Givenchy (US: /ɡəˈvɪni, ˌʒvɒ̃ˈʃ/,[1] French: [ʒivɑ̃ʃi]) is a French luxury fashion and perfume house. It hosts the brand of haute couture clothing, accessories and Parfums Givenchy, perfumes and cosmetics. The house of Givenchy was founded in 1952 by designer Hubert de Givenchy and is a member of Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture et du Pret-a-Porter. It is owned by luxury conglomerate LVMH.

Givenchy
TypeSubsidiary
IndustryFashion
Founded1952; 70 years ago (1952)
FounderHubert de Givenchy
Headquarters3 Avenue George V, ,
Key people
Renaud de Lesquen (President & CEO)
Matthew M. Williams (Creative Director)
Products
  • Clothing
  • Accessories
  • Perfumes
  • Cosmetics
Number of employees
3800 (2018)
ParentLVMH
Websitegivenchy.com

From 2 May 2017 until 10 April 2020, its artistic director was Clare Waight Keller, the first woman to hold that position.[2]

HistoryEdit

Formation and first yearsEdit

 
The House of Givenchy

In 1952, Hubert de Givenchy founded his own luxury house and launched a new collection Les Séparables with some floaty skirts and puffy blouses made from raw cotton.[3]

Givenchy achieved critical acclaim with Vogue magazine praising his "wonderful first collection" 14. The collection included the Bettina Blouse a white shirt named in honour of Bettina Graziani, which was then painted in one of René Gruau's works.[4]

The New York Times magazine published an article entitled "A Star Is Born" and l’Album du Figaro also wrote a feature stating that "In one night, Hubert de Givenchy became one of fashion’s most famous children with his first collection."[5]

Models such as Suzy Parker and Dorian Leigh became muses of the house.[6]

In terms of innovation, he used 'shirting', a raw cotton similar to pattern paper, to create his chic and casual collections.[7]

In 1954, Hubert de Givenchy presented the first shirt dress (which later evolved in to a sack dress in 1957). He was the first high fashion designer to create a luxury ready-to-wear clothing line, called "Givenchy Université", which was produced in Paris using machinery imported from the United States.[8]

1950s: Balenciaga and GivenchyEdit

 
Givenchy short dress and hat worn by Audrey Hepburn in 1961 movie Breakfast at Tiffany's

In 1956, both Cristóbal Balenciaga and Hubert de Givenchy presented their collection in New York during a charity gala in aid of the American hospital in Paris.[9]

ExpansionEdit

In 1969, Hubert de Givenchy launched his fashion line for men, "Gentleman Givenchy". The boutique was opened in November on Avenue George V.[9]

On the advice of Cristóbal Balenciaga, Givenchy developed his licences in the 1970s, in order to protect the Haute Couture collections.[10]

During this period, the House of Givenchy diversified its activities to create shoes, jewellery, ties, tableware, upholstery and kimono. Hubert de Givenchy was chosen to design the interior of Hilton hotels around the world, and even a car (the Continental Mark V).[11]

 
Winter 1990s evening dress by Givenchy

Hubert de Givenchy was elected the personality of the year 1979 and the most elegant man of the year by The Best Magazine.[12]

In 1982, a retrospective presided by Audrey Hepburn was organized by the Fashion Institute of Technology of New York.[13]

The following year Hubert de Givenchy was named « chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur » and in 1985, Jacques Lang, the French minister of the Culture, gave him the Oscar dedicated to the art of elegance during a celebration at the Opera in Paris.[12]

Departure of Hubert de GivenchyEdit

 
1988 evening dress by Givenchy

In 1988, Givenchy joined LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton.[14]

Hubert de Givenchy left the company in 1995.[citation needed] He was succeeded by a variety of young British creators including John Galliano, Alexander McQueen and Julien MacDonald.

2005–2017, Riccardo TisciEdit

The reins for both collections were passed on to Riccardo Tisci in 2005 when he was named artistic director of womenswear. Riccardo Tisci has proposed to the House his own style and influences. By changing the house codes, Riccardo Tisci adds some dark and sensual romanticism touch.[15]

Philippe Fortunato, the former chief operating of LVMH Moet Hennessy Vuitton SA – China, is the current Chief Operating at Givenchy.[16]

Givenchy designs have been worn by a number of celebrities on red carpet occasions, including Rooney Mara at the 2012 Academy awards. Also responsible for working with Madonna designing her costumes for her Sticky & Sweet tour as well as the 2012 Super Bowl Halftime Show.[17]

In 2016, Tisci launched a sportswear collaboration with Nike called NikeLab x RT: Training Redefined aimed at Olympic athletes for the 2016 Summer Olympics as everyday gym users.[18]

In February 2017, Riccardo Tisci announced that he would be leaving Givenchy, after twelve years working as the brands Creative Director.[19]

2017–2020, Clare Waight KellerEdit

The House of Givenchy announced the appointment of Clare Waight Keller as Artistic Director, effective 2 May 2017. Waight Keller took on all creative responsibilities, including Women’s and Men’s Ready-to-wear and accessories collections, as well as Haute Couture.[20] Meghan Markle wore a gown from Claire Waight Keller at her wedding to Prince Harry on 19 May 2018.[21]

After successfully running three consecutive combined shows under the assistance of Keller, the brand announced to bring back the menswear collection calendar for the autumn/winter 2019 season.[22]

Icons and the cinemaEdit

Audrey HepburnEdit

In 1953, Audrey Hepburn and Hubert de Givenchy met by the intermediary of Gladys de Segonzac in a way to create her costumes for Sabrina by Billy Wilder. As Gladys de Segonzac had organized the meeting with 'Miss Hepburn', the fashion designer thought that he was going to receive Katharine Hepburn. Dressed in a pink and white gingham privateer, a T-shirt and a gondolier hat, the British actress received some prototypes of the future collection. Audrey Hepburn decided to wear Givenchy clothes on and off the screen, such as in Sabrina (1954), Love in the Afternoon (1957), Funny Face (1957), Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), Charade (1963), Paris When It Sizzles (1963), How to Steal a Million (1965) and Bloodline (1979).[23][24]

CelebritiesEdit

Givenchy attracted many other celebrities, including the likes of Lauren Bacall, Babe Paley, Michael Norman, Greta Garbo, Elizabeth Taylor, Marlène Dietrich, Jacqueline Kennedy-Onassis, Beyoncé Knowles,[25] Princess Grace of Monaco,[26] Michèle Bennett,[27] and even Wallis Simpson, for whom he created some special garment bags to keep the duchess’s orders from being viewed by other clients. The collection of attire (dress, coat, perfume, etc.) furnished for Simpson would later become known as 'blue Wallis'.[28]

Today, Givenchy dresses many Hollywood stars, including Cate Blanchett, Emma Stone, Lady Gaga, Julianne Moore, Julia Roberts, Rooney Mara, and others.[29] In May 2019, Givenchy confirmed that singer Ariana Grande would be the new face of its Fall and Winter campaign that was unveiled that July.[30][31]

CinemaEdit

  • In 1958, director Otto Preminger photographed David Niven; Jean Seberg and Deborah Kerr in Givenchy on the shooting of ‘Bonjour Tristesse’.
  • Beat the Devil (Plus fort que le diable), 1954 realized by John Huston
  • Sabrina, 1954 realized by Billy Wilder, with Audrey Hepburn
  • Love in the afternoon (Ariane), 1957 realized by Billy Wilder, with Audrey Hepburn
  • La vérité, 1960, realized by H, -G Clouzot
  • Charade, 1963, realized by Stanley Donen, with Audrey Hepburn
  • Paris When It Sizzles (Deux têtes folles), 1964, realized by Richard Quine, with Audrey Hepburn
  • Bloodline (Lié par le sang), 1979 realized by Terence Young, with Audrey Hepburn

OperationsEdit

As of 2013, the company's operations were divided between: "Europe accounts for 42 percent of the business, China 18 percent, Asia-Pacific 14 percent, America 12 percent, the Middle East 7 percent, Japan 4 percent, and the rest of the world 3 percent."[32]

Ad campaignsEdit

The Fall 2010 collection from Givenchy and Riccardo Tisci featured a transgender person for the first time.[33]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Givenchy". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  2. ^ See the first campaign under Givenchy’s new artistic director 11 JULY 2017
  3. ^ Givenchy Elle.fr (in French)
  4. ^ Beyfus, Drusilla (2015). Vogue on Hubert de Givenchy. ABRAMS. p. 160. ISBN 9781613128213.
  5. ^ "French fashion designer Hubert de Givenchy dies aged 91". The Local France. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  6. ^ Shaw, Sophie. "GIVENCHY MUSES THROUGHOUT HISTORY". CR Fashion Book. Hearst Magazine Media, Inc.
  7. ^ All about Givenchy Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Essortment.com
  8. ^ Key fashion moments Stylesequel.com
  9. ^ a b Givenchy Archived 14 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Voguepedia
  10. ^ Givenchy, le couturier des stars Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Bloc.com, Dominique A.C., 18 December 2007 (in French)
  11. ^ The Vogue list: Givenchy Vogue.fr
  12. ^ a b Hubert de Givenchy, entre vies et légendes Jean-Noël Liaut, Grasset (in French)
  13. ^ Thirty years of Givenchy will be displayed Archived 20 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine Palm Beach Daily News, 8 mai 1982
  14. ^ Givenchy : histoire Pure Trends (in French)
  15. ^ Riccardo Tsci, l'esprit fort de Givenchy Madame Figaro
  16. ^ "Oral History: Philippe Fortunato of Givenchy - Worth". worth.com. 5 August 2016.
  17. ^ "BBC News – Oscars 2012: Stars arrive". BBC. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  18. ^ Cristobal, Sarah (18 April 2016). "Givenchy's Riccardo Tisci Designs for Nike". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  19. ^ "Riccardo Tisci | #BoF500 | The Business of Fashion". The Business of Fashion. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  20. ^ Givenchy announces Clare Waight Keller as creative director businessoffashion.com
  21. ^ "Meghan Markle Is Wearing a Givenchy Dress at the Royal Wedding and It's Absolutely Stunning". Harper's BAZAAR. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  22. ^ "Givenchy Returns To Standalone Menswear Shows". Vogue. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  23. ^ Hubert de Givenchy Remembers Audrey Hepburn The Wall Street Journal, le 4 septembre 2012
  24. ^ Audrey Hepburn Tendances Modes, 28 janvier 2008
  25. ^ Givenchy: biography Style Sequel (in French)
  26. ^ Givenchy Elle (in French)
  27. ^ Pezzullo, Ralph (2006). Plunging into Haiti: Clinton, Aristide, and the Defeat of Diplomacy. ISBN 9781604735345.
  28. ^ la duchesse de Windsor: pourquoi elle reste une légende Gala (in French)
  29. ^ "Les tapis rouges et la Maison de couture Givenchy". Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  30. ^ "Ariana Grande is the new face of Givenchy".
  31. ^ "Ariana Grande's Ponytail Is the New Face of Givenchy".
  32. ^ Socha, Miles (7 November 2013). "Givenchy Looks to Capitalize on Momentum". WWD. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  33. ^ "Tisci's Trans Europe Express... Fashionair Paused". Wwd.com. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2012.

External linksEdit