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The Peruvian Navy (Spanish: Marina de Guerra del Perú, abbreviated MGP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) from the Peruvian littoral. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations.

Peruvian Navy
Marina de Guerra del Perú
Coat of Arms of the Peruvian Navy.png
Coat of arms of the Peruvian Navy
Active 8 October 1821 - today
Country  Peru
Allegiance Ministry of Defense
Branch Navy
Size

25,988 active personnel

51 ships, 33 aircraft
Naval Headquarters Callao Naval Base
Patron Miguel Grau Seminario
Anniversaries October 8 - Navy's Foundation Day and Anniversary of the Battle of Angamos
Fleet 6 Submarine
1 Cruiser
7 Frigate
6 Corvette
2 Landing Ship, Tank
6 River gunboat
2 Training Ship
(21 Auxiliaries)
Engagements

Gran Colombia-Peru War
War of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation
Chincha Islands War
War of the Pacific

Ecuadorian–Peruvian War
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief Nicolás Ríos Polastri[1]
Insignia
Flag Flag of Peruvian Navy.png
Naval Ensign Flag of Peru (state).svg
Naval Jack Naval Jack of Peru.svg
Roundel Roundel of Peru - Naval Aviation.svg
Low-visibility roundel Roundel of Peru - Naval Aviation - Low Visibility.svg

The Marina de Guerra del Perú celebrates the anniversary of its creation in 1821 on October 8 and also commemorates the decisive Battle of Angamos, the final part of the naval campaign of the War of the Pacific between Peru and Chile at the end of 1879.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Battle of Angamos, October 8, 1879.

1800sEdit

The Marina de Guerra del Perú was established on 8 October 1821 by the government of general José de San Martín. Its first actions were undertaken during the War of Independence (1821–1824) using captured Spanish warships. Shortly afterwards it was engaged in the war against the Gran Colombia (1828–1829) during which it conducted a blockade against the seaport of Guayaquil and then helped with the occupation of this city by Peruvian forces. It saw further action during the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy (1836–1839) and during the Chincha Islands War with Spain (1866). The breakout of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) caught the Peruvian Navy unprepared and with inferior forces in comparison with the Chilean Navy. Even so, hit-and-run tactics carried out by Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau, commander of the ironclad Huáscar, delayed the Chilean advance by six months until his death and defeat at the Battle of Angamos.

1900sEdit

After the war, the Peruvian Navy had to be rebuilt from the ground up. In 1900 the force amounted to only one cruiser of 1,700 tons displacement, a screw-driven steamer, and ten smaller ships - the latter described by a contemporary British publication as "of no real value".[2] The lengthy process of expansion and rebuilding started in 1907 with the acquisition in the United Kingdom of the protected cruisers Almirante Grau and Coronel Bolognesi, followed by the arrival of two submarines, Ferré and Palacios, from France in 1911. During the Presidency of Augusto B. Leguía (1919–1930) a Navy Ministry was established as well as a Navy Aviation Corps, both in 1920. Border conflicts with Colombia in 1911 and 1932 and a war with Ecuador in 1941 saw Peruvian warships involved in some skirmishes in support of the Army. The attack on Pearl Harbor brought World War II to the Pacific and even though Peru did not declare war on the Axis until 1945, its Navy was involved in patrol missions against possible threats by the Imperial Japanese Navy from early 1942 up to mid-1945. During the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s the Peruvian Navy carried out a major buildup programme[3] which allowed it to take advantage over its traditional rival, the Chilean Navy. This proved to be temporary because the economic crisis of the second half of the 1980s forced the decommissioning of several warships and resulted in a general lack of funds for maintenance. The economic upturn of the 1990s and 2000s has permitted some improvement although at a reduced force level compared to the early 1980s.

OrganizationEdit

Peruvian Navy
Marina de Guerra del Perú
History
History of the Peruvian Navy
Battles of the Peruvian Navy
Ships
Current ships
Historic ships
Personnel
Senior officers
Officer rank insignia
Enlisted rate insignia
Other
Naval School

The current Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Navy is Admiral Nicolas Rios Polastri. Naval Forces are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and ultimately to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Armed Forces. They are organized as follows:

Operational units are divided between three commands:

Comandancia General de Operaciones del Pacífico

Pacific Operations General Command, it comprises the following units:

  • Fuerza de Superficie (Surface Force)
  • Fuerza de Submarinos (Submarine Force)
  • Fuerza de Aviación Naval (Naval aviation Force)
  • Fuerza de Infantería de Marina (Naval Infantry Force)
  • Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales (Special Operations Force)
Comandancia General de Operaciones de la Amazonía

Amazon Operations General Command, tasked with river patrolling in the Peruvian portion of the Amazon Basin.

Dirección General de Capitanías y Guardacostas

Coast Guard, tasked with law enforcement on Peruvian territorial waters, rivers and lakes.

BasesEdit

 
Callao naval base.

Although most of the fleet is based at Callao, this is not considered an ideal location because it is also the main outlet for Peruvian trade, causing space and security problems. During the 1980s the building of a new naval base at Chimbote was considered but high costs and a bad economic situation made the project unfeasible.[4]

PersonnelEdit

Standing watch on BAP Mariátegui (FM-54).
Submarine crew saluting while at sea.
Personnel (as of 2001)[5]
Commissioned Officers 2,107
Non-commissioned officers 16,863
Cadets 620
NCO in training 1,533
Enlisted 4,855
Civilians 5,079
Total 25,988 (excl. civilians)

RanksEdit

  • Ranks of the officers of the Navy [6]
  • Ranks of the sub-officers of the Navy [7]
  • Ranks of the enlisted of the navy [8]

ShipsEdit

Current shipsEdit

Vessel Origin Type Class In service Notes
Submarines (6 in service)
BAP Angamos (SS-31)   Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes ex-BAP Casma.
BAP Antofagasta (SS-32)   Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes
BAP Pisagua (SS-33)   Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes
BAP Chipana (SS-34)   Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes ex-BAP Blume.
BAP Islay (SS-35)   Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1100 Yes Upgraded in 2008
BAP Arica (SS-36)   Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1100 Yes Upgraded in 2008
Guided missile cruiser (1 in service)
BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81)   Netherlands guided missile cruiser De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser Yes ex-De Ruyter
Flagship of the Peruvian Navy
Guided missile frigates (7 in service)
BAP Villavisencio (FM-52)   Italy guided missile frigate Carvajal-class frigate Yes
BAP Montero (FM-53)   Peru guided missile frigate Carvajal-class frigate Yes
BAP Mariátegui (FM-54)   Peru guided missile frigate Carvajal-class frigate Yes
BAP Aguirre (FM-55)   Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Orsa (F-567), overhauled and upgraded in SIMA Callao shipyard along with BAP Bolognesi. Currently in sea trials.
BAP Palacios (FM-56)   Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Lupo (F-564)
BAP Bolognesi (FM-57)   Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Perseo (F-566), overhauled and upgraded in SIMA Callao shipyard with locally-made CMS and ESM systems, a Kronos NV 3D radar, MASS countermeasures system and 4 MM40 Block III Exocet missiles replacing Otomat.[9]
BAP Quiñones (FM-58)   Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Sagittario (F-565)
Guided missile corvettes (6 in service)
BAP Velarde (CM-21)   France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Santillana (CM-22)   France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP De los Heros (CM-23)   France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Herrera (CM-24)   France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Larrea (CM-25)   France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Sánchez Carrión (CM-26)   France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
Amphibious (2 in service, 1 in construction, 1 ordered)
BAP Paita   Peru Landing Platform, Dock Makassar class No first ship of its class laid down on 12 July 2013 in the SIMA Callao shipyard[10]
BAP Pisco (AMP-156)   Peru Landing Platform, Dock Makassar class No second ship is also on order and both are scheduled to be delivered in 2015.[11]
BAP Callao (DT-143)   United States Landing Ship, Tank Terrebonne Parish class Yes ex-USS Washoe County
BAP Eten (DT-144)   United States Landing Ship, Tank Terrebonne Parish class Yes ex-USS Traverse County
River gunboats vessels (6 in service)
BAP Loreto (CF-11)   United States River gunboat Loreto class Yes
BAP Amazonas (CF-12)   United States River gunboat Loreto class Yes
BAP Marañón (CF-13)   United Kingdom River gunboat Marañón class Yes
BAP Ucayali (CF-14)   United Kingdom River gunboat Marañón class Yes
BAP Clavero (CF-15)   Peru River gunboat Clavero class Yes severely damaged by an uncontrolled fire in her first operational deployment on 25 May 2010; leaving two crewmen badly injured.[12] Returned to service on 27 July 2012 during the BRACOLPER 2012 exercise.[13]
BAP Castilla (CF-16)   Peru River gunboat Clavero class Yes laid down on 9 April 2010 in the SIMA Iquitos shipyard, launched on 8 June 2013 and commissioned on 14 March 2016, second and final ship of its class, has some improvements over its sister ship, mainly in armament[14]
Training ships (2 in service)
BAP Unión (BEV-161)   Peru Sail training ship - Yes laid down on 8 December 2012 in the SIMA Callao shipyard, commissioned 27 January 2016, with an estimated cost of US$50 millions.[15][16]
BAP Marte (ALY-313)   Canada Sailing yacht - Yes assigned to the Peruvian Naval School as a training ship
Tugs and support ships (5 in service)
BAP Unanue (AMB-160)   United States Diving support ship Sotoyomo class Yes ex-USS Wateree
BAP San Lorenzo (ART-323)   Germany Torpedo recovery vessel - Yes
BAP Morales (RAS-180)   Peru Diving support offshore tugboat Morales class Yes ordered in 2014, 50 TBP class locally designed tugboat, equipped to support diving, firefighting and rescue operations.[17] Delivered in November 2016
BAP Selendón   Peru Harbour tugboat 20 TBP class tug Yes Built in SIMA Callao shipyard, ordered in 2011.[18] Delivered in the first quarter of 2012.
BAP Medina   Peru Harbour tugboat 20 TBP class tug Yes Built in SIMA Callao shipyard, ordered in 2011. Delivered in late 2012.[18]
Tankers and barges (6 in service)
BAP Caloyeras (ACA-111)   United States Water barge YW-83 class Yes ex-US YW-128
BAP Noguera (ACP-118)   United States Fuel barge YO type Yes ex-US YO-221
BAP Gauden (ACP-119)   United States Fuel barge YO type Yes ex-US YO-171
BAP Bayovar (ATP-154)   Russia Oil tanker Grigoriy Nesterenko type Yes ex-Petr Schmidt
BAP Zorritos (ATP-155)   Russia Oil tanker Grigoriy Nesterenko type Yes ex-Grigoriy Nesterenko
BAP Tacna (ARL-158)   Netherlands Replenishment Ship Amsterdam class Yes ex-HNLMS Amsterdam
Built in 1995, acquired in July 2014 from the Royal Netherlands Navy, commissioned on 4 December 2014 at the Den Helder naval base, Netherlands.[19]
Hospital vessels (5 in service)
BAP Morona (ABH-302)   Peru River hospital ship Morona class Yes
BAP Corrientes (ABH-303)   Peru Small river hospital craft - Yes
BAP Curaray (ABH-304)   Peru Small river hospital craft - Yes
BAP Pastaza (ABH-305)   Peru Small river hospital craft - Yes
BAP Puno (ABH-306)   United Kingdom Lake hospital ship Yavarí class Yes ex-Yapura
operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
Scientific research vessels (7 in service)
BIC Humboldt   Peru Oceanographic research ship Humboltd class Yes
BAP Carrasco (BOP-171)   Spain Oceanographic research ship NC-704 class Yes 95-m long steel-hulled vessel designed to operate in the Antarctic region as well as in Peruvian waters. Construction contract signed in December 2014 with Freire Shipyard. Keel-laying scheduled for 22 June 2015, to be delivered July 2016.[20] Commissioned in May 2017.[21]
BAP Stiglich (AH-172)   Peru Hydrographic survey ship Morona class Yes
BAP Zimic (COMBSH-173)   Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship Dokkum class Yes ex-HNLMS Abcoude minesweeper. ex-BAP Carrasco, repowered in 2006 with 2 Volvo Penta engines at SIMA Callao, in 2015 received a high power multibeam echosounder.
BAP La Macha (AEH-174)   Peru Hydrographic survey ship - Yes
BAP Carrillo (AH-175)   Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship van Straelen class Yes ex-HNLMS van Hamel minesweeper
BAP Melo (AH-176)   Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship van Straelen class Yes ex-HNLMS van der Wel minesweeper. Repowered in 2006 with 2 Volvo Penta engines at SIMA Callao.

Museum ShipsEdit

Vessel Origin Type Class Decommissioned Notes
BAP América (RH-90)   United Kingdom River gunboat América class restored at SIMA Iquitos shipyard, on display in Clavero naval station.
BAP Abtao (SS-42)   United States Sierra-type submarine[22] Abtao class 1998 become a museum ship in 2004

Recently Decommissioned ShipsEdit

Vessel Origin Type Class Decommissioned Notes
BAP Guardian Rios (ARA-123)   United States Offshore tugboat Cherokee class 2015 ex-USS Pinto, inactive since 2014, to be scrapped
BAP Dueñas (ARB-126)   United States Harbour tugboat PC-461-class 2015 ex-USS PC-1138, decommissioned in 1956 and sold, then first converted into icebreaker and finally into a tugboat (hull shortened), acquired by the Peruvian Navy in 1984. Inactive since 2014, to be scrapped[23]
BAP Unión (ABE-161)   Peru Transport ship Ilo class December 2014 ex-BAP Mollendo (ATC-131). Decommissioned in late 2014, towed to be scrapped in Ecuador.
BAP Carvajal (FM-51)   Italy guided missile frigate Carvajal-class frigate 26 December 2013 Transferred to the Coast Guard under the name BAP Guardiamarina San Martin (PO-201) after being stripped down of its missile weaponry and main radar, reclassified as Patrullera Oceánica (Offshore patrol vessel).[24]
BAP Paita (DT-141)   United States Tank landing ship Terrebonne Parish class September 2012 ex-USS Walworth County (LST-1164), sunk as a target during the exercise Independencia
BAP Pisco (DT-142)   United States Landing Ship, Tank Terrebonne Parish class 2012 ex-USS Waldo County (LST-1163), scrapped that year after sold.
BAP Ferré (DM-74)   United Kingdom Guided-missile destroyer Daring class 13 July 2007[25] ex-HMS Decoy
BAP Talara (ATP-152)   Peru Replenishment tanker Talara class August 12, 2008[26] capable of underway replenishment at sea from the stern
BAP Lobitos (ATP-153)   United States Oil tanker Sealift Pacific class July 20, 2008[27] ex-USNS Sealift Caribbean (T-AOT-174)

Naval AviationEdit

 
AVINAV Bell AB-212 with fast-roping Marines

The Naval Aviation Force ((in Spanish): Fuerza de Aviación Naval, AVINAV) is the air branch of the Peruvian Navy, its roles include anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, maritime surveillance, reconnaissance and transport of marine personnel. It is also responsible for airborne operations of the Peruvian Marines.

Naval infantryEdit

Peruvian Naval Infantry conducting exercises on the Amazon River
Peruvian Marines of various specialties


Naval Infantry BrigadeEdit

Other unitsEdit

  • 3rd Naval Infantry Battalion - Tumbes
  • 4th Naval Infantry Battalion - Puno
  • 1st Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Iquitos
  • 2nd Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Pucallpa
  • Naval Infantry Detachment Litoral Sur - Mollendo

EquipmentEdit

Name Origin Type Version Used by Notes
Naval artillery
Bofors 152 mm gun   Sweden dual-purpose naval gun 152/53 model 1942 De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser
Oto Melara 127/54 Compact Gun   Italy dual-purpose naval gun 127/54 Compact Lupo-class frigate
Oto Melara 76/62 Compact Gun   Italy dual-purpose naval gun 76/62 Compact PR-72P-class corvette
Oto Melara Twin 40 Compact Gun   Italy Close-in weapon system (CIWS) Twin 40L70 De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser
Lupo-class frigate
PR-72P-class corvette
Anti-ship missiles
MBDA Otomat   Italy anti-ship missile (AShM) Otomat II Block 4 De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser
Lupo-class frigate
on 8 December 2008 an updated Otomat II Block 3 missile was successfully launched from BAP Aguirre, hit a target at a range in excess of 150 km (93 mi).[28]
MBDA Exocet   France anti-ship missile (AShM) MM40 Block 3 Lupo-class frigate four fire control systems and sixteen missiles ordered on 15 December 2010.[29] Scheduled to be installed in the 4 Aguirre class frigates.
MBDA Exocet   France anti-ship missile (AShM) MM38 PR-72P-class corvette
MBDA Exocet   France anti-ship missile (AShM) AM39 Block 1 ASH-3D Sea King Land-based. Currently not embarked in any surface unit of the Peruvian Navy
Surface-to-air missile
MBDA Aspide   Italy surface-to-air missile (SAM) Aspide 1A Lupo-class frigate
9K38 Igla   Russia MANPADS 9K310 Igla-1 PR-72P class corvette
Peruvian Naval Infantry
used in MGP-86 mount for close air defence
to be replaced with the FN-6 missile system
FN-6   China MANPADS FN-6 Peruvian Naval Infantry a small batch acquired in July, 2009 for US$1.1 million[30]
Torpedoes
Atlas Elektronik SUT   Germany 533 mm heavyweight torpedo SUT 264 Type 209 submarine
Atlas Elektronik SST   Germany 533 mm heavyweight torpedo SST-4 mod 0 Type 209 submarine
Mark 44 torpedo   United States 324 mm lightweight torpedo Mk 44 mod 1 Lupo-class frigate
AB-212ASW
ASH-3D
Alenia-Whitehead A244/S   Italy 324 mm lightweight torpedo A244/S Lupo-class frigate
AB-212ASW
ASH-3D

Peacekeeping operationsEdit

The Peruvian Navy has been actively involved in several United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. As of June 2006 Naval Infantry and Special Operations troops have been deployed to United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) (embedded in the Argentine forces [31] ) and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Peruvian naval officers have also been deployed to United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI), United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) as United Nations Militar Observers (UNMOs). By 2012 the Peruvian Navy sent its first officer to serve in United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei.

Future ordersEdit

  • As of December 2013, the Peruvian government was in negotiations with France for the acquisition of two FREMM Frigates.[32]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.andina.com.pe/Ingles/noticia-peru-govt-names-new-air-force-and-navy-general-commanders-646815.aspx
  2. ^ Keltie, J. S., ed. (1900). The Statesman's Year Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1900. New York: MacMillan. p. 887.  (Retrieved via Google Books 3/4/11.)
  3. ^ "Armed Forces Strength in selected years, 1829 - 1992". Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 1985.
  5. ^ [1], based on Supreme Decree DS No. 69 DE/SG of 2001. Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ [2] Archived April 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ [3] Archived February 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ [4] Archived July 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Fish, Tim (June 29, 2011). "Briefing: South America Naval Capabilities". Jane's Defence Weekly: 289. 
  10. ^ Oficina de Prensa del Ministerio de Defensa (12 July 2013). "Ministro de Defensa participó en colocación de quilla de buque de ayuda humanitaria". Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  11. ^ Inigo, Guevara. "Peru begins construction of Makassar-class amphibious ship". Jane's Defence Weekly. IHS. Archived from the original on July 18, 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  12. ^ "Dos heridos deja incendio de BAP "Clavero" en el río Putumayo, informan" (in Spanish). Andina. 25 May 2010. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  13. ^ Marina de Guerra del Perú (2 August 2012). "Perú: Unidades fluviales de Brasil y Colombia participaron en el ejercicio BRACOLPER 2012" (in Spanish). Base Naval. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  14. ^ "Marina de Guerra del Perú entregó PIAS "Río Putumayo II" y Cañonera Fluvial B.A.P "Castilla" (CF-16) en eficaz contribución a los programas de inclusión social del Estado". Peruvian Navy Website. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 
  15. ^ "Servicios Industriales de la Marina construirán Buque Escuela a Vela". Peruvian Navy. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. [dead link]
  16. ^ Benvenuto, Carlos Ramírez (6 December 2012). "Un nuevo buque escuela para la Marina y el Perú" (PDF). El Comercio (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  17. ^ "Positivos avances en construcción del Remolcador Auxiliar de Salvamento B.A.P. "Morales" RAS-180". Peruvian Navy Website. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 
  18. ^ a b "NotiSIMA Año 5, Edición 31" (PDF) (in Spanish). SIMA. 17 July 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  19. ^ "En Holanda, se afirmó el Pabellón Nacional del Buque Logístico B.A.P. Tacna" (in Spanish). Peruvian Navy. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  20. ^ Ing, David; Toremans, Guy. "Spain's Freire shipyard set to cut steel on Peru's new survey ship". IHS. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  21. ^ Toremans, Guy (9 May 2017). "Peruvian Navy commissions new multirole oceanographic research vessel". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017. 
  22. ^ Historic Naval Ships Association BAP ABTAO (SS-42) Archived November 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ "Lapeer (PC 1138) ex-PC-1138". NavSource Online: Submarine Chaser Photo Archive. NavSource Naval History. Retrieved 5 May 2016. 
  24. ^ "Marina de Guerra del Perú realizará ceremonia de Zarpe de Expedición Científica a la Antártida – ANTAR XXII, Colocación de la Quilla del Remolcador Auxiliar de Salvamento y Patrullera Marítima, Transferencia del BAP Carvajal a DICAPI". Peruvian Navy. Retrieved 26 December 2013. 
  25. ^ "Supreme Decree No. 014-2007-DE/MGP" (PDF).  (1.33 MB). July 13, 2007.
  26. ^ "Supreme Decree No. 018-2008-DE/MGP" (PDF).  (361 KB). August 23, 2009.
  27. ^ "Supreme Decree No. 014-2008-DE/MGP" (PDF).  (84.9 KB). August 23, 2009.
  28. ^ "Peruvian Navy Carries Out Record Breaking Launch". Jean Dupont. MBDA. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  29. ^ "PCM transfiere más de S/. 114 millones para adquisición de material militar" (in Spanish). Andina. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  30. ^ "Perú: Adquisición de misiles MANPADS". Alejo Marchessini. Defensa.com. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2009. [dead link]
  31. ^ "UNFICYP Facts and Figures - United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus". Un.org. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009. Retrieved 2014-04-26. 
  32. ^ "Peruvian Navy would be interested to procure 2 FREMM Frigates from France". Navyrecognition.com. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 

SourcesEdit

  • Baker III, Arthur D., The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 2002-2003.
    Naval Institute Press, 2002.
  • Basadre, Jorge, Historia de la República del Perú. Editorial Universitaria, 1983.
  • "La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 855: 31 (June 17, 1985).
  • Ortiz Sotelo, Jorge, Apuntes para la historia de los submarinos peruanos. Biblioteca Nacional, 2001.
  • Rial, Juan, Los militares tras el fin del régimen de Fujimori-Montesinos.
  • "Los Programas de Renovacion y Modernizacion de la Marina de Guerra del Peru", Alejo Marchessini - Revista Fuerzas de Defensa y Seguridad (FDS) N° 430. Paginas 32 a 35.
  • "Entrevista al Almirante Carlos Tejada Mera, Comandante General de la MArina de Guerra del Peru", Alejo Marchessini - Revista Fuerzas de Defensa y Seguridad (FDS) N° 430. Paginas 36 a 43.

External linksEdit