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Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage fermented and distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East and Southeast Asia. Rice wine is made by the fermentation of rice starch that has been converted to sugars. Microbes are the source of the enzymes that convert the starches to sugar.
Rice wine typically has an alcohol content of 18–25% ABV. Rice wines are used in Asian gastronomy at formal dinners and banquets and in cooking. They are also used in a religious and ceremonial context.
Rice beer in ManipurEdit
Rice beer was once a part of the Manipurian diet and used as medicine. It is prepared in different ways according to preference. The Tangkhul tribe in the east of Manipur is well known for its varieties of beer. Although commonly known as "rice beer", it is divided into the following types: Leiyi, Zam, Khar, Paso and Chathur among others.
Preparation of hard liquor is restricted in certain communities but rice beer is common to every community.
List of rice winesEdit
|Name||Place of origin||Description|
|Apong||India||Indigenous to the Mising tribe, an indigenous Assamese community from the Northeastern states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh|
|Ara||Bhutan||Also made with millet, or maize|
|Basi||Ilocos region of the Philippines||Made from sugarcane|
|Beopju||Korea||A variety of cheongju|
|Cholai||West Bengal, India||Reddish|
|Choujiu||Xi'an, China||A milky wine made with glutinous rice|
|Chuak||Tripura, North-East State of India||—|
|Huangjiu||China||Fermented, literally "yellow wine" or "yellow liquor", with colors varying from clear to brown or brownish red|
|Lihing||Sabah, Malaysian Borneo||Kadazan-Dusun[clarification needed]|
|Mijiu||China||A clear, sweet liqueur made from fermented glutinous rice|
|Mirin||Japan||Used in cooking|
|Pangasi (or gasi)||Visayas and Mindanao of the Philippines||—|
|Rượu cần||Vietnam||Drunk through long, thin bamboo tubes|
|Sake||Japan||The term "sake", in Japanese, literally means "alcohol", and the Japanese rice wines Nihonshu and Shochu are often simply called "sake" in the west. It is the most widely known type of rice wine in North America because of its ubiquitous appearance in Japanese restaurants.|
|Sato||Isan region of Thailand||—|
|Shaoxing||Shaoxing, Zhejiang province, China||Probably the best known[by whom?] Chinese rice wine|
|Sombai||Cambodia||Infused with sugar cane, fruits and spices still inside the bottle|
|Tapuy||Mountain Province in the Philippines||Clear|
|Xaaj pani||India||Made of fermented sticky rice by various indigenous Assamese communities|
- Huang, H. T. "Science and civilization in China. Volume 6. Biology and biological technology. Part V: fermentations and food science." (2000).
- Luithui, Chonchuirinmayo (August 29, 2014). "Who Killed The Rice Beer?". Kangla Online. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- Gico, Emma T.; Ybarzabal, Evelyn R. "Indigenous Rice Wine Making in Central Panay, Philippines". Central Philippine University. Retrieved 4 May 2019.