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Pierre Balmain adjusting a dress on model Ruth Ford in 1947 (photographed by Carl Van Vechten)

Haute couture (/ˌt kˈtjʊər/; French pronunciation: ​[ot kutyʁ]; French for 'high sewing', 'high dressmaking', or 'high fashion') is the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is high-end fashion that is constructed by hand from start to finish, made from high-quality, expensive, often unusual fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable sewers—often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques.[1][2] Couture translates literally from French as "dressmaking" but may also refer to fashion, sewing, or needlework[3] and is also used as a common abbreviation of haute couture and refers to the same thing in spirit.[4] Haute translates literally to "high". An haute couture garment is always made for an individual client, tailored specifically for the wearer's measurements and body stance. Considering the amount of time, money, and skill allotted to each completed piece, haute couture garments are also described as having no price tag: budget is not relevant. In modern France, haute couture is a protected name that may not be used except by firms that meet certain well-defined standards.

TerminologyEdit

The term haute couture originally referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth's work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century.[5] The Dapifer notes that Worth would allow his clients to select colors, fabrics, and other details before ever beginning his design process, which was unheard of at the time.[2] In France, the term haute couture is protected by law and is defined by the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Paris based in Paris. The chambre syndicale de la haute couture is defined as "the regulating commission that determines which fashion houses are eligible to be true haute couture houses". Their rules state that only "those companies mentioned on the list drawn up each year by a commission domiciled at the Ministry for Industry are entitled to avail themselves" of the label haute couture.[6] The Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne is an association of Parisian couturiers founded in 1868 as an outgrowth of medieval guilds that regulate its members in regard to counterfeiting of styles, dates of openings for collections, number of models presented, relations with press, questions of law and taxes, and promotional activities. Formation of the organization was brought about by Charles Frederick Worth. An affiliated school was organized in 1930 called L'Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture. The school helps bring new designers to help the "couture" houses that are still present today. Since 1975, this organization has worked within the Federation Francaise, de couture, du Prêt-à-Porter des Couturiers et des Createurs de Mode.[7]

More rigorous criteria for haute couture were established in 1945.[8] To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term haute couture in its advertising and any other way, members of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture must follow specific rules:[citation needed]

  • design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings;
  • have a workshop (atelier) in Paris that employs at least fifteen staff members full-time;
  • have at least twenty full-time technical people, in at least one workshop (atelier); and
  • present a collection of at least fifty original designs to the public every fashion season (twice, in January and July of each year), of both day and evening garments.

The term is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted clothing whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capitals, such as London, Milan, New York City, or Tokyo. In either case, the term can refer to the fashion houses or fashion designers that create exclusive and often trend-setting fashions or to the fashions created. The term haute couture has also taken on further popular meanings referring to non-dressmaking activities, such as production of fine art, music, etc.[9]

HistoryEdit

 
Chanel Haute Couture Fall-Winter 2011–2012 Fashion Show by Karl Lagerfeld
 
Actors in Haute couture, 2012.

Haute couture can be referenced back as early as the 17th Century.[10] Rose Bertin, the French fashion designer to Queen Marie Antoinette, can be credited for bringing fashion and haute couture to French culture.[11] Visitors to Paris brought back clothing that was then copied by local dressmakers. Stylish women also ordered dresses in the latest Parisian fashion to serve as models.

As railroads and steamships made European travel easier, it was increasingly common for wealthy women to travel to Paris to shop for clothing and accessories. French fitters and dressmakers were commonly thought to be the best in Europe, and real Parisian garments were considered better than local imitations.[citation needed]

A couturier (French: [ku.ty.ʁje]) is an establishment or person involved in the clothing fashion industry who makes original garments to order for private clients. A couturier may make what is known as haute couture.[12] Such a person usually hires patternmakers and machinists for garment production, and is either employed by exclusive boutiques or is self-employed.[citation needed]

The couturier Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895), is widely considered the father of haute couture as it is known today.[5][13] Although born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, England, Worth made his mark in the French fashion industry.[2] Revolutionizing how dressmaking had been previously perceived, Worth made it so the dressmaker became the artist of garnishment: a fashion designer. While he created one-of-a-kind designs to please some of his titled or wealthy customers, he is best known for preparing a portfolio of designs that were shown on live models at the House of Worth. Clients selected one model, specified colors and fabrics, and had a duplicate garment tailor-made in Worth's workshop. Worth combined individual tailoring with a standardization more characteristic of the ready-to-wear clothing industry, which was also developing during this period.

Following in Worth's footsteps were Callot Soeurs, Patou, Poiret, Vionnet, Fortuny, Lanvin, Chanel, Mainbocher, Schiaparelli, Balenciaga, and Dior. Some of these fashion houses still exist today, under the leadership of modern designers.[citation needed]

In the 1960s, a group of young designers who had trained under men like Dior and Balenciaga left these established couture houses and opened their own establishments. The most successful of these young designers were Yves Saint Laurent, Pierre Cardin, André Courrèges, Ted Lapidus, and Emanuel Ungaro. Japanese native and Paris-based Hanae Mori was also successful in establishing her own line.

Lacroix is one of the fashion houses to have been started in the late 20th century. Other new houses have included Jean-Paul Gaultier and Thierry Mugler. Due to the high expenses of producing haute couture collections, Lacroix and Mugler have since ceased their haute couture activities.[14]

Modernized haute couture shows are not designed and made to be sold, rather they are exactly what they are displayed for—for show. Instead of being constructed for the purpose of selling and making money, they are made to further the publicity, as well as perception and understanding of brand image.

For all these fashion houses, custom clothing is no longer the main source of income, often costing much more than it earns through direct sales; it only adds the aura of fashion to their ventures in ready-to-wear clothing and related luxury products such as shoes and perfumes, and licensing ventures that earn greater returns for the company. Excessive commercialization and profit-making can be damaging, however. Cardin, for example, licensed with abandon in the 1980s and his name lost most of its fashionable cachet when anyone could buy Cardin luggage at a discount store. It is their ready-to-wear collections that are available to a wider audience, adding a splash of glamour and the feel of haute couture to more wardrobes.[15] Fashion houses still create custom clothing for publicity, for example providing items to the television show Gossip Girl.[16]

The 1960s also featured a revolt against established fashion standards by mods, rockers, and hippies, as well as an increasing internationalization of the fashion scene. Jet travel had spawned a jet set that partied—and shopped—just as happily in New York as in Paris. Rich women no longer felt that a Paris dress was necessarily better than one sewn elsewhere. While Paris is still pre-eminent in the fashion world, it is no longer the sole arbiter of fashion.

Members of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture[1]Edit

Official membersEdit

  1. Adeline André
  2. Alexandre Vauthier
  3. Alexis Mabille
  4. Chanel
  5. Dior
  6. Franck Sorbier
  7. Giambattista Valli
  8. Givenchy
  9. Jean Paul Gaultier
  10. Julien Fournié
  11. Maison Margiela
  12. Maison Rabih Kayrouz
  13. Maurizio Galante
  14. Schiaparelli
  15. Stéphane Rolland[17]

Correspondent members (foreign)Edit

Armani Privé, Atelier Versace, Elie Saab, Valentino

Guest membersEdit

Aouadi, Dice Kayek, Georges Hobeika, Guo Pei, Ilja, Ralph & Russo, Ulyana Sergeenko, Zuhair Murad, J. Mendel, Aganovich

JewelryEdit

Boucheron, Chanel Joaillerie, Chaumet, Dior Joaillerie, Van Cleef & Arpels

AccessoriesEdit

Loulou de la Falaise, Massaro, On aura tout vu

Recent guest members have included the fashion houses of Boudicca, Cathy Pill, Richard René and Udo Edling,[18] as well as Eymeric François, Gerald Watelet [fr], Nicolas Le Cauchois [fr][19] and Ma Ke (Wuyong).[20] In the 2008/2009 Fall/Winter Haute Couture week, Emanuel Ungaro showed as an Official Member.

Former membersEdit

FabricsEdit

SilkEdit

Textiles refer to the fabric or medium being used by designers to create an article of clothing. Silk originates from China where the "Silk worm" was found to live. As time went on, silk began to be traded leading to the creation of the "Silk Road" to be formed, which was a boost to China's economy.[22] The value of silk is distinguished by the form of its use, such as it being used as currency.[23] Silk type of fabric is composed of fibers that are produced by the "Silk Worm" mainly found only in China.[23] There are various kinds of silks, used by designers, found in the textile world. Such as Dupiono, China, Brocade, Jacquard, Satin silk, etc...[24] These various kinds of silks are often used to produce certain styles of clothing. For example, Chiffon silk is used to create draping due to the fact that this silk is a thinner silk than others. Allowing for easier movement and flow of the fabric, thus creating an easier process for draping.[24]

WoolEdit

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from animals such sheep, camels, camelids, goats, or other hairy mammals.[25] Wool was first discovered and used mainly for protection against cold weather.[26] Not all types are acceptable or considered "fine" wool. For instance, fine wool is found only within four breeds of sheep, the other fifteen are not considered to be "fine".[24] Dying wool it is a delicate procedure due to the fact that wool easily absorbs color, so it is important to be cautious in order not to ruin the wool.[24] Some of the more higher-end wools are alpaca, angora, mohair, cashmere, camel hair, and vicuña; each of these wools has a different texture, softness, and richness.[24]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Haute Couture | Fashion A-Z | BoF Education | The Business of Fashion | #BoFEducation". The Business of Fashion. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  2. ^ a b c "What Does Couture Mean- Definition and French Translation – The Dapifer". THE DAPIFER. 2017-02-04. Retrieved 2017-06-10.
  3. ^ "What is Haute Couture made easy – The Odd Portrait". 29 November 2016.
  4. ^ "What is Haute Couture?". Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  5. ^ a b s with the designs of an Englishman named Charles Frederick Worth, haute couture repres an archaic tradition of creating garments by hand with painstaking care and precision". Taunton Press, 2001
  6. ^ Pauline Thomas. "Chambre Syndicale History and Development – Fashion History". Fashion-era.com. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  7. ^ Calasibetta, C., Tortora, P., & Abling, B. (2002). The fairchild dictionary of fashion. (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Fairchild Books.
  8. ^ "Bloomsbury Fashion Central -". www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
  9. ^ "Wuyong – Dancing In A Haute Couture Debut | The Fashion Blog". Fashion-blog.us. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  10. ^ Steele, Valerie (2010). The Berg companion to fashion. Oxford [etc.]: Berg. ISBN 978-1847885630. OCLC 718467384.
  11. ^ Nudelman, Z (2009). The art of couture sewing. London: Bloomsbury Academic. p. 2. ISBN 978-1563675393. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  12. ^ "Merriam-Webster".
  13. ^ Jacqueline C. Kent (2003). Business Builders in Fashion – Charles Frederick Worth – The Father of Haute Couture The Oliver Press, Inc., 2003
  14. ^ End of a fairytale: Christian Lacroix fashion house to strip down. The Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2014
  15. ^ Chevalier, Michel (2012). Luxury Brand Management. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-17176-9.
  16. ^ Meltzer, Marisa (2013-09-19). "Get Me Wardrobe!". The New York Times. p. E1.
  17. ^ "Calendriers". Retrieved 2017-01-03.
  18. ^ "Haute-Couture Fall Winter 2009/2010 Definitive schedule". Archived from the original on 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
  19. ^ "Haute-Couture Spring Summer 2008 Definitive schedule". Archived from the original on 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
  20. ^ "Haute-Couture Fall Winter 2008/2009 Definitive schedule". Archived from the original on 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
  21. ^ "Haute-Couture Spring Summer 2011 Definitive schedule". Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  22. ^ "Silk in Antiquity". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  23. ^ a b "silk | Definition & History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  24. ^ a b c d e Nudelman, Zoya, author. (2016-03-10). The art of couture sewing. ISBN 9781609018313. OCLC 911180187.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ "Wool | animal fibre". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  26. ^ www.sheepcentre.co.uk https://www.sheepcentre.co.uk/wool.htm. Retrieved 2019-06-14. Missing or empty |title= (help)