Demographics of Peru

This is a demography of the population of Peru including population density, ethnicity, education level, the health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Peru
Peru single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Peru in 2020
Population34,352,719[1] (2023 est.)
Growth rate0.51% (2022 est.)
Birth rate17.21 births/1,000 population
Death rate11.32 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy68.94 years
 • male65.38 years
 • female72.67 years
Fertility rate2.2 children
Infant mortality rate10.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Nationality
Major ethnicMestizo - 60.2%
Language
OfficialSpanish, Quechua and Aymara
Historical population
YearPop.±%
5000 BC603,000—    
2000 BC1,040,000+72.5%
1000 BC1,250,000+20.2%
0 1,590,000+27.2%
1000 3,000,000+88.7%
1500 10,000,000+233.3%
1570 2,500,000−75.0%
1600 1,300,000−48.0%
1700 1,500,000+15.4%
1800 1,270,000−15.3%
1900 3,690,000+190.6%
1940 7,023,111+90.3%
1961 10,420,357+48.4%
1972 14,121,564+35.5%
1981 17,762,231+25.8%
1993 22,639,443+27.5%
2007 28,220,764+24.7%
2017 31,237,385+10.7%
2018 Estimate 32,162,184+3.0%
2020 Estimate 32,950,901+2.5%
2025 Estimate 34,817,495+5.7%
2030 Estimate 36,530,592+4.9%
2050 Estimate 40,373,420+10.5%
Source:[2][3][4][5]
Historical population of Peru

Peru is a multiethnic country, which means that it is home to people of many different historical backgrounds. Therefore, it is a multicultural country as well. Since it is a multiethnic society, Peruvian people usually treat their nationality as a citizenship instead of an ethnicity. The Peruvian census does not contain information about ethnicity so only rough estimates are available.

PopulationEdit

 
Ages pyramid of Peru in 2007

According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects[6][7] the total population was 33,715,471 in 2021, compared to only 7,728,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 27.9%, 65.3% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6.8% were 65 years or older.[8]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 7728 41.6 55.0 3.5
1955 8787 42.1 54.5 3.4
1960 10062 43.0 53.6 3.5
1965 11608 43.9 52.5 3.5
1970 13341 43.8 52.6 3.5
1975 15230 43.1 53.3 3.6
1980 17359 41.8 54.5 3.7
1985 19545 40.3 55.9 3.8
1990 21827 38.5 57.5 4.0
1995 24039 36.3 59.3 4.4
2000 25915 34.3 60.8 4.9
2005 27610 31.6 62.8 5.6
2010 29374 29.3 64.5 6.2
2015 31115 27.9 65.3 6.8
2020 32950 25.7 65.4 6.7

Structure of the populationEdit

 
Population map of Peru in 2007 (regional)
 
Life expectancy in Peru since 1940
 
Life expectancy in Peru since 1960 by gender

Structure of the population (01.07.2013) (Estimates based on the 2007 Population Census):[9]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 15 271 062 15 204 082 30 475 144 100
0-4 1 480 990 1 421 071 2 902 061 9,52
5-9 1 494 879 1 439 049 2 933 928 9,63
10-14 1 484 138 1 434 336 2 918 474 9,58
15-19 1 468 223 1 425 272 2 893 495 9,49
20-24 1 416 897 1 382 963 2 799 860 9,19
25-29 1 306 593 1 283 240 2 589 833 8,50
30-34 1 195 857 1 179 479 2 375 336 7,79
35-39 1 093 901 1 083 633 2 177 534 7,15
40-44 949 209 947 326 1 896 535 6,22
45-49 823 574 829 474 1 653 048 5,42
50-54 691 250 705 667 1 396 917 4,58
55-59 554 524 576 245 1 130 769 3,71
60-64 436 614 462 886 899 500 2,95
65-69 327 821 357 853 685 674 2,25
70-74 240 978 275 844 516 822 1,70
75-79 166 611 204 668 371 279 1,22
80+ 139 003 195 076 334 079 1,10
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 4 460 007 4 294 456 8 754 463 28,73
15-64 9 936 642 9 876 185 19 812 827 65,01
65+ 874 413 1 033 441 1 907 854 6,26
Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 43.9 1985–1990 64.3
1955–1960 46.3 1990–1995 66.7
1960–1965 49.1 1995–2000 69.3
1965–1970 51.5 2000–2005 71.7
1970–1975 55.6 2005–2010 73.1
1975–1980 58.5 2010–2015 74.2
1980–1985 61.6

Source: UN World Population Prospects[10]

Vital statisticsEdit

Registration of vital events in Peru is not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[8]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955 394000 179000 215000 47.8 21.7 26.1 6.95 164
1955–1960 446000 187000 259000 47.3 19.8 27.5 6.95 152
1960–1965 506000 191000 315000 46.7 17.6 29.1 6.95 138
1965–1970 552000 195000 357000 44.3 15.7 28.6 6.70 128
1970–1975 577000 182000 395000 40.4 12.7 27.7 6.00 111
1975–1980 623000 177000 446000 38.3 10.9 27.4 5.40 99
1980–1985 628000 167000 461000 34.0 9.1 24.9 4.65 82
1985–1990 654000 161000 493000 31.6 7.8 23.8 4.10 68
1990–1995 658000 157000 501000 28.7 6.9 21.8 3.57 48
1995–2000 635000 152000 483000 25.4 6.1 19.3 3.10 39
2000–2005 615000 150000 465000 22.4 5.4 17.0 2.72 30
2005–2010 608000 158000 450000 21.9 5.3 16.6 2.68 21
2010–2015 619000 171000 448000 19.2 5.3 13.9 2.40 16
2015–2020 605000 181000 424000 18.1 5.5 12.6 2.27 13
2020–2025 16.9 5.9 11.0 2.16
2025–2030 15.4 6.1 9.3 2.07
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deathsEdit

[11]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
1970 559,595 185,338 374,275
1971 183,052
1972 574,458 180,767 393,691
1973 582,922 182,608 400,314
1974 591,386 184,449 406,397
1975 599,850 186,291 413,559
1976 608,314 188,132 420,182
1977 616,778 189,973 426,805
1978 618,799 190,450 428,349
1979 620,820 190,727 430,093
1980 622,842 191,403 431,439
1981 624,863 191,880 432,983
1982 626,884 192,357 434,527
1983 628,636 190,628 438,008
1984 639,338 188,899 450,439
1985 632,139 187,169 444,970
1986 633,891 185,440 448,451
1987 523,492 183,711 339,781
1988 555,003 181,549 373,454
1989 644,939 179,386 465,553
1990 649,588 177,224 472,364
1991 665,734 175,061 490,673
1992 667,743 172,889 494,854
1993 667,435 171,188 496,247
1994 665,342 171,476 493,866
1995 660,354 156,000 504,354
1996 656,435 156,800 499,635
1997 652,467 160,830 491,637
1998 648,075 161,615 486,460
1999 642,874 162,457 480,417
2000 25,983,588 636,064 2.90
2001 26,366,533 630,947
2002 26,739,379 626,714
2003 27,103,457 623,521
2004 27,460,073 620,991 2.56
2005 27,810,540 611,459 103,207 508,252 22.0 3.7 18.3 2.56
2006 28,151,443 637,974 105,074 532,900 22.7 3.7 18.9 2.56
2007 28,481,901 663,056 107,249 555,807 23.3 3.8 19.5 2.56
2008 28,807,034 679,122 108,100 571,022 23.6 3.8 19.8
2009 29,132,013 660,716 110,811 549,905 22.7 3.8 18.9 2.60
2010 29,461,933 637,902 108,178 529,724 21.7 3.7 18.0 2.50
2011 29,797,694 794,040 118,456 675,584 26.6 4.0 22.7 2.60
2012 30,135,875 698,954 119,652 579,302 23.2 4.0 19.2 2.60
2013 30,475,144 666,999 125,581 541,418 21.9 4.1 17.8 2.40
2014 30,814,175 668,220 132,830 535,390 21.7 4.3 17.4 2.50
2015 31,151,643 652,075 134,858 517,217 20.9 4.3 16.6 2.50
2016 31,488,625 626,259 145,521 480,738 19.9 4.6 15.3 2.50
2017 31,826,018 610,316 150,032 460,284 19.2 4.7 14.5 2.40
2018 32,162,184 601,781 151,690 450,091 18.7 4.7 14.0 2.20
2019 32,495,510 581,022 157,680 423,342 17.9 4.9 13.0 2.00
2020 32,824,358 421,096 240,915 180,181 12.8 7.3 5.5 1.90
2021 514,914 269,349 245,565 13.9 7.5 6.4
  • Deaths January - June 2021 =   168,138
  • Deaths January - June 2022 =   85,082

Fertility and birthsEdit

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[12]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1950–55 47.1 6.9
1955–60 48.8 6.9
1960–1965 46.3 6.9
1965–70 43.6 6.6
1970–1975 40.5 6.0
1975–1980 38.0 5.4
1980–1985 36.7 5.0
1985–1990 34.3 4.5
1986 4.12 (2.64) 6.34 (3.66)
1991–1992 27.8 3.5 (2.0) 23.5 2.8 (1.7) 38.7 6.2 (3.0)
1996 27.4 3.5 (2.2) 24.2 2.8 (1.9) 33.5 5.6 (3.1)
2000 22 2.9 (1.8) 19 2.2 (1.5) 27 4.3 (2.5)
2004–2006 19.2 2.6 (1.7) 17.3 2.1 (1.5) 22.6 3.7 (2.2)
2007–2008 18.6 2.5 (1.6) 16.8 2.1 (1.5) 22.2 3.7 (2.0)
2009 19.9 2.6 (1.8) 18.7 2.3 (1.7) 22.8 3.6 (2.1)
2010 19.0 2.5 (1.8) 17.6 2.2 (1.6) 22.3 3.5 (2.1)
2011 19.7 2.6 (1.8) 18.5 2.3 (1.7) 22.5 3.5 (2.1)
2012 19.6 2.6 (1.8) 18.5 2.3 (1.7) 22.3 3.5 (2.1)
2013 18.4 2.4 (1.7) 17.1 2.1 (1.6) 22.3 3.4 (2.1)
2014 19.1 2.5 (1.8) 18.3 2.3 (1.7) 21.7 3.3 (2.2)
2017-2018 2.2 2.0 3.1

Metropolitan areasEdit

The metropolitan areas of Peru have been formed from the urban growth of Peruvian cities more populated and they are formed by the integration of two or more municipalities.[13] The most populated Peruvian metropolises by districts are:[14] Lima,[15] Trujillo,[16] Chiclayo[17] and Arequipa.[18]

Ethnic groupsEdit

Ethnic groups of Peru [19]
Ethnic groups percent
Mestizo
60.2%
Amerindian
25%
White
5.9%
Black
3.6%
Nikkei
0.1%
Tusan
0.1%
 
Peru's football team in 1970; the ethnic diversity of Peruvians is visible, with players showing African, Amerindian and European ancestry in various mixes.

Peru is a multiethnic country formed by the amalgamation of different cultures and ethnicities over thousands of years. Amerindians inhabited the land for over ten millennia before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century; their cultures and influence represent the foundation of today's Peru.

As a result of European contact and conquest, the population of the area now known as Peru decreased from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600000 in 1620.[20] This happened mostly because of the unintended spread of germs and infectious diseases. In fact, the spread of smallpox greatly weakened the Inca empire, even before the Spanish arrival. The Amerindians did not have as much natural immunity to the disease as did the Europeans.[21] For this reason, several Amerindian populations were decimated. Furthermore, the disease killed Inca ruler Wayna Capac, triggering a civil war in the Inca empire that preceded the conquest efforts the Spaniards. Thus, the conquest was facilitated by the weakness of the Inca empire which was recovering from both a civil war and epidemics of unknown diseases.

 
Peruvian girls

However, other reasons for the decrease of Amerindian population include violence during the conquest followed by the breakdown of the Inca social system and famine. The Amerindian population suffered further decrease as the Spanish exploited an Inca communal labor system called mita for mining purposes, thus killing thousands in forced labor.

Spaniards arrived in large numbers under colonial rule. After independence, there has been a gradual European immigration from Austria, England, Scotland, France, Germany, Italy, Croatia and Spain.[22][23] Polynesians also came to the country lured to work in the Guano islands during the boom years of this commodity around the 1860s. Chinese arrived in the 1850s as a replacement for slave workers in the sugar plantations of the north coast and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society.[24] Other immigrant groups include Arabs (namely from Levant/West Asian countries), South Asians, Japanese, Americans and Colombians (75,000).[citation needed]

Mestizos compose about 60%[19] of the total population. The term traditionally denotes Amerindian (mostly Quechua ancestry) and European ancestry (mostly Spaniard ancestry). This term, was part of the caste classification during colonial times, whereby people of exclusive Spanish descent but born in the colonies were called criollos, people of mixed Amerindian and Spanish descent were called mestizos, those of African and Spanish descent were called mulatos and those of Amerindian and African descent were called Zambos. Nowadays, these terms have racist connotations.[citation needed]

Most Peruvian mestizos are of Amerindian and European descent, but other ethnic backgrounds (such as Asian and African) are also present, in varying degrees, in some segments of the mestizo population. Most mestizos are urban dwellers and show stronger European inheritance in regions like Lima Region, La Libertad Region, Callao Region, San Martín Region, Cajamarca Region, Piura Region, Amazonas Region, Lambayeque Region, and Arequipa Region.

Amerindians constitute around 30%[19] of the total population. The two major indigenous or ethnic groups are the Quechuas (belonging to various cultural subgroups), followed by the Aymaras, mostly found in the extreme southern Andes. A large proportion of the indigenous population who live in the Andean highlands still speak Quechua and have vibrant cultural traditions, some of which were part of the Inca Empire. Dozens of indigenous cultures are also dispersed throughout the country beyond the Andes Mountains in the Amazon basin. This region is rapidly becoming urbanized. Important urban centers include Iquitos, Nauta, Puerto Maldonado, Pucallpa and Yurimaguas. This region is home to numerous indigenous peoples, though they do not constitute a large proportion of the total population. Examples of indigenous peoples residing in eastern Peru include the Shipibo, Urarina,[25] Cocama, and Aguaruna, to name just a few.

European descendants constitute around 6%[19] of the total population. They are descendants of the Spanish colonizers and other Europeans such as Germans, Italians, British, French, and Croatians (see also Croats) who arrived in the 19th and 20th centuries. The majority of them live also in the largest cities (like mestizos), usually in the North and Center of Peru: Lima, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, and through all the highlands of Northwest, like Amazonas, Cajamarca and San Martin. The city with a significant white population is Trujillo.

 
Chinatown in Lima

There is also a presence of Asian Peruvians, who are primarily of Chinese and Japanese origin, constitute less than 1% of the population.[19] Peru has the second largest population of people of Japanese descent in Latin America after Brazil and the largest population of Chinese descent in Latin America. Historic communities inhabited by people of Chinese descent are found throughout the Peruvian upper Amazon, including cities such as Yurimaguas, Nauta, Iquitos and the north central coast (Lambayeque and Trujillo). In contrast to the Japanese community in Peru, the Chinese appear to have intermarried much more since they came to work in the rice fields during the Viceroyalty and to replace the African slaves, during the abolition of slavery itself. Other Asian communities include small numbers of West Asian/Arab Peruvians, mostly of Lebanese and Syrian origin, and Palestinians,[26][27] as well a small community of South Asians, namely of Hindustani and Pakistani background.[citation needed] There have been several notable Peruvian politicians of Asian heritage, notable past president (Alberto Fujimori), who is of Japanese origin, as well as Omar Chehade, of Lebanese heritage and served as the Second Vice President of Peru from 2011 to 2012.

The remaining is constituted by Afro-Peruvians, a legacy of Peru's history as an importer of slaves during the colonial period. Today mulattos (mixed African and European) and zambos (mixed African and Amerindian) also constitute an important part of the population, especially in Piura, Tumbes, Lambayeque, Lima and Ica regions. The Afro-Peruvian population is concentrated mostly in coastal cities south of Lima, such as those found in the Ica Region, in cities like Cañete, Chincha, Ica, Nazca and Acarí in the border with the Arequipa Region. Another large but poorly promoted segment of Afro-Peruvian presence is in the Yunga regions (west and just below the Andean chain of northern Peru), (i.e., Piura and Lambayeque), where sugarcane, lemon, and mango production are still of importance. Important communities are found all over the Morropón Province, such as in the city of Chulucanas. One of them is Yapatera, a community in the same city, as well as smaller farming communities like Pabur or La Matanza and even in the mountainous region near Canchaque. Further south, the colonial city of Zaña or farming towns like Capote and Tuman in Lambayeque are also important regions with Afro-Peruvian presence.

Socioeconomic and cultural indicators are increasingly important as identifiers. For example, Peruvians of Amerindian descent who have adopted aspects of Hispanic culture also are beginning to consider themselves "mestizo". With economic development, access to education, intermarriage, and large-scale migration from rural to urban areas, a more homogeneous national culture is developing, mainly along the relatively more prosperous coast.

Lima is home to over 8 million Peruvians, one of South America's largest urban areas, it includes the neighboring community of Callao that has grown fast and expanded since the 1960s.[citation needed]

LanguageEdit

Languages of Perú [28]
Languages percent
Spanish
82.6%
Quechua
13.9%
Aymara
1.7%
Other indigenous language
0.8%

According to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Peru's official languages are Spanish and, Amerindian languages such as Quechua, Aymara and other such indigenous languages in areas where they predominate. Today, Spanish is spoken by some 83.9% of the population. Spanish is used by the government and the media and in education and commerce. Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin.

Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a socioeconomic divide between the coast's mestizo-Hispanic culture and the more diverse, traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands. The indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional customs, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the mestizo-Hispanic culture.

 
Amerindian woman with child

According to official sources, the use of Spanish has increased while the knowledge and use of indigenous languages have decreased considerably during the last four decades (1960–2000). At the beginning of the 1960s some 39% of the total Peruvian population were registered as speakers of indigenous languages, but by the 1990s the figures show a considerable decline in the use of Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages, when only 28% is registered as Quechua-speaking (16% of whom are reported to be bilingual in Spanish) and Spanish-speakers increased to 72%.

For 2017, government figures place Spanish as being spoken by 82.6% of the population, but among Amerindian languages, another decrease is registered. Of the indigenous languages, Quechua remains the most spoken, and even today is used by some 13.9% of the total Peruvian population or a third of Peru's total indigenous population. The number of Aymara-speakers and other indigenous languages is placed at 2.5%, and foreign languages 0.2%.

The drastic decline in use and knowledge of indigenous languages is largely attributed to the recent demographic factors. The urbanization and assimilation of Peru's Amerindian plurality into the Hispanic-mestizo culture, as well as the new socioeconomic factors associated with class structure, have given privilege to the use of Spanish at the expense of the Amerindian languages which were spoken by the majority of the population less than a century ago.

The major obstacle to a more widespread use of the Quechua language is the fact that multiple dialects of this language exist. Quechua, along with Aymara and the minor indigenous languages, was originally and remains essentially an oral language. Therefore, there is a lack of modern media which use it: for example books, newspapers, software, magazines, technical journals, etc. However, non-governmental organizations, as well as state sponsored groups, are involved in projects to edit and translate major works into the Quechua language; for instance, in late 2005 a version of Don Quixote was presented in Quechua. There has also been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken.

The percentage of native speakers of Quechua who are illiterate has been decreasing lately,[29] as 86.87% of the Peruvian population is literate. More encouraging, nationwide literacy rate of youth aged 15 to 24 years is high and considered an achievement in Peruvian educational standards.[30]

As part of the recent push in Peru to recognize and integrate indigenous into national life, Kuczynski's government is supporting the use of indigenous languages in Peru, with the state-run TV station starting to broadcast in December 2016 a daily news program in Quechua and in April 2017 one in Aymara. The President's state-of-the-union address was simultaneously translated to Quechua in July 2017.[31] As of 2016, government figures show about 4 million (13 percent) of the population speak Quechua fluently, while up to 10 million – around a third of the population – understand some of the language.[32]

EducationEdit

 
Peruvian school children with an OLPC XO-1 laptop

Under the 1993 constitution, primary education is free and compulsory. The system is highly centralized, with the Ministry of Education appointing all public school teachers. Although 83% of Peru's students attend public schools at all levels, over 15% percent (usually the upper-classes and upper middle-class) attend private.

School enrollment has been rising sharply for years, due to a widening educational effort by the government and a growing school-age population. The illiteracy (2008) rate is estimated at 7.1% (10.6% for women), 19.0% in rural areas and 3.7% in urban areas [2]. Quechua is mostly an oral language, so in some cases, in rural areas, people do not speak Spanish and therefore do not know how to read or write. Elementary and secondary school enrollment is about 7.7  million. Peru's 74 universities (1999), 39% public and 61% private institutions, enrolled about 322000 students in 1999.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "DataBank - Population estimates and projections". The World Bank. 2023. Retrieved January 6, 2023.
  2. ^ "Peru Population - Our World in Data". www.ourworldindata.org.
  3. ^ "Población y Vivienda". Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática INEI. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
  4. ^ "El Perú tiene una población de 31 millones 488 mil 625 habitantes". www.inei.gob.pe (in Spanish). INEI. July 11, 2016.
  5. ^ Newson, Linda A. (1985). "Indian Population Patterns in Colonial Spanish America". Latin American Research Review. 20 (3): 42–43. JSTOR 2503469.
  6. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  7. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  8. ^ a b "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  9. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  10. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  11. ^ "PERU Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática INEI". www.inei.gob.pe. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  12. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  13. ^ "Planeamiento Urbano – Perú: Áreas metropolitanas (Pag. 3)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2014.
  14. ^ "Peru: Estimated population by sex according to Departamento, province and district 2012 -2015" (PDF). Inie.gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  15. ^ "Lima metropolitan area". Inie.gob.pe. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  16. ^ Plandemetru – Trujillo municipality (ed.). "Plan de desarrollo metropolitano de Trujillo – Plandemetru" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015.
  17. ^ Chiclayo municipality (ed.). "MODERNIZACIÓN DE LA GESTIÓN DEL DESARROLLO URBANO DE LA PROVINCIA DE CHICLAYO" (PDF). Munichiclayo.gob.pe. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 18, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  18. ^ Arequipa municipality (ed.). "Plan director de Arequipa" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2012.
  19. ^ a b c d e "Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. p. 214.
  20. ^ Noble David Cook, Demographic collapse: Indian Peru, 1520–1620, p. 114.
  21. ^ "Guns Germs & Steel: Variables. Smallpox - PBS". Pbs.org. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  22. ^ Mario Vázquez, "Immigration and mestizaje in nineteenth-century Peru", pp. 79–81.
  23. ^ "Scottish independence — an historical view and a Peruvian perspective". September 19, 2014.
  24. ^ Magnus Mörner, Race mixture in the history of Latin America, p. 131.
  25. ^ Dean, Bartholomew 2009 Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia, Gainesville: University Press of Florida ISBN 978-0-8130-3378-5 [1]
  26. ^ Baeza, Cecilia. "Palestinians and Latin America's Indigenous Peoples." Middle East Report 274 (Spring 2015).
  27. ^ Cuche, Denys. “Un siècle d’immigration palestinienne au Pérou: La construction d’une ethnicité spécifique.” Revue Européenne de Migrations Internationales 17/3 (2001): 94–95.
  28. ^ "Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. p. 197.
  29. ^ Austin, Peter (2008). One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost. University of California Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780520255609.
  30. ^ "Peru Education Facts & Stats". www.nationmaster.com. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  31. ^ "Peru's indigenous-language push - News they can use". The Economist. Lima. August 26, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  32. ^ Nikolau, Lisa (December 15, 2016). "Peru airs news in Quechua to fight marginalization of country's indigenous". Humanosphere. Retrieved December 7, 2017.