John Charles Galliano CBE, RDI (born November 28, 1960) is a Gibraltar-born British-Spanish fashion designer who was the head designer of French fashion companies Givenchy (July 1995 to October 1996), Christian Dior (October 1996 to March 2011), and his own label John Galliano (1988 to 2011). At present, Galliano is the creative director of Paris-based fashion house Maison Margiela.
|Born||Juan Carlos Antonio Galliano-Guillén
28 November 1960
|Other names||Juan Carlos Antonio Galliano-Guillén|
|Education||Central Saint Martins|
|Awards||British Fashion Designer of the Year for 1987, '94, '95 and '97
Dress of the Year Fashion Museum, Bath for 1987
Order of the British Empire (2001)
French Legion of Honour (2009; revoked 2012)
He was born in Gibraltar to a Gibraltarian father, Juan Galliano, and a Spanish mother, Anita, and has two sisters. Galliano's father was a plumber. His family moved to England in pursuit of work when Galliano was six, and settled in Streatham, South London, before moving to Dulwich and later to Brockley. He was raised in a strict Roman Catholic family. Galliano, who was shy and diffident, often spoke of his struggle to fit in. Recalling his early days, he once admitted: "I don't think people here understood where I was coming from." His mother, a flamenco teacher, would dress him in his "smartest" outfit even for a trip to the local shops. His attire, combined with his creative sensibilities, caused him frequent persecution at the London boys' grammar school he attended.
After attending St. Anthony's School and Wilson's Grammar School in London, Galliano went on to study at Saint Martin's School of Art, from which he graduated in 1984 with a first class honours degree in Fashion Design. His first collection was inspired by the French Revolution and entitled Les Incroyables. The collection received positive reviews and was bought in its entirety for resale in the London fashion boutique Browns. Galliano then started his own fashion label alongside long-term collaborators Amanda Harlech, at that time stylist with Harpers and Queen, and Stephen Jones, a milliner.
On the back of this success, Galliano rented studio space in London, but his talent was not matched by a head for business. Moreover, he would take his enjoyment of London's nightlife to extremes. Initially, financial backing came from Johan Brun, and when this agreement came to an end, Danish entrepreneur Peder Bertelsen, owner of firm Aguecheek, who were also backing Katharine Hamnett at the time, took over. This agreement ended in 1988 and by 1990, he was bankrupt and, after his own London-based label failed to re-ignite his fortunes, he moved to Paris in search of financial backing and a strong client base. . Galliano secured the backing of Paris-based Moroccan designer Faycal Amor (owner and creative director of fashion label Plein Sud) who invited him to set up his base in Paris at the Plein Sud headquarters. His first show was in 1989 as part of Paris Fashion Week.
Media fashion celebrity Susannah Constantine has worked for Galliano, and he has also aided the future success of other designers including shoe designer Patrick Cox. In 1991, he collaborated with Kylie Minogue, designing the costumes for her Let's Get to It Tour.
In 1993, Galliano's financial agreement with Amor ended and he did not have a showing in October, missing the season. With the help of American Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour and André Leon Talley, then European Correspondent at Vanity Fair, Galliano was introduced to Portuguese socialite and fashion patron Sao Schlumberger and financial backers of venture firm Arbela Inc, John Bult and Mark Rice. It was through this partnership that Galliano received the financial backing and high society stamp needed to give him credibility in Paris. This collection was important in the development of Galliano as a fashion house, and is regarded as a 'fashion moment' in high fashion circles.
In July 1995, he was appointed as the designer of Givenchy by Bernard Arnault, owner of luxury goods conglomerate LVMH, thus becoming the first British designer to head a French haute couture house. On 21 January 1996, Galliano presented his first couture show at the helm of Givenchy at the Stade de France. The collection received high praise within the fashion media. Some of Galliano's designs for Givenchy were licensed to Vogue Patterns. He was later replaced by Alexander McQueen.
In October 1996, LVMH moved Galliano to Christian Dior, replacing Italian designer Gianfranco Ferré. At Dior, Galliano received critical acclaim for his Haute Couture and ready-to-wear collections.
On 25 February 2011, Dior announced they had suspended Galliano following his arrest over an alleged anti-Jewish tirade in a Paris bar. The same day, Paris-based citizen journalism site Citizenside received video of Galliano on a similar rant in the same bar the previous December. In the video a drunk Galliano, seated at a café table, insults a group of Italian women and declares "I love Hitler... People like you would be dead. Your mothers, your forefathers would all be fucking gassed." This incident happened just before the Paris Fashion Week for Autumn/Winter 2011-12.
The show-business industry expressed mixed feelings towards the designer's anti-semitic speech. Natalie Portman who had an endorsement contract with Dior, said she was "deeply shocked" by Galliano's comments and that "these still-existing prejudices... are the opposite of all that is beautiful." On the other hand, another model for Dior, French actress Eva Green, said of the incident: "Sometimes, you can make mistakes. I don't think he's anti-semitic. I'm Jewish. I don't think he has anything against the Jews. I think it's more that he was probably a bit drunk."
Galliano denied the allegations through his lawyer, and launched a defamation lawsuit against the couple accusing him of antisemitism. On 1 March 2011, Dior announced that it had begun procedures of dismissal for Galliano, with Dior's chief executive Sidney Toledano stating, "I very firmly condemn what was said by John Galliano". Dior announced it will continue to support the Galliano brand financially due to licence despite the scandal, and Bill Gaytten would replace John Galliano as creative director at the helm of Dior and the Galliano brand.
In France, expressing anti-semitic ideas is illegal. It was reported on 2 March 2011 that Galliano was to face trial in Paris for allegedly "making racist comments to customers in a café". The trial commenced on 22 June 2011. Galliano's lawyer argued that the "series of public outbursts during which he uttered racist and anti-Semitic insults in a Paris café" were the result of "work-related stress and multiple addictions." On 8 September 2011, Galliano was found guilty of making anti-semitic remarks and sentenced to pay a total of €6,000 in suspended fines after a French court found him guilty of voicing public insults on account of race.
Subsequent legal actionEdit
This section needs to be updated.(December 2016)
A Paris commercial court, in March 2011, rejected a claim for damages by Galliano’s company, Cheyenne Freedom, "following the termination of its consultancy agreements with Christian Dior Couture SA". The court ordered Cheyenne Freedom to pay Dior €1.17 million "for hurting the company’s image and reputation".
On 21 November 2013, the Paris Court of Appeals rejected an appeal by Christian Dior Couture SA, which was seeking to move the case to a commercial court from the Conseil de prud’hommes (Labour Court) and ordered Christian Dior Couture SA and John Galliano SA each to pay the Galliano €2,500 and court costs. Galliano "is seeking compensation in the range of 6 million euros". Jean Néret of Jeantet Associés is representing Christian Dior Couture SA and John Galliano SA. Chantal Giraud-van Gaver of Coblence & Associés represents John Galliano.
In early 2013, Galliano accepted an invitation from Oscar de la Renta, brokered by Anna Wintour, for a temporary residency at de la Renta's design studio to help prepare for a showing of his Fall 2013 ready-to-wear collection during February New York Fashion Week. Galliano also received a measure of absolution from the Anti-Defamation League, which lauded his efforts to atone for his misdeeds and wished him well. The ADL again came to his defense after the New York Post ran a photo of him on his way to the de la Renta show dressed in what it claimed was Hasidic-like garb. Galliano remained backstage at the show, which received favourable reviews amid speculation about his future, including as a possible successor to Mr. de la Renta and that Galliano might take up a teaching post at Parsons The New School for Design. On 12 June 2013, John Galliano's first filmed interview since his dismissal from Christian Dior was broadcast on United States television. He closed this conversation by stating, "I am able to create. I am ready to create... [and] I hope through my atonement I'll be given a second chance."
On 6 October 2014, the OTB Group announced that John Galliano had joined Maison Margiela to take the responsibility of the creative direction of the house, marking the designer’s return to fashion. Just a few weeks later, on the occasion of the annual British Fashion Awards, Galliano presented the Outstanding Achievement Award to Anna Wintour who wore Galliano's first creation for Maison Martin Margiela, "an unambiguous fashion blessing" from the Editor in Chief of American Vogue according to Vanessa Friedman, Fashion Director of the New York Times.
Galliano exhibited his first couture collection for Margiela during London Collections: Men, on 12 January 2015. He told French Elle in 2018 that he would stop using fur in his collections, citing as inspiration from a meeting with Penelope Cruz and PETA's Dan Matthews.
- British Designer of the Year (1987, 1994, 1995, 1997). In 1997, he shared the award with Alexander McQueen, his successor at Givenchy.
- Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2001 Birthday Honours List for his services to the Fashion Industry as a Fashion Designer. He received his CBE on 27 November 2001 at Buckingham Palace in London, England.
- RDI for his contribution to the fashion industry (2002).
- Appearance on The Independent on Sunday's 2007 "pink list" for being one of "the most influential gay people in Britain."
- French Legion of Honour (2009). The medal was withdrawn by decree of the president of the Republic, François Hollande, published in the official journal on 20 August 2012.
In interviews, Galliano has given his full name as Juan Carlos Antonio Galliano-Guillén. He had a relationship with fellow Central St Martins student and fashion designer John Flett (1963-1991), whom Galliano described as his "soulmate". Galliano currently shares his Paris home with his long-term partner Alexis Roche, a style consultant. He is vegetarian for health reasons, telling French Elle that "The energy that I get from having fewer toxins in my body is extraordinary."
- Le freak c'est chic (part two), Michael Spencer, guardian.co.uk, 30 November 2003
- David James Smith, "The Secret Torments of Galliano", Sunday Times Magazine, 22 August 2011, p. 20, at p. 27: "I ordered his birth certificate from the Gibraltar registry and in fact he was named John Charles Galliano".
- White, Belinda (15 April 2011). "John Galliano sacked from his eponymous label". London: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 June 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Socha, Miles (6 October 2014). "John Galliano Joins Maison Martin Margiela". New York: Women's Wear Daily. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "iPod designer voted UK's most influential cultural icon". The Register. 17 November 2016.
- "iPod designer leads culture list". BBC. 17 November 2016.
- Profile: John Galliano BBC News, 1 March 2011
- Knight, Kathryn (5 March 2011). "Why Galliano imploded: The fashion king is now in rehab fighting his obsession with his own Jewish roots". Daily Mail. UK. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- "John Galliano" by Colin McDowell, page 74 – ISBN 0-297-81938-0
- Interview with JOHN GALLIANO by Paula Reed, Grazia magazine, London 21 September 2010
- Barber, Lynn (18 August 2007). "My brilliant career". The Guardian. London.
- Amy Odell. "John Galliano Reminisces About His Eighties Club Days - The Cut". Nymag.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
-  Archived 29 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Just a couple of swells". The Guardian. London. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- Chris Rovzar, Galliano Ascending, Vanity Fair, 5 June 2013
- John Galliano, Vogue
- PatternVault blog, 1 August 2011 John Galliano for Givenchy: Vogue Patterns
- "John Galliano" by Colin McDowell, page 15; ISBN 0-297-81938-0
- New York Times article: "In Paris, Tempted by History"
- "John Galliano suspended by Dior following arrest over 'anti-semitic rant'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011.
- Belinda White, Dior ambassador Natalie Portman speaks out on Galliano Archived 15 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Telegraph, 1 March 2011
- Lauren Milligan, My Friend John, Vogue, 6 June 2011
- Horyn, Cathy (28 February 2011). "Natalie Portman Condemns Galliano". The New York Times.
- "Natalie Portman, Dior Directors Slam John Galliano's Anti-Semitic Comments". Fox News. 1 March 2011.
- Eva Green interview: "Playing evil" by Elizabeth Day, The Observer, Sunday 5 June 2011
- "John Galliano sacked by fashion house Dior". BBC News. 1 March 2011.
- "Now Galliano Files Defamation Lawsuit". Fashion Scandal. February 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- "MSNBC report on Galliano". msn.com. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- "John Galliano to stand trial in June". London: telegraph.co.uk. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- "John Galliano in court over race insults claims". The Guardian. London. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- Diderich, Joelle (28 November 2013). "Galliano Case to Head Back to Labor Court". WWD. Retrieved 29 November 2013.(subscription required)
- "Designer Galliano sentenced in anti-Semitism case". msn.com. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- "Is John Galliano Staging A Successful Comeback?", by Terri Pous, Time, 25 January 2013.
- "ADL Welcomes Recovery and Redemption of Fashion Designer John Galliano", ADL Press Release, 18 January 2013.
- "Jew-bash designer Galliano's costume mocks faithful" by Doree Lewak, David Seifman and Jeane MacIntosh, New York Post, 13 February 2013.
- "ADL: New York Post Story on John Galliano ‘A Complete Distortion’", ADL Press Release, 13 February 2013.
- "Oscar de la Renta / Fall 2013 RTW" Archived 9 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. by Mark Holgate, Vogue, 12 February 2013.
- "Oscar de la Renta RTW Fall 2013", Women's Wear Daily, 12 February 2013.
- "A Tentative Step by a Fallen Star to Come Back" by Eric Wilson, The New York Times, 13 February 2013
- "Parsons Dean of Fashion ‘Loves John Galliano’" by Hilary Moss, The Cut, New York Magazine, 20 March 2013.
- "John Galliano". Charlie Rose. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "OTB Announcement" (PDF). Otb.net. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Anna Wintour Wears Margiela by John Galliano: The Message and the Dress". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- Florence Besson,"Un Duo Anti-Fourrure," Elle, 30 March 2018, see also Marrisa G Muller, "Maison Margiela’s John Galliano Going Fur Free Too," W, 4 April 2018.
- "Supplement No. 1, (Queen's Birthday Honours)". London Gazette. 16 June 2001. p. 24 of 50. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
John Charles Galliano, Fashion Designer. For services to the fashion industry.
- "Home > News > UK > This Britain The pink list 2007: The IoS annual celebration of the great and the gay". The Independent on Sunday. London. 6 May 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- Bumpus, Jessica (5 January 2009). "Galliano Honoured". Vogue. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- [Le HuffPost/AFP] (24 August 2012). John Galliano privé de Légion d'honneur après ses propos antisémites. Le Huffington Post/Le Monde. Accessed January 2014.
- Sischy, Ingrid (July 2013). "Galliano in the Wilderness". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Fox, Imogen (1 June 2015). "The lowdown on Amal Clooney's new stylist (and yes, he is John Galliano's boyfriend)". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Florence Besson,"Un Duo Anti-Fourrure," Elle, 30 March 2018, see also Marrisa G Muller, "Maison Margiela’s John Galliano Going Fur Free Too," W, 4 April 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Galliano.|
- John Galliano at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Official website of John Galliano S.A., a company that no longer employs Mr. Galliano
Hubert de Givenchy
|Head Designer Givenchy
|Head Designer Christian Dior