Physalis peruviana is a species of plant in the nightshade family (Solanaceae) native to Chile and Peru.[2] Within that region, it is called aguaymanto, uvilla or uchuva, in addition to numerous indigenous and regional names. In English, its common names include Cape gooseberry, goldenberry and Peruvian groundcherry.[2][3][4][5]

Physalis peruviana
Ripe orange fruits
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Physalis
P. peruviana
Binomial name
Physalis peruviana
  • Alkekengi pubescens Moench
  • Boberella peruviana (L.) E.H.L. Krause
  • Physalis esculenta Salisb.
  • Physalis latifolia Lam.
  • Physalis tomentosa Medik.
  • Physalis edulis Sims

The history of P. peruviana cultivation in South America can be traced to the Inca Empire.[6][7] It has been cultivated in England since the late 18th century, and in South Africa in the Cape of Good Hope since at least the start of the 19th century.[2] Widely introduced in the 20th century, P. peruviana is now cultivated or grows wild across the world in temperate and tropical regions.[3]

Taxonomy and common names edit

Physalis peruviana was given a botanical species description by Carl Linnaeus in 1763.[8] In Peru, P. peruviana is known as aguaymanto in Spanish and topotopo in Quechua.[9] In neighboring Colombia, it is known as uchuva,[10] and as uvilla in Ecuador.[11]

It was grown in England in 1774 and by early settlers of the Cape of Good Hope before 1807.[2] Whether it was grown there before its introduction to England is not known, but sources since the mid-19th century attribute the common English name "Cape gooseberry" to this fact.[12][13] An alternative suggestion is that name refers to the calyx surrounding the fruit like a cape, possibly an example of false etymology, because it does not appear in publications earlier than the mid-20th century. Not long after its introduction to South Africa, P. peruviana was introduced to Australia, New Zealand and various Pacific islands.[2] Despite its common name, it is not botanically related to the true gooseberries of the genus Ribes.

Description edit

P. peruviana is closely related to the tomatillo.[2] As a member of the plant family Solanaceae, it is also more distantly related to a large number of edible plants, including tomatoes, eggplants, and potatoes.[2]

P. peruviana is an annual in temperate locations, but a perennial in the tropics.[2] As a perennial, it develops into a diffusely branched shrub reaching 1–1.6 m (3 ft 3 in – 5 ft 3 in) in height, with spreading branches and velvety, heart-shaped leaves.[3] The hermaphrodite flowers are bell-shaped and drooping, 15–20 mm (5834 in) across, yellow with purple-brown spots internally. After the flower falls, the calyx expands, ultimately forming a beige husk fully enclosing the fruit.[2][3]

The fruit is a round, smooth berry, resembling a miniature yellow tomato 1.25–2 cm (1234 in) wide.[3] Removed from its calyx, it is bright yellow to orange in color, and sweet when ripe, with a characteristic, mildly tart grape-like flavor.[2]

A prominent feature is the inflated, papery calyx enclosing each berry. The calyx is accrescent until the fruit is fully grown; at first, it is of normal size, but after the petals fall, it continues to grow until it forms a protective cover around the growing fruit. If the fruit is left inside the intact calyx husks, its shelf life at room temperature is about 30–45 days. The calyx is inedible.

Groundcherries (cape-gooseberries or poha), raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy222 kJ (53 kcal)
11.2 g
0.7 g
1.9 g
Vitamin A equiv.
36 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.11 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
2.8 mg
Vitamin C
11 mg
9 mg
1 mg
40 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water85.4 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Nutrition edit

Raw cape gooseberries are 85% water, 11% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat (table). In a reference amount of 100 grams (3.5 oz), raw cape gooseberries supply 53 calories and provide moderate levels (10–19% of the Daily Value) of thiamine, niacin, and vitamin C.

Analyses of oil from different berry components, primarily its seeds, showed that linoleic acid and oleic acid were the main fatty acids, beta-sitosterol and campesterol were principal phytosterols, and the oil contained vitamin K and beta-carotene.[14]

Distribution and habitat edit

The center of genetic diversity for Physalis peruviana is in the Andes mountains of Ecuador, Chile, Colombia, and Peru.[2] It grows in forests, forest edges, and riparian areas.[3] It grows at high elevations of 500–3,000 m (1,600–9,800 ft) in its native region, but may also be found at sea level in Oceania and Pacific islands where it occurs widely in subtropical and warm, temperate conditions.[3] Its latitude range is about 45°S to 60°N, and its altitude range is generally from sea level to 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[3] The plant has become invasive in some natural habitats, forming thickets, particularly in Hawaii and on other Pacific islands.[3] There are believed to be dozens of ecotypes worldwide that differentiated by plant size, calyx shape, and the size, color, and flavor of the fruit. Wild forms are thought to be diploid with 2n = 24 chromosomes, while cultivated forms include varieties with increased ploidy and 32 or 48 chromosomes.[15]

Cultivation edit

It has been widely introduced into cultivation in tropical, subtropical, and temperate areas such as Australia, China, India, Malaysia, and the Philippines.[2][3][16] P. peruviana thrives at an annual average temperature from 13 to 18 °C (55 to 64 °F), tolerating temperatures as high as 30 °C (86 °F).[3] It grows well in Mediterranean climates and is hardy to USDA hardiness zone 8, meaning it can be damaged by frost.[3] It grows well in rainfall amounts of 800–4,300 mm (31–169 in) if the soil is well drained, and prefers full sun or partial shade in well-drained soil, and grows vigorously in sandy loam.[2][3]

The plant is readily grown from seeds, which are abundant (100 to 300 in each fruit), but with low germination rates, requiring thousands of seeds to sow a hectare.[2] Plants grown from year-old stem cuttings will flower early and yield well, but are less vigorous than those grown from seed.[2]

Pests and diseases edit

In South Africa, cutworms attack the Cape gooseberry in seedbeds, red spiders in the field, and potato tuber moths near potato fields. Hares damage young plants, and birds eat the fruits. Mites, whiteflies and flea beetles can also be problematic.[2] Powdery mildew, soft brown scale, root rot and viruses may affect plants.[2] In New Zealand, plants can be infected by Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.[17]

Uses edit

Culinary edit

P. peruviana is an economically useful crop as an exotic exported fruit, and is favored in breeding and cultivation programs of many countries.[3] P. peruviana fruits are marketed in the United States as goldenberry and sometimes Pichuberry, named after Machu Picchu in order to associate the fruit with its cultivation in Peru.[18]

Cape gooseberries are made into fruit-based sauces, pies, puddings, chutneys, jams and ice cream, or eaten fresh in salads and fruit salads.[2] In Latin America, it is often consumed as a batido or smoothie,[19] and because of its showy husk, it is used in restaurants as a decorative garnish for desserts. To enhance its food uses, hot air drying improves qualities of dietary fiber content, texture and appearance.[20]

In basic research on fruit maturation, the content of polyphenols and vitamin C varied by cultivar, harvest time, and ripening stage.[21]

Potential for toxicity edit

Unripe raw fruits, flowers, leaves, and stems of the plant contain solanine and solanidine alkaloids that may cause poisoning if ingested by humans, cattle or horses.[22][23]

See also edit

  • Physalis pubescens (a closely related species with sprouts that are noticeably less hairy)

References edit

  1. ^ "Physalis peruviana L." The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 2023. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Morton JF (1987). "Cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana L. in Fruits of Warm Climates". Purdue University, Center for New Crops & Plant Products.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)". Invasive Species Compendium, CABI. 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  4. ^ Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council (1989). Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. pp. 249–50. doi:10.17226/1398. ISBN 978-0-309-07461-2.
  5. ^ "Physalis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
  6. ^ (Cailes 1952; Legge 1974a)
  7. ^ New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. The Royal Society of New Zealand. 1986. p. 425.
  8. ^ "Physalis peruviana L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2: 1670 (1763)". International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  9. ^ "Discover the aguaymanto, one of the best foods produced in Peru". Retrieved 2020-07-29.
  10. ^ "Uchuvas". 30 May 2019. Retrieved 2020-08-09.
  11. ^ Carpio, Cristina Pettersen (2021-07-10). "Ecuadorian fruit: uvilla - Ecuador". Visit Ecuador and South America. Retrieved 2023-02-25.
  12. ^ von Mueller, Ferdinand. Select Extra-Tropical Plants Readily Eligible For Industrial Culture Or Naturalization, With Indications Of Their Native Countries And Some Of Their Uses. Detroit, Michigan: G.S. Davis, 1884. Page 229. May be obtained from Amazon or downloaded from:
  13. ^ Loudon, Jane Wells. Botany for Ladies, Or, a Popular Introduction to the Natural System of Plants. Pub: J. Murray (1842)
  14. ^ Ramadan MF, Mörsel JT (2003). "Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (4): 969–74. doi:10.1021/jf020778z. PMID 12568557.
  15. ^ García-Godos Alcázar, Paula; Palomino Felices, Sonia; Martínez Gómez, Keny (2020-01-01). "Diversidad citogenética de Physalis peruviana L. 'aguaymanto' de los ecotipos del Perú". Investigación (in Spanish). 28 (1): 157–165. doi:10.51440/unsch.revistainvestigacion.28.1.2020.368. ISSN 2709-8583.
  16. ^ "Fr. Visminlu Vicente L. Chua, S.J., Philippine Fruits. Published online: 1 September 2015". Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  17. ^ Liefting, L. W.; L. I. Ward; J. B. Shiller; G. R. G. Clover (2008). "A new 'Candidatus Liberibacter' species in Solanum betaceum (Tamarillo) and Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) in New Zealand". Plant Disease. 92 (11): 1588. doi:10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1588B. PMID 30764458.
  18. ^ Galarza, Daniella (2013-06-18). "This Goose(berry) is Cooked: Let's Talk About the Pichuberry". Los Angeles Magazine. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  19. ^ "Five amazing natural juices with Colombian fruit and vegetables". 29 May 2019. Retrieved 2020-08-09.
  20. ^ Vega-Gálvez, A; Zura-Bravo, L; Lemus-Mondaca, R; Martinez-Monzó, J; Quispe-Fuentes, I; Puente, L; Di Scala, K (2013). "Influence of drying temperature on dietary fibre, rehydration properties, texture and microstructure of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)". Journal of Food Science and Technology. 52 (4): 2304–2311. doi:10.1007/s13197-013-1235-0. PMC 4375184. PMID 25829613.
  21. ^ Bravo, K; Sepulveda-Ortega, S; Lara-Guzman, O; Navas-Arboleda, A. A.; Osorio, E (2015). "Influence of cultivar and ripening time on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 95 (7): 1562–9. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6866. PMID 25131258.
  22. ^ "Physalis". North Carolina State University, Extension Gardener. 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  23. ^ "Ground cherry, Chinese lantern". Guide to Poisonous Plants, Colorado State University. 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2023.