Temme, Mathilde, 1982 Excavaciones en el Sitio Precerámico de Cubilán (Ecuador). MISCELANEA ANTROPOLOGICA ECUATORIANA II (Museo del Banco Central del Ecuador, Guayaquil), pp. 135-164
- Santos Vecino et al., 2014
- Aceituno and Loaiza, 2014
- Dolores R. Piperno. "The Origins of Plant Cultivation and Domestication in the New World Tropics: Patterns, Process, and New Developments." Current Anthropology 2011; 52(S4), S453-S470. doi:10.1086/659998
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