The Liquor Portal
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, spirit, or distilled drink) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process purifies the liquid and removes diluting components like water, for the purpose of increasing its proportion of alcohol content (commonly expressed as alcohol by volume, ABV). As liquors contain significantly more alcohol, they are considered "harder" – in North America, the term hard liquor is used to distinguish distilled alcoholic drinks from non-distilled ones.
As examples, this term does not include beverages such as beer, wine, mead, sake, or cider, as they are fermented but not distilled. These all have a relatively low alcohol content, typically less than 15%. Brandy is a liquor produced by the distillation of wine, and has an ABV of over 35%. Other examples of liquors include vodka, baijiu, gin, rum, tequila, mezcal, and whisky. (Also see list of alcoholic drinks, and liquors by national origin.)
|Vodka is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, vodka is made by the distillation of fermented cereal grains or potatoes, though some modern brands use other substances, such as fruits or sugar.
Since the 1890s, the standard Polish, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Czech vodkas are 40% alcohol by volume ABV (80 proof), a percentage that is widely misattributed to Dmitri Mendeleev. The European Union has established a minimum of 37.5% ABV for any "European vodka" to be named as such. Products sold as "vodka" in the United States must have a minimum alcohol content of 40%. Even with these loose restrictions, most vodka sold contains 40% ABV. For homemade vodkas and distilled beverages referred to as "moonshine", see moonshine by country.
|Jasper Newton "Jack" Daniel (c. September 5, 1850 – October 10, 1911) was an American distiller and the founder of the Jack Daniel's Tennessee whiskey distillery. According to one source, he was born in September 1850, in or around Lynchburg, Tennessee. Daniel was the youngest of ten children born to Calaway and Lucinda (née Cook) Daniel. Jack Daniel never married and did not have any children. However, he took his nephews under his wing – one of whom was Lemuel "Lem" Motlow (1869–1947). Lem, a son of Daniel's sister, Finetta, was skilled with numbers, and was soon doing all of the distillery's bookkeeping. In 1907, due to failing health, Jack Daniel gave the distillery to two of his nephews. Daniel died from blood poisoning at Lynchburg in 1911.
Selected general articles
Ben Nevis distillery
is a distillery
that distills Ben Nevis 10 Years Old and Ben Nevis 21 Years Old whisky
. It is at Lochy Bridge in Fort William
and sits just at the base of Ben Nevis
, the highest mountain in the British Isles, which rises to 1,345 m (4,413 ft) above sea level. A coastal distillery in the Western Highlands, Ben Nevis draws its water from the Allt a’Mhuilinn which originates from two pools, Coire Leis and Coire na’Ciste. Founded in 1825 as an independent enterprise, it has been owned by Nikka Whisky Distilling
of Tokyo, Japan
, since 1989. Read more...
Moscow mule as served at Rye, San Francisco
, California, United States
A Moscow mule
is a cocktail made with vodka
, spicy ginger beer
, and lime juice
, garnished with a slice or wedge of lime and mint leaves. It is a type of buck
and therefore sometimes known as a vodka buck
The Moscow mule is popularly served in a copper mug, which takes on the cold temperature of the liquid. Some public health advisories recommended the mugs be plated with nickel or stainless steel on the inside and the lip, but it has been disputed whether the time and acidity involved in the drinking of a Moscow mule would be enough to leach out the 30 milligrams of copper per liter needed to cause copper toxicity
. Read more...
Dunville & Co.
was a tea and spirits merchant company, based in Belfast
, County Antrim
. The company initially gained success as an Irish whiskey
blender, but later produced and marketed its own whiskey, having constructed its own distillery. The company was founded by John Dumvill who joined William Napier of Napier & Co. The spelling of Dumvill was changed to Dunville and in 1825 the company name became Dunville & Co. In 1837, Dunville began producing its most popular whisky Dunville's VR
. Read more...
) is an Irish red ale
Smithwick's brewery was founded in Kilkenny
in 1710. In 1965, it was acquired by Guinness
, now part of Diageo
. The Kilkenny brewery was shut down in 2013 and production of all Smithwick's and Kilkenny branded beers moved to Dublin
; parts of the old brewery are now a "visitor experience". Read more...
Rectified spirit made in Poland by Polmos
, also known as neutral spirits
, rectified alcohol
, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin
is highly concentrated ethanol
that has been purified by means of repeated distillation in a process called rectification. In some countries, denatured alcohol
or denatured rectified spirit may commonly be available as "rectified spirit", but it is poisonous and ingestion can be fatal.
In its undiluted form, it contains at least 95% alcohol by volume
(ABV) (190 US proof
) or at least 95% ABV in the European Union. The purity of rectified spirit has a practical limit of 97.2% ABV (95.6% by mass) when produced using conventional distillation
processes, as a mixture of ethanol and water becomes a minimum-boiling azeotrope
at this concentration. Rectified spirit is typically distilled in continuous multi-column stills at 96–96.5% ABV and diluted as necessary. Read more...
is a brand of tequila
produced in Mexico
. It is the largest brand in value and eighth largest in volume. It is distilled, manufactured, bottled, sold, and distributed by Tequila Don Julio, S.A. de C.V. from its corporate facility in the Colonia El Chichimeco district, in the city of Atotonilco El Alto
, Jalisco, Mexico
. It is distributed in the United States by Diageo
, under licensing from its patent holder, Tequila Don Julio, Sociedad Anónima de Capital Variable
, Jalisco, Mexico, but it is sold worldwide. Read more...
is a whisky
distillery in Alness
. It was founded and built in 1817 by Hugh Munro on his estate of Teaninich Castle
. Despite an initial difficulty of procuring barley whisky owing to a high demand from illegal distilleries, by 1830 Teaninich produced 30 times more spirit than it did at its founding. At that point Munro sold the distillery to his younger brother Lieutenant-General John Munro
. As an officer he spent most of his time in India, so he decided to rent the distillery out to Robert Pattison
in 1850. The lease lasted to 1869 after which Munro leased it to John McGilchrist Ross
. Ross relinquished the lease in 1895, and in 1898 Robert Innes Cameron
took a stake in the distillery, and Munro and Cameron renovated and extended the distillery, investing £10,000 in to the renovations. In 1904 Cameron, who also owned stakes in Benrinnes
, took over the distillery completely. After Cameron died in 1933 the distillery was sold to Scottish Malt Distillers
. The distillery suspended production between 1939 and 1946 due to barley shortages during World War II
In 1970 the distillery was greatly expanded, and an entire new building with six new stills was taken in operation. The four older stills remained in operation alongside the new stills. The old side of the distillery was then updated over the next decade. First, new installations for milling, mashing and fermentation were built in 1973, and in 1975 the distillery added a dark grains plant
, which produces cattle feed from the draff
. In 1984 the old side of the distillery was mothballed, and the new side followed the next year, temporarily ending production entirely. The new side of the distillery resumed production in 1991. The old side didn't resume production, and was demolished in 1999. In 2000 a mash filter
press was installed in the distillery, which is unique in Scottish malt whisky production; all other Scottish whisky distilleries use mash tuns
. Read more...
Cork Distilleries Company
was an Irish whiskey
distilling company. It was formed in 1867, when four Cork distilleries, Daly's
, the Green
, North Mall
, the Watercourse
were amalgamated under one company to form the Cork Distilleries Company. In 1868, these were joined by another Cork distillery, James Murphy's Midleton Distillery
. The company existed until 1966, when the Cork Distilleries Company merged with two other Irish distillers, John Powers & Son
, and John Jameson & Son
to form Irish Distillers
The company produced Paddy Whiskey
, and Cork Dry Gin
among other products. Read more...
Rum and Coke
, or the Cuba Libre
; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkuβa ˈliβɾe]
, "Free Cuba"), is a highball cocktail
consisting of cola
, and in many recipes lime
juice, generally served with ice. Traditionally, the cola ingredient is Coca-Cola
("Coke"), and the alcohol is a light rum
such as Bacardi
. The drink may be made with various types of rums and cola brands, and lime juice may or may not be included.
The exact origin of the drink is not known with certainty, but the drink became especially popular in the early 20th century in Cuba after the country won independence in the Spanish–American War
, and hence the name "Cuba Libre". It has become popular across Cuba, the United States, and in other countries. Its simple recipe and inexpensive, ubiquitous ingredients have made it one of the world's most popular alcoholic drinks. Drink critics often consider the drink mediocre, but it has been noted for its historical significance. Read more...
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