A pisco sour is an alcoholic cocktail of Peruvian origin that is typical of the cuisines from Chile and Peru, and is also considered a South American classic.[A] The drink's name comes from pisco, which is its base liquor, and the cocktail term sour, in reference to sour citrus juice and sweetener components. The Peruvian pisco sour uses Peruvian pisco as the base liquor and adds freshly squeezed lime juice, simple syrup, ice, egg white, and Angostura bitters. The Chilean version is similar, but uses Chilean pisco and pica lime, and excludes the bitters and egg white. Other variants of the cocktail include those created with fruits like pineapple or plants such as coca leaves.
|IBA official cocktail|
Peruvian pisco sour
|Primary alcohol by volume|
|Served||Straight up; without ice|
|Standard garnish||Angostura bitters (1 dash)|
|Standard drinkware||Old Fashioned glass|
|Preparation||Vigorously shake contents in a cocktail shaker with ice cubes, then strain into a glass and garnish with bitters.|
|Pisco sour recipe at International Bartenders Association|
Although the preparation of pisco-based mixed beverages possibly dates back to the 1700s, historians and drink experts agree that the cocktail as it is known today was invented in the early 1920s in Lima, the capital of Peru, by the American bartender Victor Vaughen Morris. Morris left the United States in 1903 to work in Cerro de Pasco, a city in central Peru. In 1916, he opened Morris' Bar in Lima, and his saloon quickly became a popular spot for the Peruvian upper class and English-speaking foreigners. The pisco sour underwent several changes until Mario Bruiget, a Peruvian bartender working at Morris' Bar, created the modern Peruvian recipe of the cocktail in the latter part of the 1920s by adding Angostura bitters and egg whites to the mix.
In Chile, folklorist Oreste Plath attributed the invention of the drink to Elliot Stubb, an English steward of a ship named Sunshine, who allegedly mixed Key lime juice, syrup, and ice cubes to create the cocktail in a bar, in 1872, in the port city of Iquique, which at that time was part of Peru. Regardless, the original source cited by Plath attributed to Stubb the invention of the whiskey sour—not the pisco sour. The oldest known mentions of the pisco sour are from a 1921 magazine attributing Morris as the inventor and a 1924 advertisement for Morris' Bar published in a newspaper from the port of Valparaíso, Chile.
Chile and Peru both claim the pisco sour as their national drink, and each asserts ownership of the cocktail's base liquor—pisco;[B] consequently, the pisco sour has become a significant and oft-debated topic of Latin American popular culture. The two kinds of pisco and the two variations in the style of preparing the pisco sour are distinct in both production and taste. Peru celebrates a yearly public holiday in honor of the cocktail during the first Saturday of February.
The term sour refers to mixed drinks containing a base liquor (bourbon or some other whiskey), lemon or lime juice, and a sweetener. Pisco refers to the base liquor used in the cocktail. The word as applied to the alcoholic beverage comes from the Peruvian port of Pisco. In the book Latin America and the Caribbean, historian Olwyn Blouet and political geographer Brian Blouet describe the development of vineyards in early Colonial Peru and how in the second half of the sixteenth century a market for the liquor formed owing to the demand from growing mining settlements in the Andes. Subsequent demand for a stronger drink caused Pisco and the nearby city of Ica to establish distilleries "to make wine into brandy", and the product received the name of the port from where it was distilled and exported.
The first grapevines were brought to Peru shortly after its conquest by Spain in the 16th century. Spanish chroniclers from the time note the first winemaking in South America took place in the hacienda Marcahuasi of Cuzco. The largest and most prominent vineyards of the 16th and 17th century Americas were established in the Ica valley of south-central Peru. In the 1540s, Bartolomé de Terrazas and Francisco de Carabantes planted vineyards in Peru. Carabantes also established vineyards in Ica, from where Spaniards from Andalucia and Extremadura introduced grapevines into Chile.
Already in the 16th century, Spanish settlers in Chile and Peru began producing aguardiente distilled from fermented grapes. Since at least 1764, Peruvian aguardiente was called "pisco" after its port of shipping; the usage of the name "pisco" for aguardiente then spread to Chile.[C] The right to produce and market pisco, still made in Peru and Chile, is the subject of ongoing disputes between the two countries.
According to historian Luciano Revoredo, the preparation of pisco with lemon dates as far back as the 18th century. He bases his claim on a source found in the Mercurio Peruano which details the prohibition of aguardiente in Lima's Plaza de toros de Acho, the oldest bullring in the Americas. At this time, the drink was named Punche (Punch), and was sold by slaves. Revoredo further argues this drink served as the predecessor of the Californian Pisco punch, invented by Duncan Nicol in the Bank Exchange Bar of San Francisco, California. A recipe for a pisco-based punch, including egg whites, was found by researcher Nico Vera in the 1903 Peruvian cookbook Manual de Cocina a la Criolla; consequently, culinary expert Duggan McDonnell considers that "[i]t is entirely possible that the 'Cocktail' that came to be the pisco sour [...] had been prepared for a reasonable time in Lima before being included in a cookbook."
The pisco sour originated in Lima, Peru. It was created by bartender Victor Vaughen Morris, an American who had moved to Peru in 1904 to work in a railway company in Cerro de Pasco. Morris relocated to Lima in 1915 and, a year later, opened a saloon—Morris' Bar—which became popular with both the Peruvian upper class and English-speaking foreigners. Chilean historian Gonzalo Vial Correa also attributes the pisco sour's invention to Gringo Morris from the Peruvian Morris Bar, but with the minor difference of naming him William Morris. Morris often experimented with new drinks, and developed the pisco sour as a variety of the whiskey Sour.
Some discrepancy exists on the exact date when Morris created the popular cocktail. Mixologist Dale DeGroff asserts the drink was invented in 1915, but other sources argue this happened in the 1920s. The Chilean web newspaper El Mercurio Online specifically contends historians attribute the year of the drink's invention as 1922, adding that "one night Morris surprised his friends with a new drink he called pisco sour, a formula which mixes the Peruvian pisco with the American sour" (in Spanish: "Una noche Morris sorprendió a sus amigos con una nueva bebida a la que llamó pisco sour, una fórmula que funde lo peruano del pisco con el 'sour' estadounidense.").
The pisco sour's initial recipe was that of a simple cocktail. According to Peruvian researcher Guillermo Toro-Lira, "it is assumed that it was a crude mix of pisco with lime juice and sugar, as was the whiskey sour of those days." As the cocktail's recipe continued to evolve, the bar's registry shows that customers commented on the continuously improving taste of the drink. The modern Peruvian version of the recipe was developed by Mario Bruiget, a Peruvian from Chincha Alta who worked under the apprenticeship of Morris starting on July 16, 1924. Bruiget's recipe added the Angostura bitters and egg whites to the mix. Journalist Erica Duecy writes that Bruiget's innovation added "a silky texture and frothy head" to the cocktail.
Morris used advertisements to promote his bar and invention. The oldest known mention of the pisco sour appears in the September 1920 edition of the Peruvian magazine Hogar. Another old advertisement appears in the April 22, 1921, edition of the Peruvian magazine Mundial. In the magazine, not only is the pisco sour described as a white-colored beverage, but its invention is attributed to "Mister Morris." Later, in 1924, with the aid of Morris' friend Nelson Rounsevell, the bar advertised its locale and invention in Valparaíso, Chile. The advertisement featured in the Valparaíso newspaper South Pacific Mail, owned by Rounsevell. By 1927, Morris' Bar had attained widespread notability for its cocktails, particularly the pisco sour. Brad Thomas Parsons writes that "the registry at the Morris Bar was filled with high praise from visitors who raved about the signature drink."
Over time, competition from nearby bars and Victor Morris' deteriorating health led to the decline and fall of his enterprise. During this time, due to his worsening constitution, Morris delegated most of the bartending to his employees. Adding to the problem, nearby competitors, such as the Hotel Bolívar and the Hotel Lima Country Club, housed bars which took clientele away from Morris' Bar. Moreover, Toro-Lira discovered that Morris accused four of his former bartenders of intellectual property theft after they left to work in one of these competing establishments. In 1929, Morris declared voluntary bankruptcy and closed his saloon. A few months later, on June 11, Victor Vaughen Morris died of cirrhosis.
Historian Luis Alberto Sánchez writes that, after Morris closed his bar, some of his bartenders left to work in other locales. Bruiget began working as a bartender for the nearby Grand Hotel Maury, where he continued to serve his pisco sour recipe. His success with the drink led local Limean oral tradition to associate the Hotel Maury as the original home of the pisco sour. As other former apprentices of Morris found other work, they also spread the pisco sour recipe. During the 1930s the drink made its way into California, reaching bars as far north as the city of San Francisco. By at least the late 1960s the cocktail also found its way to New York.
Beatriz Jiménez, a journalist from the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, indicates that back in Peru, the luxury hotels of Lima adopted the pisco sour as their own in the 1940s. During the 1940s and 1950s an oil bonanza attracted foreign attention to Peru. Among the visitors to Lima were renowned Hollywood actors who were fascinated by the pisco sour. Jiménez recollected oral traditions claiming an inebriated Ava Gardner had to be carried away by John Wayne after drinking too many pisco sours. Ernest Hemingway and Orson Welles are said to have been big fans of what they described as "that Peruvian drink."
In 1984, Bolivian journalist Ted Córdova Claure writes that the Hotel Bolívar stood as a monument to the decadence of Peruvian oligarchy (in Spanish: "Este hotel es un monumento a la decadencia de la oligarquía peruana."). He noted the locale as being the traditional home of the pisco sour and recommended it as one of the best hotels in Lima. Nowadays, the Hotel Bolivar continues to offer the cocktail in its "El Bolivarcito" bar, while the Country Club Lima Hotel offers the drink in its "English Bar" saloon.
Victor Vaughen Morris is considered by most historians to be the inventor of the cocktail. Despite this, there exists an ongoing dispute between Chile and Peru over the origin of the pisco sour. In Chile, a local story developed in the 1980s attributing the invention of the pisco sour to Elliot Stubb, an English steward from a sailing ship named "Sunshine." Chilean folklorist and historian Oreste Plath contributed to the legend's propagation by writing that, according to the Peruvian newspaper El Comercio de Iquique, in 1872, after obtaining leave to disembark, Stubb opened a bar in the then-Peruvian port of Iquique and invented the pisco sour while experimenting with drinks.[E]
Nevertheless, researcher Toro-Lira argues that the story was refuted after it was discovered El Comercio de Iquique was actually referring to the invention of the whiskey sour. This claim is further certified by the University of Cuyo, Argentina, which in 1962 published the story of Elliot Stubb and his alleged invention of the whiskey sour in Iquique. An excerpt from the newspaper's story has Elliot Stubb stating, "From now on ... this shall be my drink of battle, my favorite drink, and it shall be named Whisky Sour" (in Spanish: "En adelante dijo Elliot — éste será mi trago de batalla, — mi trago favorito —, y se llamará Whisky Sour.").
Preparation and variantsEdit
The pisco sour has three different methods of preparation. The Peruvian pisco sour cocktail is made by mixing Peruvian pisco with Key lime juice, simple syrup, egg white, Angostura bitters (for garnish), and ice cubes. The Chilean pisco sour cocktail is made by mixing Chilean Pisco with Pica lime juice, powdered sugar, and ice cubes. Daniel Joelson, a food writer and critic, contends that the major difference between both pisco sour versions "is that Peruvians generally include egg whites, while Chileans do not." The version from the International Bartenders Association, which lists the pisco sour among its "New Era Drinks," is similar to the Peruvian version, but with the difference that it uses lemon juice, instead of lime juice, and does not distinguish between the two different types of pisco.
Considerable variations exist in the pisco used in the cocktails. According to food and wine expert Mark Spivak, the difference is in the way both beverages are produced; whereas "Chilean pisco is mass-produced", the Peruvian version "is made in small batches." Cocktail historian Andrew Bohrer focuses his comparison on taste, claiming that "[i]n Peru, pisco is made in a pot still, distilled to proof, and un-aged; it is very similar to grappa. In Chile, pisco is made in a column still and aged in wood; it is similar to a very light cognac." Chilean oenologist Patricio Tapia adds that while Chilean pisco producers usually mix vine stocks, Peruvian producers have specific pisco types that use the aromatic qualities of vines such as Yellow Muscat and Italia. Tapia concludes this is why Peruvian pisco bottles denote their vintage year and the Chilean versions do not.
Variations of the pisco sour exist in Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. There are adaptations of the cocktail in Peru using fruits such as maracuya, aguaymanto, and apples, or traditional ingredients such as the coca leaf. In Chile, variants include the Ají Sour (with a spicy green chili), Mango Sour (with mango juice), and Sour de Campo (with ginger and honey). In Bolivia, the Yunqueño variant (from its Yungas region) replaces the lime with orange juice.
Cocktails similar to the pisco sour include the Chilean Piscola and the Peruvian Algarrobina Cocktail. Piscola is made by mixing pisco with cola. The Algarrobina Cocktail is made from pisco, condensed milk, and sap from the Peruvian algarroba tree. Another similar cocktail, from the United States, is the Californian pisco punch, originally made with Peruvian pisco, pineapples, and lemon.
Duggan McDonnell describes the pisco sour as "Latin America's most elegant cocktail, frothy, balanced, bright yet rich," adding that "Barkeeps throughout Northern California will attest that they have shaken many a Pisco sour. It is the egg white cocktail of choice and an absolutely beloved one by most." Australian journalist Kate Schneider writes that the pisco sour "has become so famous that there is an International Pisco Sour Day celebration on the first Saturday in February every year, as well as a Facebook page with more than 600,000 likes." According to Chilean entrepreneur Rolando Hinrichs Oyarce, owner of a restaurant-bar in Spain, "The pisco sour is highly international, just like Cebiche, and so they are not too unknown" (Spanish: "El pisco sour es bastante internacional, al igual que el cebiche, por lo tanto no son tan desconocidos"). In 2003, Peru created the "Día Nacional del Pisco Sour" (National Pisco Sour Day), an official government holiday celebrated on the first Saturday of February.[F]
During the 2008 APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting, Peru promoted its pisco sour with widespread acceptance. The cocktail was reportedly the preferred drink of the attendees, mostly leaders, businessmen, and delegates. American celebrity chef Anthony Bourdain also drew attention to the cocktail when, in an episode of his Travel Channel program No Reservations, he drank a pisco sour in Valparaíso, Chile, and said "that's good, but ... next time, I'll have a beer." The broadcaster Radio Programas del Perú reported that Jorge López Sotomayor, the episode's Chilean producer and Bourdain's travel partner in Chile, said Bourdain found the pisco sour he drank in Valparaíso as boring and worthless (in Spanish: "A mí me dijo que el pisco sour lo encontró aburrido y que no valía la pena."). Lopez added that Bourdain had recently arrived from Peru, where he drank several pisco sours which he thought tasted better than the Chilean version.
In Mexico, singer-songwriter Aleks Syntek humorously posted on Twitter that the pisco sour is Chilean and, after receiving critical responses to his statement, apologized and mentioned he was only joking. Mexican television host and comedian Adal Ramones also joked about pisco sour, in reference to the 2009 Chile–Peru espionage scandal, on November 17, 2009. Ramones, a fan of Peruvian Pisco, when asked about the espionage, asked what Chileans were spying on in Peru, suggesting it might be how to make a pisco sour (in Spanish: "¿Qué quieren espiar los chilenos? ¿Cómo hacer pisco sour?").
- Despite the pisco sour being predominantly emblematic along the Pacific coast of Peru and Chile, Casey calls it a "classic South American drink" and Bovis says it is "a hallmark South American cocktail."
- Peru considers that the name "pisco" should be of exclusive geographical indication to the aguardiente produced in designated regions within its territory. Chile also has designated regions of pisco production within its territory, but claims exclusivity of the liquor under the name "Pisco Chile".
- In colonial Chile the word pisco was mostly used by the lower social strata and is rarely found in the upper class speech of the epoch.
- The image reads: "Have You Registered in Morris' Bar LIMA? You will find the names and addresses of many of your friends in this register. It is at the free disposition of all English speaking persons who reside in or who pass through Lima. MORRIS' BAR at CALLE BOZA, 836, LIMA, Peru, has been noted for many years for its "pisco sours" and its reputation for "Legitimate Liquors." The Bar Register has become a veritable "Who's Who" among West Coast travellers and many friends have been located through the information within its pages."
- Iquique was later occupied by Chile during the War of the Pacific and annexed by that country in 1883.
- The "Día Nacional del Pisco Sour" holiday was initially set for celebration on February 8. However, after the Chilean Pisco industry set its non-government sponsored "Día de la Piscola" (Piscola Day) also for celebration on February 8, Peru responded by changing its pisco sour holiday to its current date.
- Kosmas & Zaric 2010, p. 115.
- Casey 2009, p. 89.
- Bovis 2012, Pisco Sour.
- Acosta González, Martín (22 May 2012). "Qué países reconocen el pisco como peruano y cuáles como chileno". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- Regan 2003, p. 159.
- Blouet & Blouet 2009, p. 318.
- Real Academia Española. "Pisco". Diccionario de la Lengua Española (in Spanish) (Vigésima Segunda Edición ed.). Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "Pisco". Concise Oxford Dictionary. WordReference.com. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Franco 1991, p. 20.
- Harrel, Courtney (2009). "Pisco Por La Razón o La Fuerza" (in Spanish). School for International Training. pp. 14–15.
- Lacoste, Pablo (2004). "La vid y el vino en América del Sur: El desplazamiento de los polos vitivinícolas (siglos XVI al XX)" [The vine and wine in South America: The shifting of the winemaking poles (XVI to XX)]. Universum (in Spanish). 19 (2): 62–93. doi:10.4067/S0718-23762004000200005.
- Pozo 2004, pp. 24–34.
- Cortés Olivares, Hernán F (2005). "El origen, producción y comercio del pisco chileno, 1546–1931" [The origin, production and trade of Chilean pisco, 1546–1931]. Universum (in Spanish). 20 (2): 42–81. doi:10.4067/S0718-23762005000200005.
- Huertas Vallejos, Lorenzo (2004). "Historia de la producción de vinos y piscos en el Perú" [History of the production of wine and pisco in Peru]. Universum (in Spanish). 19 (2): 44–61. doi:10.4067/S0718-23762004000200004.
- Real Academia Española. "Aguardiente". Diccionario de la Lengua Española (in Spanish) (Vigésima Segunda Edición ed.). Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Foley 2011, p. "Pisco Porton Brandy Recipes".
- Pilar Lazo Rivera, Carmen del (2009). "Pisco Sour del Perú" (PDF) (in Spanish). Pediatraperu.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- McDonnell 2015, p. 172.
- Perich, Tatiana (5 February 2015). "Les Presentamos a Mario Bruiget, el Peruano Coinventor del pisco sour". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Megy Karydes (11 December 2009). "Celebrate The Peruvian Cocktail On World Pisco Sour Day, Feb 7". Forbes. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Vial Correa 1981, p. 352.
- DeGroff 2008, Pisco Sour.
- "Peruanos Celebran el "Día del Pisco Sour" con Degustaciones y Fiestas" (in Spanish). Emol.com. Agence France-Presse. 5 February 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Duecy 2013, Pisco Sour.
- Guillermo L. Toro-Lira (11 December 2009). "Clarifying the Legends from the History of the pisco sour". Piscopunch.com. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Jiménez Morato 2012, Julio Ramon Ribeyro: Pisco Sour.
- Coloma Porcari, César (2005). "La Verdadera Historia del Pisco Sour". Revista Cultural de Lima (in Spanish). pp. 72–73. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Parsons 2011, p. 143.
- Regan 2003, p. 317.
- Jiménez, Beatriz (6 February 2011). "La Fiesta del Pisco Sour". El Mundo (in Spanish). Spain. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Slater, Julia (9 February 2010). "Peru Toasts Pisco Boom on Annual Cocktail Day". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Córdova Claure, Ted (1984). "La Calcutización de las Ciudades Latinoamericanas" (PDF). Nueva Sociedad (in Spanish) (72): 49–56.
- "El Bolivarcito". GranHotelBolivar.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "English Bar". HotelCountry.com. 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Sandham 2012, p. 251.
- Plath 1981, p. 106.
- Castillo-Feliú 2000, p. 79.
- Joelson, Daniel (Winter 2004). "The Pisco Wars". Gastronomica: the Journal of Food and Culture. 4 (1): 6–8. doi:10.1525/gfc.2004.4.1.1.
- "New Era Drinks". IBA-World.com. International Bartenders Association. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Spivak, Mark. "Pour – Pisco Fever". PalmBeachIllustrated.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Bohrer 2012, Friendship Test.
- "Entrevista: Patricio Tapia – Periodista Chileno Especializado en Vinos" (in Spanish). PiscoSour.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "Recetas" (in Spanish). PiscoSour.com. 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
- Baez Kijac 2003, p. 35.
- Albala 2011, p. 266.
- McDonnell 2015, p. 170.
- Schneider, Kate (March 27, 2012). "Kate Schneider Appreciates the Bitter Side of Life with South American Drink Pisco Sour". News.com.au. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Alías, Marina (April 9, 2006). "Sours chilenos irrumpen en barrio mítico de Madrid". El Mercurio, Revista del Domingo (in Spanish). Santiago.
- "Chile Celebra Hoy el Día de la Piscola". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Ruiz, Carlos (8 February 2011). "Hoy es el Día de la Piscola: Chilenos Celebran Uno de dus Tragos Típicos" (in Spanish). ElObservatodo.cl. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Castro, Felipe (8 February 2011). "Día de la Piscola: A Tomar Combinados" (in Spanish). LaNacion.cl. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "APEC visitors enjoyed Peruvian pisco sour". Andina.com. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Chef Anthony Bourdain: Pisco Sour Chileno es Aburrido y No Vale la Pena". Radio Programas del Perú (in Spanish). Grupo RPP. 18 July 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Alex Syntek Dice Que el pisco sour y La Tigresa del Oriente Son Chilenos". Radio Programas del Perú (in Spanish). Grupo RPP. 19 November 2010. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Adal Ramones: "¿Qué Quieren Espiar los Chilenos? ¿Cómo Hacer Pisco Sour?"". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Albala, Ken, ed. (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California, US: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0-313-37627-1.
- Baez Kijac, Maria (2003). The South American Table. Boston, Massachusetts, US: The Harvard Common Press. ISBN 1-55832-248-5.
- Blouet, Brian; Blouet, Olwyn (2009). Latin America and the Caribbean. Hoboken, New Jersey, US: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-470-38773-4.
- Bohrer, Andrew (2012). The Best Shots You've Never Tried. Avon, Massachusetts, US: Adams Media. ISBN 1-4405-3879-4.
- Bovis, Natalie (2012). Edible Cocktails. New York City: F+W Media, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4405-3368-6.
- Casey, Kathy (2009). Sips and Apps. San Francisco, California, US: Chronicle Books LLC. ISBN 978-0-8118-7823-4.
- Castillo-Feliú, Guillermo I. (2000). Culture and Customs of Chile. Westport, Connecticut, US: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-30783-0.
- DeGroff, Dale (2008). The Essential Cocktail: The Art of Mixing Perfect Drinks. New York, US: Random House Digital. ISBN 0-307-40573-7.
- Duecy, Erica (2013). Storied Sips: Evocative Cocktails for Everyday Escapes. New York, US: Random House LLC. ISBN 978-0-375-42622-3.
- Facultad de Filosofía y Letras (1962). Anales del Instituto de Lingüística, Volúmenes 8-9. Mendoza, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Cuyo.
- Foley, Ray (2011). The Ultimate Little Cocktail Book. Naperville, Illinois, US: Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN 1-4022-5410-5.
- Franco, César (1991). Celebración del Pisco. Lima, Peru: Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo y la Participación.
- Jiménez Morato, Antonio (2012). Mezclados y Agitados (in Spanish). Barcelona, Spain: Debolsillo. ISBN 978-84-9032-356-4.
- Kosmas, Jason; Zaric, Dushan (2010). Speakeasy. New York, US: Random House Digital. ISBN 1-58008-253-X.
- McDonnell, Duggan (2015). Drinking the Devil's Acre: A Love Letter from San Francisco and her Cocktails. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books LLC. ISBN 978-1-4521-4062-9.
- Parsons, Brad Thomas (2011). Bitters. New York, US: Random House Digital. ISBN 1-60774-072-9.
- Plath, Oreste (1981). Folklore Lingüístico Chileno: Paremiología (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile: Editorial Nascimento. ISBN 956-258-052-0.
- Pozo, José del (2004). Historia del Vino Chileno (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile: Editorial Universitaria. ISBN 956-11-1735-5.
- Regan, Gary (2003). The Joy of Mixology, The Consummate Guide to the Bartender's Craft. New York, US: Clarkson Potter. ISBN 0-609-60884-3.
- Roque, Raquel (2013). Cocina Latina: El sabor del Mundo Latino (in Spanish). New York: C.A. Press. ISBN 978-1-101-55290-2.
- Sandham, Tom (2012). World's Best Cocktails. Lions Bay, Canada: Fair Winds Press. ISBN 1592335276.
- Vial Correa, Gonzalo (1981). Historia de Chile, 1891–1973: La Dictadura de Ibáñez, 1925–1931 (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile: Editorial Santillana del Pacífico. ISBN 956-12-1201-3.