Caipirinha (Portuguese pronunciation: [kajpiˈɾĩj̃ɐ]) is Brazil's national cocktail, made with cachaça (pronounced [kaˈʃasɐ]) (sugarcane hard liquor), sugar and lime. Cachaça, also known as caninha, or any one of a multitude of traditional names, is Brazil's most common distilled alcoholic beverage. Although both rum and cachaça are made from sugarcane-derived products, in cachaça the alcohol results from the fermentation of fresh sugarcane juice that is then distilled, while rum is usually made from refinery by-products such as molasses.
|IBA official cocktail|
Studio photo of a caipirinha
|Primary alcohol by volume|
|Served||On the rocks; poured over ice|
|Standard garnish||sugar cane, lime(ingredient)|
|Standard drinkware||Old Fashioned glass|
|Preparation||Place lime and sugar into old fashioned glass and muddle (mash the two ingredients together using a muddler or a wooden spoon). Fill the glass with ice and add the Cachaça.|
|Notes||A wide variety of fresh fruits can be used in place of lime. In the absence of cachaça, vodka can be used, making a caipiroska.|
|Caipirinha recipe at International Bartenders Association|
The drink is prepared by muddling the fruit and the sugar together, and adding the liquor. This can be made into a single glass, usually large, that can be shared amongst people, or into a larger jar, from where it is served in individual glasses.
Although the real origin of the drink is unknown, one account says that it came about around 1918 in the region of Alentejo in Portugal, with a popular recipe made with lemon, garlic and honey, indicated for patients with the Spanish flu. Today it is still being used as a remedy for the common cold. As it was quite common to add some distilled spirits to home remedies, in order to expedite the therapeutic effect, aguardente was commonly used. "Until one day someone decided to remove the garlic and honey. Then added a few tablespoons sugar to reduce the acidity of lime. The ice came next, to ward off the heat," explains Carlos Lima, executive director of IBRAC (Brazilian Institute of Cachaça).
According to historians, the caipirinha, as it is known nowadays, was invented by landowning farmers in the region of Piracicaba, interior of the State of São Paulo, during the 19th century, as a local drink for high standard events and parties, being a reflection of the strong sugar cane culture in the region.
The caipirinha is the strongest national cocktail of Brazil and is imbibed in restaurants, bars, and many households throughout the country. Once almost unknown outside Brazil, the drink has become more popular and more widely available in recent years, in large part due to the rising availability of first-rate brands of cachaça outside Brazil. The International Bartenders Association has designated it as one of their Official Cocktails.
The word caipirinha is the diminutive of the word caipira, which in Brazilian Portuguese refers to someone from the countryside (specifically, someone from the rural parts of south-central Brazil), being similar to US English hillbilly or the Lowland Scots teuchter. Caipira is a two-gender noun. The diminutive mostly refers to the drink in which case it is a feminine noun.
- Although Brazilian law (Decree 6.871 based on Normative Ruling 55, from Oct. 31, 2008) as well as the International Bartenders Association (IBA) allow the use of the name caipirinha for the version with lime only, the term is often used to describe any cachaça-and-fruit-juice drink with the fruit's name (e.g. a passionfruit caipirinha, kiwifruit caipirinha or strawberry caipirinha).
- Caipifruta is a very popular caipirinha drink in Brazil, consisting of cachaça, crushed fresh fruits (either singly or in combination), and crushed ice. The most popular fresh fruits used to create caipifrutas are tangerine, lime, kiwifruit, passion fruit, pineapple, lemon, grapes, mango, cajá (Spondias mombin fruit), and caju (cashew fruit).
There are many derivations of caipirinha in which other spirits substitute for cachaça. Some include:
- Caipiroska is the usual alternative, made with vodka
- Sakerinha is a variant made with sake
- Caipinheger is another variation made using Steinhäger.
- Caipirão is another Portuguese variation made using Licor Beirão instead of cachaça; as the liquor is very sweet, no sugar is used.
- A variation from Italy is made using Campari instead of cachaça.
- Caipirissima is the alternative, made with rum.
- "Brazilian Drinks: Caipirinha". maria-brazil.org.
- "Lista de Publicações". Senado.gov.br. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
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Até que um dia alguém resolveu tirar o alho e o mel. Depois, acrescentaram umas colheres de açúcar para reduzir a acidez do limão. O gelo veio em seguida, para espantar o calor
- "Receitas de Drinques". Drinquepedia (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on September 27, 2013.
- (in Portuguese) Cascudo, Luis da Camara (2006). "Prelúdio da cachaça" - Global Editora
- Mackay, Jordan (August 10, 2006). "Made in Brazil". 7x7 Magazine. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009..
- Willey, Rob (February 2006). "Everyday with Rachael Ray". Cane and Able. Retrieved 2007-01-14.
The caipirinha—a sour-sweet combination of crushed limes, sugar and cachaça—has become the darling of American bartenders, and first-rate cachaça is at last finding a place on American liquor-store shelves.
- "IBA Official Cocktails". International Bartenders Association. Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved 2015-03-18.
- "Decree 6871/2009" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Republic Presidency's Civil Office. 2009. Retrieved 2015-03-18.
- "Ruling Instruction No. 55 from 31/10/2008" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA). 2008. Retrieved 2015-03-18.
- Wolfinger, Alejandro Morales,Eric. "Caipiroska Recipe". Bon Appetit. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "Sakerinha: A Japanese-Brazilian Fusion Recipe". Portuguese For Spanish Speakers.
- "Top 10 Brazilian cocktails - Brasilbar - Brasilbar". www.brasilbar.com. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "Caipirão Promotional website". Caipirão. 2005–2007. Archived from the original on 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2012-06-01.
- "Camparinha Cocktail Recipe with Picture". Complete Cocktails. 2013.
- "Caipirissima Cocktail Recipe - Difford's Guide".