LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton (French pronunciation: ​[moɛt‿ɛnɛsi lwi vɥitɔ̃]),[1] commonly known as LVMH, is a French holding multinational corporation and conglomerate specializing in luxury goods, headquartered in Paris.[3] The company was formed in 1987 through the merger of fashion house Louis Vuitton (founded in 1854) with Moët Hennessy, which was established after the 1971 merger between the champagne producer Moët & Chandon (founded in 1743) and the cognac producer Hennessy (founded in 1765).[4][5][6] In 2021 with a valuation of $329 billion, LVMH became the most valuable company in Europe.[7] LVMH controls around 60 subsidiaries that each manage a small number of prestigious brands, 75 in total. These include Christian Dior, Fendi, Givenchy, Marc Jacobs, Stella McCartney, Loewe, Loro Piana, Kenzo, Celine, Fenty, Princess Yachts, TAG Heuer and Bulgari. The subsidiaries are often managed independently, under the umbrellas of six branches: Fashion Group, Wines and Spirits, Perfumes and Cosmetics, Watches and Jewelry, Selective Distribution, and Other Activities. The oldest of the LVMH brands is wine producer Château d'Yquem, which dates its origins back to 1593.[8]

LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE
TypePublic (Societas Europaea)[1]
Euronext ParisMC
CAC 40 Component
IndustryLuxury goods
Predecessors
FoundedJune 1987; 34 years ago (1987-06)
FoundersBernard Arnault
Alain Chevalier
Henry Racamier
Headquarters,
France[1]
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Bernard Arnault (chairman and CEO)
Delphine Arnault (director)
Antonio Belloni (MD)
Nicolas Bazire (development and acquisitions)
Products
ServicesDepartment stores
RevenueIncrease 64.215 billion (2021)[2]
Increase €17.155 billion (2021)[2]
Increase €12.036 billion (2021)[2]
Total assetsIncrease €125.311 billion (2021)[2]
Total equityIncrease €48.909 billion (2021)[2]
Number of employees
150,000 (2021)[2]
ParentChristian Dior SE (41.1%)
SubsidiariesList of subsidiaries
Websitewww.lvmh.com Edit this at Wikidata

HistoryEdit

In the 1980s, French Investor Bernard Arnault had the idea to create a group of luxury brands.[9] He worked with Alain Chevalier, CEO of Moët Hennessy, and Henry Racamier, president of Louis Vuitton, to form LVMH.[10] Their successful integration of various famous aspirational brands into a single group inspired other luxury companies to do the same. Thus, the French conglomerate Kering and the Swiss-based Richemont have also created extended portfolios of luxury brands. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[11]

Make Up For Ever was established in 1984,[12] and was acquired by LVMH in 1999.[13]

On 7 March 2011, LVMH announced the acquisition of the 50.4% family-owned shares of the Italian jeweller Bulgari and the intention to make a tender offer for the rest, which was publicly owned.[14] The transaction was about $5.2 billion.[15] In 2011, LVMH invested $640 million in establishing LCapitalAsia.[16]

On 7 March 2013, National Business Daily reported that mid-priced clothing brand QDA would open stores with the assistance of LVMH's private equity LCapitalAsia and the Chinese apparel company Xin Hee Co., Ltd. in Beijing.[16] In 2011, LVMH invested $640 million in establishing LCapitalAsia.[16] LVMH sales "decreased by about 10 percent from in 2011" in China, and LVMH stopped "opening stores in second and third-tier cities in mainland China".[16] Xue Shengwen, a senior researcher at ChinaVenture, said the developing trend of the market is to take advantage of more acceptable prices.[16]

In February 2014, LVMH entered into a joint venture with the Italian fashion brand Marco De Vincenzo, taking a minority 45% stake in the firm.[17][18]

In April 2017, LVMH announced it would gain ownership of Christian Dior haute couture, leather, both men's and women's ready-to-wear, and footwear lines, to integrate the entire Christian Dior brand within its luxury group.[19]

In January 2018, LVMH announced record sales of 42.6 billion Euros in 2017, up 13% over the previous year, as all divisions turned in strong performances. In the same year, the net profit increased 29%.[20]

On November 1, 2018, co-founder Alain Chevalier died at age 87.[21]

On 12 May 2019 the fashion house Fenty, styled as FEИTY, created by singer Rihanna was launched by LVMH in Paris. It is the first new fashion house by LVMH in 32 years and she is the first woman of colour to head a brand under LVMH.[22]

On 15 July 2019, LVMH announced a new partnership to further develop the Stella McCartney House.[23]

On 29 November 2019, LVMH announced its 55% stake in Château d’Esclans, the producer best-known for the brand Whispering Angel.[24] The acquisition was part of LVMH's move to offer a beloved high-end rosé portfolio, in addition to reaching customers worldwide.[25][26]

In November 2019, LVMH planned to acquire Tiffany & Co. for approximately US $16.2 billion. The deal was expected to close by June 2020.[27] LVMH issued a statement in September 2020 indicating that the takeover would not proceed, and that the deal was "invalid" because of Tiffany's handling of the business during the COVID-19 pandemic.[28] Subsequently, Tiffany filed suit against LVMH, asking the court to compel the purchase or to assess damages against the defendant; LVMH planned to counter sue, alleging that mismanagement had invalidated the purchase agreement.[29] In mid-September 2020, a reliable source told Forbes (magazine) that the reason for Arnault's decision to cancel the Tiffany purchase was purely financial: because Tiffany was paying millions in dividends to shareholders despite a financial loss of US$32 million during the pandemic. Some US$70 million had already been paid out by Tiffany, with an additional US$70 million scheduled to be paid in November 2020.[30] LVMH filed a counterclaim against the court action commenced by Tiffany; a statement issued by LMVH blamed Tiffany's mismanagement during the pandemic and claimed that it was 'burning cash and reporting losses'".[31] In late October 2020 Tiffany and LVMH agreed to the original takeover plan, though at a slightly reduced price of nearly $16 billion, a minor reduction of 2.6% from the aforementioned deal. The new deal reduced the amount paid per share by LVMH from the original price of $135 to $131.50.[32] LVMH completed the purchase of Tiffany in January 2021.[33]

In January 2022, LVMH acquired a minority stake in the New York-based label Aimé Leon Dore for an undisclosed sum. The investment was made through the conglomerate's LVMH Luxury Ventures arm.[34]

LVMH has the largest market capitalization in France,[35] and now in the Euro zone, with a record of 261 billion euros ($317.6 billion) as of December 31, 2020.[36] As of December 2020, Arnault's own fortune was nearly half that, with a personal net worth of $151.7 billion.[37]

Corporate structureEdit

LVMH is headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.[4] The company is listed on the Euronext Paris exchange,[38] and is a constituent of the CAC 40 index. As of 2010, the group had revenues of €20.3 billion with a net income of just over €3 billion.[39] By 29 February 2016, the company had a share value of 78,126 million euros, distributed in 506,980,299 shares. In 2013, with revenue of $21.7 billion, LVMH was ranked first luxury goods company in Deloitte's "Global Powers of Luxury Goods" report.[40] The group currently employs more than 83,000 people.[39] Thirty percent of LVMH's staff work in France. LVMH operates over 2,400 stores worldwide.[41] Its current business plan aims to tightly control the brands it manages in order to maintain and heighten the perception of luxury relating to their products. For example, Louis Vuitton products are sold only through Louis Vuitton boutiques found in upmarket locations in wealthy cities or in concessions in other luxury goods shops (such as Harrods in London).

ShareholdersEdit

At the end of 2017, the only declared major shareholder in LVMH was Arnault Family Group, the holding company of Bernard Arnault. The group's control amounted to 46.84% of LVMH's stock and 63.13% of its voting rights.[42]

LVMH holds 66% of the drinks division, Moët Hennessy, with the remaining 34% held by Diageo.[43]

Christian Dior SE is the main holding company of LVMH, owning 40.9% of its shares, and 59.01% of its voting rights.[44] Bernard Arnault is Chairman and CEO of both companies.[45] In 2017, Arnault purchased all the remaining Christian Dior shares in a reported $13.1 billion buy out.

SubsidiariesEdit

A partial list including some of LVMH's best-known brands and subsidiaries:[41][46]

Journées ParticulièresEdit

Launched in 2011, Journées Particulières is an bi-annual event which allows visitors to enter the various ateliers, studios, caves and mansions owned by LVMH, for free.

For the first edition we were not at all certain that the public would come. I speak about that with some emotion. I remember coming along avenue Montaigne at 8AM that first morning and seeing hundreds of people, families, elderly ladies and little kids waiting for the doors of avenue Montaigne 30 to open and I thought we are going to write a beautiful page in history.

— Antoine Arnault, referring to Christian Dior's headquarters[47]

It is staged every two years, and has opened doors in France, Italy, Switzerland, the UK, the Netherlands, Spain and Germany, with 56 brands welcoming guests into over 70 sites on four continents. The 2017 issue attracted 145,000 visitors.[47]

CharityEdit

LVMH is a major patron of art in France. The group supported about ten exhibitions as "Le grand monde d’Andy Warhol"[48] and "Picasso et les maîtres"[49] at le Grand Palais in Paris. LVMH also endorsed the patronage of "l'atelier d'Alberto Giacometti" and "Yves Klein" at Centre Georges Pompidou.

Since 2005, when the LVMH flagship store opened in Paris at 3, avenue George V, 75008, the company presented close collaboration with contemporary artists.[50] Features included a light sculpture by American James Turrell, a 20-metre (65 feet) long "travelling staircase" showcasing the work of American video artist Tim White-Sobieski and an elevator linking the store to the top floor by Iceland's Olafur Eliasson.[51]

In 2006, gallery space was inaugurated on the second floor of the same building and named "Espace Culturel".[52] "Icônes" was one of the first exhibitions.[53] Shigeru Ban, Sylvie Fleury, Zaha Hadid, Bruno Peinado, Andrée Putman, Ugo Rondinone, James Turrell, Tim White-Sobieski and Robert Wilson were the nine artists invited by Louis Vuitton to participate in it.[47]

In addition, LVMH foundation created the "young creators LVMH award", an international competition opened to French and international beaux-arts students.[54] Each year, six grants are allocated to the winners.

In November 2013, LVMH created the LVMH Young Fashion Designer Prize, which comes with a €300,000 grant with a year of mentoring and is the brainchild of Delphine Arnault.[55] The first winner has been chosen in 2014.[55][56] In February 2014 20 finalists for the prize were shown in London, such as Simone Rocha, Thomas Tait, Meadham Kirchhoff, Marques'Almeida, J JS Lee, and others.[57] In May 2015 Marques'Almeida was announced as the second winner.[58]

LVMH underwrites other fashion competitions, including the Andam prize in France, the International Festival of Fashion and Photography in Hyères, France, an investment fund for young designers created by the French Ministry of Culture and Communication, and a scholarship program and sponsored lecture theater at Central Saint Martins in London.[55]

The group also lends Stradivarius violins to young talented musicians. Maxim Vengerov and Laurent Korcia have used the instruments.

In 2014, LVMH opened the Fondation Louis Vuitton pour la Creation in a new building designed by Frank Gerry in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris. The Fondation is designed the Group's own museum to present its collections and organize major world-class art exhibitions.

On 26 August 2019, Bernard Arnault has declared that LVMH will donate $11 million to help fight the 2019 Brazil wildfires.[59]

During the COVID-19 crisis, the group shifted its production of perfume and spirits towards hand sanitizer. This production of 12 tons has been offered to hospitals in Paris, France.[60]

In 2022, Louis Vuitton announced a €1m donation to UNICEF to help the Ukrainian victims of the Russian invasion.[61] On March 2, 2022, LVMH Group pledged €5 m to the Red Cross to those affected by the war.[62][63] In addition, the company closed 124 of its stores in Russia.[64]

E-commerceEdit

On 24 May 2018, LVMH launched an e-commerce initiative by investing in online fashion search business Lyst, as a way for LVMH's luxury brands to expand their presence online and capture younger shoppers.[65] LVMH contributed to Lyst's $60 million funding round, which also included access to LVMH's international expertise, designed to drive Lyst's global expansion.[66]

Financial dataEdit

Financial data (in million euros) 2006[67] 2007[67] 2008[67] 2009[67] 2010[39] 2011 2012 2013 2014[68] 2015[69] 2016[70] 2017[2]
Sales 15,306 16,481 17,193 17,053 20,320 23,659 28,103 29,016 30,638 35,664 37,600 42,636
Net profit (before minority interests) 2,160 2,331 2,318 1,973 3,032 3,065 3,909 3,947 6,105 4,001 4,363 5,616
Total equity 11,594 12,528 13,887 14,785 18,204 23,512 25,666 27,907 23,003 25,799 27,903 30,260

ControversyEdit

John Galliano's anti-semitismEdit

On 25 February 2011, Christian Dior announced they had suspended designer John Galliano following his arrest over an alleged anti-semitic tirade in a Paris bar.[71] In France, it is against the law to make anti-semitic remarks of this nature, and it can be punished by up to six months in prison.[72] On 1 March 2011, Christian Dior officially announced that it had fired Galliano amidst the controversy.[73]

Sebastian SuhlEdit

In 2012 former Prada COO Sebastian Suhl was hired by Givenchy as the company's new CEO.[74] The Asian Transnational Corporation Monitoring Network (ATNC), a network made of 15 organizations from 12 Asian countries wrote a letter of concern to LVMH Group's Bernard Arnault as Suhl was at the same time a key person in the Prada Female Discrimination Case where he described as complicit in sexual harassment and discrimination practices.[75][76]

CorruptionEdit

During December 2021, LVMH paid €10m to settle claims in Paris to end several criminal investigations that a former French intelligence chief, Bernard Squarcini, spied for the company, on competitors and others including on an activist making a film about its billionaire owner, Bernard Arnault. Prosecutors allege that the intelligence chief used tactics like influence peddling, invasion of privacy leveraging his network in intelligence and police on behalf of the company.[77]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit