The Republic of Peru is a unitary state with a multi-party semi-presidential system. The current government was established by the 1993 Constitution of Peru. The government is composed of three branches, being executive, judicial, and legislative branches.

Republic of Peru
Spanish: Gobierno de la República de Perú
Legislative branch
LegislatureCongress of the Republic of Peru
Executive branch
LeaderPresident of Peru[note 1]
AppointerPresident of Peru
Main organCouncil of Ministers

Executive branch edit

Government Palace of Peru.
Main office-holders
Office Name Party Since
President Dina Boluarte Independent 7 December 2022
First Vice President Vacant N/A 7 December 2022
Second Vice President Vacant N/A 7 May 2020
Prime Minister Alberto Otárola Independent 21 December 2022

The President of Peru is the head of state and the head of government, who is elected to a term of five years; incumbents cannot be re-elected for a second consecutive term.[1] Family members may also not immediately succeed in another family member's presidency.[2] The executive branch, in addition to the legislative branch, may propose legislation. After legislation has been passed by the congress, the President may promulgate the legislation, giving it the force of law.

In addition to the president, the executive branch contains the Council of Ministers, which, in addition to the prime minister, are appointed by the president.

Requirements to be Minister of State edit

According to Article 124 of the Political Constitution of Peru (1993), in order to be Minister, it is required:

  • Be a natural born citizen.
  • Be a current citizen.
  • Be 25 years old or older.
  • Members of the Armed Forces and National Police can be Ministers.

Article 92 states that members of Congress can be Ministers of State.

Functions edit

  1. Run the process of strategic planning, embedded in the National System of Strategic Planning and determining the sector's functional national goals applicable to every level of government; approve action plans; assign necessary resources to their execution, within the boundaries of the corresponding public budget.
  2. Approve the budget proposal to the entities within their sector, abiding by article 32 and supervising their execution.
  3. Establish the management measurements of the entities within their sector and evaluate their fulfillment.
  4. Propose the inner organization of their Ministry and approve it according to their competencies attributed by Law.
  5. Designate and remove the advising positions or any directly appointed, the heads of public entities and other entities of the sector, when this appointment is not explicitly attributed to the Council of Ministries, other authorities or the President; and submit to the President the new appointees for approval on the contrary.
  6. Maintain relations with the regional and local government within the competencies attributed to the sector.
  7. Countersign the presidential mandates that concern to their Ministry
  8. Issue Supreme Resolution and Ministerial Resolutions.
  9. Put into effect the transfer of competencies, functions, and sectorial resources to Regional and Local Government and account for their execution.
  10. Execute all other functions that are put upon the Ministry by the Political Constitution of Peru, the Law, and the President.mlg

The Ministers of State can delegate, within their Ministry, the faculties and powers that are not exclusive to their function, to the extent that it is allowed by Law. Functions 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 are exclusive to the Minister.

Ministries of Peru edit

Ministry Current minister Party Assumed office

Presidency of the Council of Ministers
  Alberto Otárola indep. 21 December 2022

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  Javier González-Olaechea [es] indep. 7 November 2023

Ministry of Defense
  Jorge Chávez Cresta [es] indep. 21 December 2022

Ministry of Economy and Finance
  Alex Contreras Miranda [es] indep. 10 December 2022

Ministry of the Interior
Víctor Torres Falcón [es] indep. 21 November 2023

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights
Eduardo Arana Ysa [es] indep. 6 September 2023

Ministry of Education
Miriam Ponce Vértiz [es] indep. 6 September 2023

Ministry of Health
César Vásquez Sánchez [es] Alliance for Progress 19 June 2023

Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
Jennifer Contreras Álvarez [es] indep. 6 September 2023

Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment
  Daniel Maurate Romero [es] indep. 6 September 2023

Ministry of Production
  Ana María Choquehuanca indep. 6 September 2023

Ministry of Foreign Commerce and Tourism
Juan Carlos Mathews Salazar [es] indep. 23 April 2023

Ministry of Energy and Mines
  Óscar Vera Gargurevich [es] indep. 10 December 2022

Ministry of Transportation and Communications
  Raúl Pérez-Reyes [es] indep. 6 September 2023

Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation
  Hania Pérez de Cuéllar [es] indep. 10 December 2022

Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations
Nancy Tolentino Gamarra [es] indep. 13 January 2023

Ministry of the Environment
  Albina Ruiz indep. 10 December 2022

Ministry of Culture
Leslie Urteaga [es] indep. 21 December 2022

Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion
  Julio Demartini [es] indep. 10 December 2022

Judicial branch edit

The judicial branch is represented by the Supreme Court Of Justice, a 16-member body divided into three supreme sectors:[3]

Legislative branch edit

The legislative branch of Peru is vested in the Congress of the Republic of Peru, which is a 130-member unicameral house.[4] The legislators are elected for five-year terms on a proportional representation basis. The legislation is voted on in Congress, then sent to the president, who may approve it.

Due to broadly interpreted impeachment wording in the 1993 Constitution of Peru, the Congress can impeach the President of Peru without cause, effectively making the legislature more powerful than the executive branch.[5][6] Following a ruling in February 2023 by the Constitutional Court of Peru, whose members are elected by Congress, judicial oversight of the legislative body was also removed by the court, essentially giving Congress absolute control of Peru's government.[7][8]

Suffrage edit

Universal suffrage is granted to all over the age of 18. Voting is compulsory until the age of 70. Some argue whether compulsive voting is for the best of the country and the citizens. Enforced strictly, with exceptions.[9]

See also edit

Notes and references edit

  1. ^ While there is the office of prime minister, officially called "President of the Council of Ministers" (Presidente del Consejo de Ministros del Perú), the President of Peru is the actual head of government
  1. ^ Constitucion Política Del Perú 1993 (Ultima actualización / Last updated: July 2011) Titulo IV De La Estructura Del Estado; Capitulo IV Poder Ejecutivo; Articulo 112°. El mandato presidencial es de cinco años, no hay reelección inmediata. Transcurrido otro periodo constitucional, como mínimo, el ex presidente puede volver an postular, sujeto a las mismas condiciones.
  2. ^ Taj, Mitra. "Keiko Fujimori's brother says he will run for president of Peru in 2021 if she loses". Business Insider. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  3. ^ "Judicial Branch of Peru". World Fact Book. CIA. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Legislative Branch of Peru". World Fact Book. CIA. Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  5. ^ Asensio, Raúl; Camacho, Gabriela; González, Natalia; Grompone, Romeo; Pajuelo Teves, Ramón; Peña Jimenez, Omayra; Moscoso, Macarena; Vásquez, Yerel; Sosa Villagarcia, Paolo (August 2021). El Profe: Cómo Pedro Castillo se convirtió en presidente del Perú y qué pasará a continuación (in Spanish) (1 ed.). Lima, Peru: Institute of Peruvian Studies. p. 92. ISBN 978-612-326-084-2. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  6. ^ Taj, Mitra (2021-12-07). "'Too many mistakes': Peru's president threatened with impeachment after shaky start". Financial Times. Retrieved 2021-12-13.
  7. ^ Romero, César (28 February 2023). "Tribunal Constitucional falla a favor del Congreso, que tendrá un poder absoluto y sin control judicial". La República (in Spanish). Retrieved 2023-03-02.
  8. ^ Romero, César (25 February 2023). "El Tribunal Constitucional está destruyendo el régimen democrático del país". La República (in Spanish). Retrieved 2023-03-02.
  9. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 19 August 2017.