Gentlemen's club

A gentlemen's club is a private social club of a type originally set up by men from Britain's upper classes in the 18th and succeeding centuries.

The Reform Club, set up in the early 19th century in London

Many countries outside Britain have prominent gentlemen's clubs, mostly those associated with the British Empire. In particular, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh have enthusiastically taken up the practice, and have a thriving club scene. There are also many extant clubs in major American cities. A gentleman's club typically contains a formal dining room, a bar, a library, a billiards room and one or more parlours for reading, gaming or socializing. Many clubs also contain guest rooms and fitness amenities. Some are associated mainly with sports such as sailing, skiing and mountaineering and maintain regular opportunities for other events such as formal dining.

HistoryEdit

 
The bar at the Savile Club, 69 Brook Street, London

The original clubs were established in the West End of London. Today, the area of St James's is still sometimes called "clubland". Clubs took over some parts of the role occupied by coffee houses in 18th-century London, and reached the height of their influence in the late 19th century. The first clubs, such as White's, Brooks's and Boodle's, were aristocratic in flavour, and provided an environment for gambling, which was illegal outside of members-only establishments.

The 19th century brought an explosion in the popularity of clubs, particularly around the 1880s. At their height, London had over 400 such establishments. This expansion can be explained in part by the large extensions of the franchise in the Reform Acts of 1832, 1867, and 1885. Each time, hundreds of thousands more men were qualified to vote, and it was common for them to feel that they had been elevated to the status of a gentleman, thus they sought a club. The existing clubs, with strict limits on membership numbers and long waiting lists, were generally wary of such newly enfranchised potential members, and so these people began forming their own clubs. Each of the three great Reform Acts corresponded with a further expansion of clubs, as did a further extension of the franchise in 1918. Many of these new, more "inclusive" clubs proved just as reluctant as their forebears to admit new members when the franchise was further extended.

Club Life in London, an 1866 book, begins: "The Club in the general acceptation of the term, may be regarded as one of the earliest offshoots of man's habitual gregariousness and social inclination."[1]

An increasing number of clubs were characterised by their members' interest in politics, literature, sport, art, automobiles, travel, particular countries, or some other pursuit. In other cases, the connection between the members was membership of the same branch of the armed forces, or the same school or university. Thus the growth of clubs provides an indicator as to what was considered a respectable part of the "Establishment" at the time.

By the late 19th century, any man with a credible claim to the status of "gentleman" was eventually able to find a club willing to admit him, unless his character was objectionable in some way or he was "unclubbable" (a word first used by Samuel Johnson).[2] This newly-expanded category of English society came to include professionals who had to earn their income, such as doctors and lawyers.

Most gentlemen had only one club, which closely corresponded with the trade or social / political identity he felt most defined him, but a few people belonged to several. Members of the aristocracy and politicians were likely to have several clubs. The record number of memberships is believed to have been with Earl Mountbatten, who had nineteen in the 1960s.

 
A Club of Gentlemen by Joseph Highmore, c. 1730

Public entertainments, such as musical performances and the like, were not a feature of this sort of club. The clubs were, in effect, "second homes"[3] in the centre of London where men could relax, mix with their friends, play parlour games, get a meal, and in some clubs stay overnight. Expatriates, when staying in England, could use their clubs, as with the East India Club or the Oriental Club, as a base. They allowed upper- and upper-middle-class men with modest incomes to spend their time in grand surroundings. The richer clubs were built by the same architects as the finest country houses of the time, and had similar types of interiors. They were a convenient retreat for men who wished to get away from female relations, "in keeping with the separate spheres ideology according to which the man dealt with the public world, whereas women's domain was the home."[4] Many men spent much of their lives at their club, and it was common for young, newly graduated men who had moved to London for the first time to live at their club for two or three years before they could afford to rent a house or flat.

Gentleman's clubs were private places that were designed to allow men to relax and create friendships with other men. In the 19th and 20th centuries, clubs were regarded as a central part of elite men's lives. They provided everything a regular home would have. Clubs were created and designed for a man's domestic needs. They were places to relieve stress and worries. They provided emotional and practical needs. They provided spaces such as dining halls, library, entertainment and game rooms, rooms for sleep, bathrooms and washrooms, and a study. In many ways, they resembled a regular home. Clubs had separate entrances for maids and the help, which were usually located on the side of the building that was not easily seen to the public eye. Many clubs had waiting lists, some as long as sixteen years. There is no standard definition for what is considered a gentlemen's club. Each club differed slightly from another.[3]

Clubs were created in a time where family was considered one of the most important aspects of a man's life in the 19th century. A man's home was his property and should have been a place to satisfy most of his needs, but for elite men, this was not always the case; it was not always a place that provided privacy and comfort. An explanation for this might be because the home of elite families often entertained guests for dinners, formal teas, entertainment, and parties. Their lives were on display, and often their lives would be reported in local papers. A gentleman's club offered an escape from this family world. Another explanation would be that men as boys were brought up in all-male environments in places like schools and sports pastimes, and they became uncomfortable when they now had to share their lives with women in a family environment. A gentleman's club offered an escape.[3]

 
Scene in a gentlemen's club: a cartoon of 1883 by Charles Keene

Men's clubs were also a scene of gossip. The clubs were designed for communication and the sharing of information with each other. By gossiping, bonds were created which were used to confirm social and gender boundaries. Gossiping helped confirm a man's identity, both in his community and within society at large. It was often used as a tool to climb the social ladder. It revealed that a man had certain information others did not have. It was also a tool used to demonstrate a man's masculinity. It established certain gender roles. Men told stories and joked. The times and places a man told stories, gossiped, and shared information were also considered to show a man's awareness of behaviour and discretion. Clubs were places where men could gossip freely. Gossip was also a tool that led to more practical results in the outside world. There were also rules that governed gossip in the clubs. These rules governed the privacy and secrecy of members. Clubs regulated this form of communication so that it was done in a more acceptable manner.[5]

Women also set about establishing their own clubs in the late nineteenth century, such as the Ladies' Institute, and the Ladies' Athenaeum. They proved quite popular at the time, but only one London-based club, The University Women's Club, has survived to this day as a single-sex establishment.

Until the 1950s, clubs were also heavily regulated in the rooms open to non-members. Most clubs contained just one room where members could dine and entertain non-members; it was often assumed that one's entire social circle should be within the same club. Harold Macmillan was said to have taken "refuge in West End clubs ...: Pratt's, Athenaeum, Buck's, Guards, the Beefsteak, the Turf, [and] the Carlton".[6]

The class requirements relaxed gradually throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. From the 1970s onwards, some single-sex clubs opened to both sexes as guests and as members, partly to maintain membership levels.

DomesticityEdit

Although Gentlemen’s clubs were originally geared towards a male audience, domestic life played a key role in their establishment and continuity. Defying classic gender norms, the club could be represented as “homosocial domesticity.”[7] Similar to male coffeehouses of the Ottoman Empire, the clubs were a home away from home. It was an alternate, competing space in the sense that it had similar aspects to that of the traditional home. One of the key lures of these clubs was their private, often exclusive, nature. It was a getaway from the tight, restrictive role expected from the stoic gentlemen. Like the home, men were granted the freedom to perform actions and behaviors not normally conveyed in their “public-oriented” lives.

With this newfound preference to spend time at clubs, the home lost its status as the base.[8] Members would use this address for official documentation, mailing, and appointments. Meals, formal or informal, were provided and tastes could be catered by the club staff. Spaces within the club were designated for these various functions, and the guest flow could be more easily controlled than at the home. Members’ social status was marked by the prestige of the club, but within, the lines were blurred. Prominent guests could be invited to dinner or to lounge at the club over the house. Staff would monitor these guests and their arrival for the members and, as employees of the member, could personally tailor the experience. Thus, by holding important events at the club, only the wealth and importance of the club and its amenities was displayed instead of their possibly inferior possessions or structures at home.[9]

In English clubs, this domesticity was particularly emphasized. These clubs, primarily in London, were usually very “quiet” and its members were well-behaved—again pointing to the calm familiarity of the household. In addition, club staff were tasked with keeping the club a private space and attempted to control of the spread of information from the outside.[10] Under no circumstance was the club to be depressing or too involved in the pains of reality. Whether from “the streets, the courts, Parliament, or the Stock Exchange,” the chaotic nature of work life was put on hold.[11] Young bachelors and other members were in many ways shielded from the true problems of society, especially female ones. While it was definitely an escape, it was not an escape from domesticity. Men knew and enjoyed the matching elements of the home life; it was more of a transfer or alternate reality.

Despite the opportunity for mobility within the club, secrecy and exclusivity supported the patriarchal authority. With the absence of female voices and set of rigid institutional structures, members created internal stability.[12] Induction into a club required member approval and payment. Thus, a club was dependent on class and vice versa. Historian Robert Morris proposed that clubs were “part of the power nexus of capitalism, and essential to the continuity of elite dominance of society.”[12]

Current statusEdit

Membership is by election after the proposers (at least two and in many clubs more), who have known the candidate for a term of years, formally nominate the person for membership. Election is by a special committee (itself elected), which may interview the candidate and which looks at any support and also objections of other members. Some top clubs still maintain distinctions which are often undefined and rarely explained to those who do not satisfy their membership requirements. After reaching the top of a long waiting list, there is a possibility of being blackballed during the process of formal election by the committee. In these circumstances, the principal proposer of such a person may be expected to resign, as he failed to withdraw his undesirable candidate. More often, the member who proposes an unsuitable candidate will be "spoken to" at a much earlier stage than this, by senior committee members, and he will withdraw his candidate to avoid embarrassment for all concerned. The clubs are owned by their members and not by an individual or corporate body. These kinds of relationships have been analyzed from the network analysis perspective by Maria Zozaya.[13]

Today, gentlemen's clubs exist throughout the world, predominantly in Commonwealth countries and the United States. Many clubs offer reciprocal hospitality to other clubs' members when travelling abroad.

United KingdomEdit

There are perhaps some 25 traditional London gentlemen's clubs of particular note, from The Arts Club to White's. A few estimable clubs (such as the Royal Thames Yacht Club and the Royal Ocean Racing Club) have a specific character that places them outside the mainstream, while other clubs have sacrificed their individuality for the commercial interest of attracting enough members regardless of their common interests. (See article at club for a further discussion of these distinctions.) The oldest gentleman's club in London is White's, which was founded in 1693.[14] Discussion of trade or business is usually not allowed in traditional gentlemen's clubs - although the rooms in clubs are often hired by external organisations for events.

Similar clubs exist in other large UK cities, such as New Club in Edinburgh, The St James's Club in Manchester, The Cardiff and County Club in Cardiff, and the Ulster Reform Club in Belfast. The Liverpool Athenaeum was founded in 1797 by art collector and social reformer William Roscoe and friends, and contains a notable library of rare books.[citation needed] The Clifton Club in Bristol was founded in 1818 and occupies an imposing building. St Paul's Club was formed in 1859 in Birmingham, the first in the Midlands. Jersey and Guernsey in the Channel Islands, although outside the UK proper, each have their own The United Club, founded, respectively, in 1848 and in 1870.

In London, there are similarities between the original gentlemen's clubs and the more modern but otherwise similarly private members' clubs such the Groucho Club, Soho House and Home House; but those offer memberships by subscription and are owned and run as commercial concerns. All offer similar facilities such as food, drink, comfortable surroundings, venue hire and in many cases accommodation. In recent years the advent of mobile working (using phone and email) has placed pressures on the traditional London clubs which frown on, and often ban, the use of mobiles and discourage laptops, indeed any discussion of business matters or 'work related papers'. A new breed of business-oriented private members' clubs, exemplified by One Alfred Place and Eight in London or the Gild in Barcelona, combines the style, food and drink of a contemporary private members' club with the business facilities of an office. It was for this reason that the Institute of Directors acquired one of the older clubhouses in Pall Mall as more business friendly.

Modern day clubs include Blacks and Groucho Club.

Several private members clubs for women were established in the late 19th century; among them the Alexandra Club.[15]

United StatesEdit

 
The Yale Club of New York City, founded 1897, is the largest gentlemen's club in the world, and now includes women among its members

Most major cities in the United States have at least one traditional gentlemen's club, many of which have reciprocal relationships with the older clubs in London, with each other, and with other gentlemen's clubs around the world.

Christopher Doob explains in his book Social Inequality and Social Stratification in U.S. Society: “The most exclusive social clubs are in the oldest cities – Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington D.C. Others, which are well respected, have developed in such major cities as Pittsburgh, Chicago, and San Francisco. The most exclusive social clubs are two in New York City – the Links and the Knickerbocker (Allen 1987,25)”[16]

Doob further explains: “Personal wealth has never been the sole basis for attaining membership in exclusive clubs. The individual and family must meet the admissions committee’s standards for values and behavior. Old money prevails over new money as the Rockefeller family experience suggests. John D. Rockefeller, the family founder and the nation’s first billionaire, joined the Union League Club, a fairly respectable but not top-level club; John D. Rockefeller, Jr., belonged to the University Club, a step up from his father; and finally his son John D. Rockefeller, III, reached the pinnacle with his acceptance into the Knickerbocker Club (Baltzell 1989, 340).”[16]

E. Digby Baltzell explains in his book Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a National Upper Class: “The circulation of elites in America and the assimilation of new men of power and influence into the upper class takes place primarily through the medium of urban clubdom. Aristocracy of birth is replaced by an aristocracy of ballot. Frederick Lewis Allen showed how this process operated in the case of the nine “Lords of Creation” who were listed in the New York Social Register as of 1905: ‘The nine men who were listed [in the Social Register] were recorded as belonging to 9.4 clubs apiece,’ wrote Allen. ‘Though only two of them, Morgan and Vanderbilt, belonged to the Knickerbocker Club (the citadel of Patrician families) [indeed, both already belonged to old prominent families], Stillman and Harriman joined these two in the membership of the almost equally fashionable Union Club; Baker joined these four in the membership of the Metropolitan Club (Magnificent, but easier of access to new wealth); John D. Rockefeller, William Rockefeller, and Rogers, along with Morgan and Baker were listed as members of the Union League Club (the stronghold of Republican respectability); seven of the group belonged to the New York Yacht Club. Morgan belonged to nineteen clubs in all; Vanderbilt, to fifteen; Harriman, to fourteen.’ Allen then goes on to show how the descendants of these financial giants were assimilated into the upper class: ‘By way of footnote, it may be added that although in that year [1905] only two of our ten financiers belonged to the Knickerbocker Club, in 1933 the grandsons of six of them did. The following progress is characteristic: John D. Rockefeller, Union League Club; John D. Rockefeller, Jr., University Club; John D. Rockefeller 3rd, Knickerbocker Club. Thus is the American aristocracy recruited.'”[17]

The oldest existing American clubs date to the 18th century; the five oldest are the South River Club in Annapolis, Maryland (c.1690/1700), the Schuylkill Fishing Company in Andalusia, Pennsylvania (1732), the Old Colony Club in Plymouth, Massachusetts (1769), The Philadelphia Club in Philadelphia (1834), and the Union Club of the City of New York in New York City (1836).[14] The Boston Club of New Orleans, named after Boston (card game) and not the city,[18] is the oldest southern club, founded in 1841 and recently celebrated their 175th Anniversary in 2016. The five oldest existing clubs west of the Mississippi River are the Pacific Club in Honolulu (1851), the Pacific-Union Club (1852), Olympic Club (1860), and Concordia-Argonaut Club (1864), all in San Francisco, and the Arlington Club in Portland, Oregon (1867).

Today, gentlemen's clubs in the United States remain more prevalent in older cities, especially those on the East Coast. Only twelve American cities have five or more existing clubs: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York City, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. New York City contains more than any other American city. The Yale Club of New York City, comprising a clubhouse of 22 stories and a worldwide membership of over 11,000, is the largest traditional gentlemen's club in the world.[19] Membership in the Yale Club is restricted to alumni, faculty, and full-time graduate students of Yale University, and the club has included women among its members since 1969.[20]

In the United States, the term "gentlemen's club" is commonly used to refer euphemistically to strip clubs. As a result, traditional gentlemen's clubs often are referred to as "men's clubs" or "city clubs" (as opposed to country clubs) or simply as "private social clubs" or just "private clubs".

CanadaEdit

 
Mount Royal Club, Montreal

At Montreal, the Beaver Club was founded in 1785. Every year, some of its members travelled back to England to sell their furs, where they established the Canada Club in 1810; it still meets twice yearly as a dining club.[21] The Montreal Hunt Club, founded in 1826, is the oldest extant fox hunting club in North America. The Golden Square Mile is home to several of Montreal's clubs, including the St. James', which was founded in 1857. At the end of the nineteenth century, twenty of its most influential members felt that the St James was becoming 'too overcrowded' and founded the smaller Mount Royal Club in 1899. Overnight it became the city's most prestigious club,[22] and in 1918, Lord Birkenhead commented that it "is one of the best clubs I know in the New World, with the indefinable atmosphere about it of a good London club".[23] In 1908 the University Club, affiliated with McGill, opened. The Forest and Stream was formed by Frank Stephen and some of his gentlemen friends and associates on November 27, 1884[24] at a meeting held at the St. Lawrence Hall in Montreal. The Club’s original founders were Andrew Allan, James Bryce Allan, Hugh Montagu Allan, Louis Joseph Forget, Hartland St. Claire MacDougall, Hugh Paton, and Frank Stephen. It was formed with 15 shareholders and is still open today.

Quebec City has the Literary and Historical Society (1824), the Stadacona Club (1860), and the Garrison Club, founded by officers of the Canadian Militia and opened to the public in 1879.

The Toronto Club is the oldest in that city, founded in 1837. Others include The National (1874), The Albany (1882), the York (1909), the University Club, the Faculty Club associated with the University of Toronto, and a number of other clubs. Other Ontario cities have their clubs: The Rideau (1865) at Ottawa; The Hamilton Club (1873); the Frontenac Club (1908) at Kingston, and The Waterloo Club (1913) by letters patent.

The Halifax Club was founded in 1862. The Union Club in Saint John, New Brunswick was founded in 1884 through the merger of two earlier clubs, and the Fredericton Garrison Club was founded in 1969 by associate members of the area headquarters officers' mess.

The Manitoba Club is Western Canada's oldest club, founded in 1874 at Winnipeg. The Union Club of British Columbia was founded in 1879 in Victoria. The Vancouver Club was founded in 1889.

AustraliaEdit

Australia has a number of gentlemen's clubs. Of those listed below, the Commonwealth Club, the Brisbane Polo Club, the Kelvin Club, the Newcastle Club, the Royal Automobile Club, the Tattersalls Club in Sydney and the Union, University and Schools Club allow women to enjoy full membership.

New South WalesEdit

Sydney has the Australian Club, the Royal Automobile Club of Australia, the Tattersalls Club and the Union, University & Schools Club. The City Tattersalls Club, which began as a spin-off from the Tattersalls Club, no longer has exclusive membership criteria.

Newcastle has the Newcastle Club.

VictoriaEdit

Melbourne has the Melbourne Club, the Alexandra Club, the Athenaeum Club (named after its counterpart in London), the Australian Club (unrelated to the identically-named club in Sydney), the Kelvin Club and the Savage Club.

Geelong has The Geelong Club.

QueenslandEdit

Brisbane has the Queensland Club, the Brisbane Club, the Brisbane Polo Club (housed in the heritage listed Naldham House in the centre of the central business district), United Services Club and the Tattersalls Club (unrelated to the identically-named club in Sydney).

South AustraliaEdit

Adelaide has the Adelaide Club and the Naval, Military and Air Force Club of South Australia.

Western AustraliaEdit

Perth has the Western Australian Club and the Weld Club.

TasmaniaEdit

Hobart has the Tasmania Club and the Athenaeum Club.

Australian Capital TerritoryEdit

Canberra has the Commonwealth Club.

FranceEdit

The English Club of Pau, France chartered by an Anglo-American winter colony in 1856 is now named the Cercle Anglais.

IndiaEdit

BangladeshEdit

PakistanEdit

Pakistan has inherited most of its gentlemen's clubs from before the partition of India. The clubs were established during the British Raj as a place for the white rulers, and racial segregation was an implicit part of this. For example, the Sind Club, founded in Karachi in 1871, was infamous for a sign hanging outside the door reading "Dogs and Locals not allowed". The Karachi Gymkhana, also known as the Karachi Club, dates from 1907. At one point the city also supported the Hindu Gymkhana, for the commercial elite, but that 1925 building has been turned to other uses. Modern social clubs like the Karachi Boat Club, Karachi Yacht Club and Pavilion End Club serve as social clubs targeting specific interests.

South AfricaEdit

South Africa is home to the Rand Club in downtown Johannesburg, the Wanderers Club in Illovo, Johannesburg as well as the Inanda Club in Sandton and the Johannesburg Country Club. In Cape Town there is the spacious Kelvin Grove Club, the Cape Town Club and the Owl Club. In Durban is the Durban Club, founded in 1852, and the Kimberley Club in Kimberley, founded in 1881.

South AmericaEdit

Lima (Peru) has several traditional gentlemen clubs still in functions such as the Club Nacional (1855), Club de la Unión (1868), The Phoenix Club (1879), and the Club de la Banca y Comercio (1951).

Buenos Aires (Argentina) is home to the Club del Progreso (1852; the oldest gentlemen's club in South America), the Jockey Club (1882) founded by Carlos Pellegrini, and the Club Universitario de Buenos Aires (1918). The Club 20 de Febrero was founded (1858) by General Rudecindo Alvarado in the city of Salta. The name is in honor to the Battle of Salta on 20 February 1813, during the Argentine War of Independence.

Santiago (Chile) houses the Club de la Unión (1854), originally a rich men's only club. Viña del Mar has the Club de Viña del Mar (1901).

SwedenEdit

Clubs in Sweden include Sällskapet ('The Society') (1800), the military club Militärsällskapet (1852), Nya Sällskapet ('The New Society') (1874) in Stockholm and the Royal Bachelors' Club (1769) in Gothenburg[citation needed]

New ZealandEdit

There are active gentlemen's clubs in Nelson (Hope), Auckland, Hastings, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin.

JapanEdit

The Kasumi Kaikan is Japan's club of the former kazoku nobility with strict membership rules. Although it has many characteristics of a gentlemen's club, membership is open to women as well.

Hong KongEdit

The Hong Kong Club.

ThailandEdit

The most prestigious active gentlemen's club in Thailand is the Royal Bangkok Sports Club, one of the oldest sporting institutions in Thailand, with construction personally funded by King Rama V

Quirks of membershipEdit

While many clubs have requirements of entry, often including financial requirements or collegiate affiliations – The Yale Club and Penn Club of New York City are typical of university clubs: they are open to all who have a connection with their respective universities (in this case Yale University or the University of Pennsylvania) – some clubs have highly specific membership requirements.

The Caledonian Club in London requires "being of direct Scottish descent, that is to say, tracing descent from a Scottish father or mother, grandfather or grandmother" or "having, in the opinion of the Committee, the closest association with Scotland."

The Travellers Club, from its foundation in 1819, has excluded from membership anyone who has not met a very specific travelling requirement. Rule 6 of the club's constitution states that "no person be considered eligible to the Travellers' Club, who shall not have travelled out of the British islands to a distance of at least 500 miles from London in a direct line".[25]

The Reform Club requires its potential members to attest that they would have supported the 1832 Reform Act, whilst certain members of the East India Club must have attended one of its affiliated public schools.

Clubs also require membership fees, which, along with the ongoing cost of meeting their dress codes and the cost of bar tabs and dining bills, tends to impose a financial barrier for existing and would-be members.[26] Most clubs have favourable subscription fees for younger members.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cited in the introduction to Women, Clubs and Associations in Britain by Doughan & Gordon, 2006
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (probably in 1764).
  3. ^ a b c Milne-Smith, Amy (October 2006). "A Flight to Domesticity? Making a Home in the Gentlemen's Clubs of London, 1880–1914". The Journal of British Studies. 45 (4): 796–818. doi:10.1086/505958.
  4. ^ Introduction to Women, Clubs and Associations in Britain Doughan & Gordon, 2006
  5. ^ Milne-Smith, Amy (April 2009). "Club Talk: Gossip, Masculinity and Oral Communities in Late Nineteenth-Century London". Gender & History. 21: 86–106. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0424.2009.01536.x.
  6. ^ Mount, Ferdinand, "Too Obviously Cleverer", review of The Life of Harold Macmillan by D.R. Thorpe and The Macmillan Diaries Vol. II: Prime Minister and After 1957–66, ed. Peter Catterall, London Review of Books, 8 September 2011 (33:17). Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  7. ^ Milne-Smith (2006), p. 799.
  8. ^ Milne-Smith (2006), p. 803.
  9. ^ Milne-Smith (2006), p. 805.
  10. ^ Milne-Smith (2006), p. 808.
  11. ^ Lord, Evelyn (2008). "Gentlemen's Clubs, Journalistic Hacks, the Mohocks and Change". The Hellfire Clubs. Yale University Press. p. 19. JSTOR j.ctt1njm62.8.
  12. ^ a b Lord (2008), p. 20.
  13. ^ María Zozaya (2007). Del ocio al negocio. Redes y capital social en el Casino de Madrid, 1836-1901 (in Spanish). Madrid: La Catarata. ISBN 978-84-8319-337-2.
  14. ^ a b Whitaker's Almanack 2008. A&C Black. 2008. p. 649. ISBN 978-0-7136-8554-1.
  15. ^ David Doughan; Peter Gordon (2013). Dictionary of British Women's Organisations 1825-1960. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-136-89770-2.
  16. ^ a b "Social Inequality and Social Stratification in U.S. Society".
  17. ^ "Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a National Upper Class".
  18. ^ "Begin your search". Archives and Special Collections at Tulane University.
  19. ^ "Member Login". Yale Club of New York City.
  20. ^ Mooney, James E. (1995). "Yale Club". In Kenneth T. Jackson. The Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven, CT & London & New York: Yale University Press & The New-York Historical Society. p. 1280.
  21. ^ "Canadian Clubs and Organisations in the UK". www.canadainternational.gc.ca. Government of Canada. 21 March 2012.
  22. ^ The Square Mile, Merchant Princes of Montreal (1987) by Donald MacKay
  23. ^ "Read the eBook My American visit by Frederick Edwin Smith Birkenhead online for free (page 11 of 16)". www.ebooksread.com.
  24. ^ "Forest and Stream Club". www.forestandstream.ca.
  25. ^ "Victorian London - Entertainment and Recreation - Clubs - Travellers Club". www.victorianlondon.org.
  26. ^ Kendall, Diana (2008). Members Only: Elite Clubs and the Process of Exclusion. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 191. ISBN 9780742545564.

Further readingEdit

  • Anonymous (1893). Club Men of New York: Their Occupations, and Business and Homes Addresses. New York: Republic Press.
  • Anonymous (1950). Your Club. London: Whitbread.
  • Bhageria, Purshottam; Malhotra, Pavan (2005). Elite Clubs of India. New Delhi: Bhageria Foundation. ISBN 81-902898-0-2.
  • Black, Barbara (2012). A Room of His Own: A Literary-Cultural Study of Victorian Clubland. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-8214-2016-4.
  • Clark, Peter (2000). British Clubs and Societies, 1580-1800: The Origins of an Associational World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924843-5.
  • Cohen, Benjamin B. (2015). In the Club: Associational Life in Colonial South Asia. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-9605-1.
  • Darwin, Bernard (1943). British Clubs. London: Collins.
  • Escott, T.H.S. (1914). Club Makers and Club Members. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
  • Girtin, Tom (1964). The Abominable Clubman. London: Hutchinson.
  • Graves, Charles (1963). Leather Armchairs: The Chivas Regal Book of London Clubs. London: Cassell.
  • Kendall, Diana (2008). Members Only: Elite Clubs and the Process of Exclusion. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0742545564.
  • Lejeune, Anthony (1979). The Gentlemen's Clubs of London. London: Wh Smith Pub. ISBN 0-8317-3800-6.
  • Lejeune, Anthony (2012). The Gentlemen's Clubs of London. London: Stacey International. ISBN 978-1-906768-20-1.
  • Marsh, Charles; Mackenzie, Colin (1828). The Clubs of London. London: H. Colburn, 2 vols.
  • Milne-Smith, Amy (2011). London Clubland: A Cultural History of Gender and Class in Late-Victorian Britain. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-12076-1.
  • Nevill, Ralph (1911). London Clubs: Their History & Treasures. London: Chatto & Windus.
  • Thévoz, Seth Alexander (2018). Club Government: How the Early Victorian World was Ruled from London Clubs. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78453-818-7.
  • Timbs, John (1866). Clubs and Club Life in London. London: Chatto & Windus.