Cyril Ramaphosa

Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African politician serving as President of South Africa since 2018 and President of the African National Congress (ANC) since 2017. Previously an anti-apartheid activist, trade union leader and businessman, Ramaphosa served as Secretary General to ANC President Nelson Mandela, Deputy President to President Jacob Zuma, and Chairman of the National Planning Commission[2] from 2014 to 2018.


Cyril Ramaphosa
Cyril Ramaphosa - President of South Africa - 2018 (cropped).jpg
5th President of South Africa
Assumed office
15 February 2018
Acting: 14 February 2018 – 15 February 2018
DeputyDavid Mabuza
Preceded byJacob Zuma
18th Chairperson of the African Union
In office
10 February 2020 – 6 February 2021
Preceded byAbdel Fattah el-Sisi[1]
Succeeded byFelix Tshisekedi
14th President of the African National Congress
Assumed office
18 December 2017
DeputyDavid Mabuza
Preceded byJacob Zuma
7th Deputy President of South Africa
In office
26 May 2014 – 15 February 2018
PresidentJacob Zuma
Preceded byKgalema Motlanthe
Succeeded byDavid Mabuza
9th Deputy President of the African National Congress
In office
18 December 2012 – 18 December 2017
PresidentJacob Zuma
Preceded byKgalema Motlanthe
Succeeded byDavid Mabuza
13th Secretary-General of the African National Congress
In office
1 March 1991 – 18 December 1997
PresidentNelson Mandela
Preceded byAlfred Baphethuxolo Nzo
Succeeded byKgalema Motlanthe
Personal details
Born
Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa

(1952-11-17) 17 November 1952 (age 68)
Soweto, Transvaal Province, Union of South Africa
Political partyAfrican National Congress
Spouse(s)
Hope Ramaphosa
(m. 1978; div. 1989)

Nomazizi Mtshotshisa
(m. 1991; div. 1993)

(m. 1996)
Children6
ParentsSamuel Ramaphosa
Erdmuth Ramaphosa
Alma materUniversity of Limpopo
University of South Africa
WebsiteFoundation website Presidency website

He has been called a skillful negotiator[3] and strategist[4] who acted as the ANC's Chief Negotiator during South Africa's transition to democracy.[5] Ramaphosa built up the biggest and most powerful trade union in the country, the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM).[6] He played a crucial role, with Roelf Meyer of the National Party, during the negotiations to bring about a peaceful end to apartheid and steer the country towards its first fully democratic elections in April 1994.[7] Ramaphosa was Nelson Mandela's choice for future president.[8] Ramaphosa is well known as a businessman, and his estimated net worth is over R6.4 billion ($450 million) as of 2018,[9] with 31 properties[10] and previously-held notable ownership in companies such as McDonald's South Africa, chair of the board for MTN and member of the board for Lonmin.

Ramaphosa served as the Deputy President of South Africa from 2014 to 2018. He was later elected President of the African National Congress (ANC) at the ANC National Conference in December 2017. Ramaphosa is the former Chairman of the National Planning Commission,[2] which is responsible for strategic planning for the future of the country, with the goal of rallying South Africa "around a common set of objectives and priorities to drive development over the longer term".[11] He became President of South Africa without a general election, after Jacob Zuma resigned. Ramaphosa was elected president by the National Assembly to his first full term on May 22 following the ANC's victory in the 2019 South African general election. Ramaphosa served as Chairperson of the African Union from 2020 to 2021.[1]

Despite his credentials as an important proponent of his country's peaceful transition to democracy, he has also been criticised for the conduct of his business interests,[12][13][14][15][16] although he has never been indicted for illegal activity in any of these controversies. Controversial business dealings include his joint venture with Glencore[17] and allegations of benefitting illegally from coal deals with Eskom which he has staunchly denied,[18][19] during which Glencore was in the public spotlight for its tendentious business activities involving Tony Blair in the Middle East; his son, Andile Ramaphosa, has also been found to have accepted payments totalling R2 million from Bosasa, the security company implicated in corruption and state capture by the Zondo commission;[20][21] and his employment on the board of directors of Lonmin while taking an active stance when the Marikana Massacre took place on Lonmin's Marikana premises. On 15 August 2012 he called for action against the Marikana miners' strike, which he called "dastardly criminal" conduct that needed "concomitant action" to be taken.[22] He later admitted and regretted his involvement in the act and said that it could have been avoided if contingency plans had been made prior to the labour strike.[23]

Early life

Ramaphosa was born in Soweto, Johannesburg, on 17 November 1952, to Venda parents.[24][25] He is the second of the three children to Erdmuth and retired policeman Samuel Ramaphosa.[26] He attended Tshilidzi Primary School and Sekano Ntoane High School in Soweto.[27] In 1971, he matriculated from Mphaphuli High School in Sibasa, Venda where he was elected head of the Student Christian Movement.[28] He subsequently registered to study law at the University of the North (Turfloop) in Limpopo Province in 1972.[29]

While at university, Ramaphosa became involved in student politics and joined the South African Students Organisation (SASO)[30] and the Black People's Convention (BPC).[31] This resulted in him being detained in solitary confinement for eleven months in 1974 under Section 6 of the Terrorism Act, 1967, for organising pro-Frelimo rallies.[32] In 1976 he was detained again, following the unrest in Soweto, and held for six months at John Vorster Square under the Terrorism Act.[32] After his release, he became a law clerk for a Johannesburg firm of attorneys and continued with his legal studies through correspondence with the University of South Africa (UNISA), where he obtained his B. Proc. Degree in 1981.[33]

Political activist and trade union leader

After completing his legal qualifications and obtaining his degree, Ramaphosa joined the Council of Unions of South Africa (CUSA) as an advisor in the legal department.[27][34] In 1982, CUSA requested that Ramaphosa start a union for mineworkers;[27] this new union was launched in the same year and was named the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM). Ramaphosa was arrested in Lebowa, on the charge of organising or planning to take part in a meeting in Namakgale which had been banned by the local magistrate.[35]

Fight against apartheid

In August 1982, CUSA resolved to form the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), and in December Ramaphosa became its first secretary. Ramaphosa was the conference organiser in the preparations leading to the formation of the Congress of the South African Trade Union (COSATU). He delivered a keynote address at Cosatu's launch rally in Durban in December 1985. In March 1986, he was part of COSATU's delegation which met the African National Congress in Lusaka, Zambia.[36]

Ramaphosa was elected as the first General Secretary of the union, a position he held until he resigned in June 1991,[36] following his election as Secretary-General of the African National Congress (ANC). Under his leadership, union membership grew from 6,000 in 1982 to 300,000 in 1992, giving it control of nearly half of the total black workforce in the South African mining industry. As general secretary, he, James Motlatsi (President of NUM), and Elijah Barayi (Vice-President of NUM) also led the mineworkers in one of the biggest strikes ever in South African history.

In December 1988, Ramaphosa and other prominent members of the Soweto community met Soweto's Mayor to discuss the rent boycott crisis.[37]

In January 1990, Ramaphosa accompanied released ANC political prisoners to Lusaka, Zambia. Ramaphosa served as chairman of the National Reception committee, which coordinated arrangements for the release of Nelson Mandela and subsequent welcome rallies within South Africa and became a member of the international Mandela Reception Committee. He was elected General-Secretary of the ANC in a conference held in Durban in July 1991. Ramaphosa was a visiting Professor of Law at Stanford University in the United States in October 1991.[38]

In 1985, the NUM broke away from CUSA and helped to establish the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). When COSATU joined forces with the United Democratic Front (UDF) political movement against the National Party government of P. W. Botha, Ramaphosa took a leading role in what became known as the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM).[39]

When Nelson Mandela was released from prison, Ramaphosa was on the National Reception Committee.[36]

Secretary-General of the ANC

Subsequent to his election as Secretary-General of the African National Congress in 1991, he became head of the negotiation team of the ANC in negotiating the end of apartheid with the National Party government. Following the first fully democratic elections in 1994, Ramaphosa became a member of parliament; he was elected the chairperson of its Constitutional Assembly on 24 May 1994 and played a central role in the government of national unity.

In 2000, he was appointed to the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning as an arms inspector, responsible for supervising the decommissioning of Provisional IRA armaments.[40]

After he lost the race to become President of South Africa to Thabo Mbeki, he resigned from his political positions in January 1997 and moved to the private sector, where he became a director of New Africa Investments Limited. He came in first place in the 1997 election to the ANC's National Executive Committee.[41]

While not a member of the South African Communist Party (SACP), Ramaphosa has claimed that he is a committed socialist.[42]

The media continually speculated on Ramaphosa joining the race for the presidency of the ANC in 2007, before the 2009 South African presidential election.[43] However, he stated that he is not interested in the presidency. On 2 September 2007, The Sunday Times reported that Ramaphosa was in the election race, but by that evening he had released a statement once again holding back on any commitment.[44]

In December 2007, he was again elected to the ANC National Executive Committee, this time in 30th place with 1,910 votes.[41]

On 20 May 2012, prominent Afrikaner ANC member Derek Hanekom asked Ramaphosa to run for President of the ANC, stating that "We need leaders of comrade Cyril's calibre. I know Cyril is very good at business, but I really wish he would put all his money in a trust and step up for a higher and more senior position". Although it was unknown whether or not Ramaphosa will run for President of the ANC, he attempted to quieten the speculation by responding to Hanekom's comment by stating "You can't read anything [into what he said]. He was joking".[45]

He officially became a candidate for the Deputy Presidency on 17 December 2012 and entered the race with the strong backing of the Zuma camp. On 18 December 2012, he was elected as Deputy President of the ANC. Cyril Ramaphosa received 3,018 votes, while Mathews Phosa received 470 votes and Tokyo Sexwale received 463 votes.[46][47]

Deputy President of South Africa (2014–2018)

 
Cyril Ramaphosa meets with Chilean president Michelle Bachelet, in 2014

Ramaphosa was appointed Deputy President by Jacob Zuma on 25 May 2014 and sworn into office by Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng the following day.[48] Following his appointment, Ramaphosa was made Leader of Government Business in the National Assembly in terms of section 91(4) of the Constitution. His responsibilities included: The affairs of the national executive in Parliament; the programming of parliamentary business initiated by the national executive, within the time allocated for that purpose and ensuring that Cabinet members attend to their parliamentary responsibilities.

On 3 June 2014, President Jacob Zuma announced that Ramaphosa would be appointed as Chairman of the National Planning Commission, with Minister in the Presidency for Planning, Jeff Radebe serving as the commission's deputy chairman.[49]

In July 2014, Ramaphosa called for unity in the country, following calls by Julius Malema to scrap the singing of the Afrikaans portion of the national anthem. Ramaphosa said: "We are about building a nation and we must extend a hand of friendship, a hand of continued reconciliation to those who feel that the national anthem does not represent them any longer, and it can happen on both sides".[50]

Foreign relations

Vietnam and Singapore

Ramaphosa went on a two-day working visit to both Vietnam and Singapore.[51] Ramaphosa said that South Africa and Vietnam needed to expand trade.[52] The two countries have also agreed to co-operate further on education.[53] Both working visits were undertaken to consolidate existing bilateral political, economic and trade relations between South Africa and the two countries. The visit to Singapore provided the South African delegation, led by Ramaphosa, to learn from the Singapore model of economic success and the role of state-owned enterprises and economic growth and national developmental objectives of the country. Bilateral trade has grown significantly with Singapore being South Africa's second-largest trading partner in the ASEAN region; by 2014 bilateral trade amounted to R28.9 billion compared to R23.5 billion in 2015.[54]

Davos

In January 2018, it was announced that president Jacob Zuma would not be leading the South African delegation to the World Economic Forum for the second time, the South African Government announced that Cyril Ramaphosa would be leading the delegation consisting of several South African cabinet officials to promote investment and business in the country.[55]

Stance on corruption

In November 2016, while speaking at the Limpopo Provincial Summit, Ramaphosa said that corruption was at the root of the country's economic ailments. He stated that the South African Government and business community had to find a way to combat corruption, although he didn't mention it by name. He suggested the summit should look at addressing quality and depth of leaders within the public and private sectors by adhering to the National Development Plan.[56]

In the lead up to the 53rd ANC National Conference he spoke of the need to remove corruption from the ANC itself.[57] In his first speech to the Conference as ANC leader he pledged to stamp out corruption.[58]

President of the ANC

Ramaphosa has long been considered a potential presidential candidate and ran in the 1997 ANC Presidential election, losing to Thabo Mbeki.[59]

Ramaphosa announced that he would seek the ANC Presidency in 2017, with his second run for president.[60] Ramaphosa launched his campaign slogan as #CR17 Siyavuma.[61]

By August 2017, Ramaphosa had received the endorsement of the trade union COSATU, the National Union of Mineworkers as well as the Northern Cape, Eastern Cape, and Gauteng provincial ANC leadership. Individuals who also stepped forward to support Ramaphosa include education minister Angie Motshekga, Cosatu's president Sdumo Dlamini, former finance minister Pravin Gordhan and former KwaZulu-Natal Premier Senzo Mchunu.[62]

On 18 December 2017, Ramaphosa was elected the president of the ANC at the party's 54th Elective Conference, defeating his rival Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, ex-wife of President Zuma, by 2,440 votes to 2,261.[63][64]

On 5 May 2021, a letter by suspended party secretary-general, Ace Magashule, was leaked in which Magashule suspends Ramaphosa as ANC president. The reason for the suspension is related to accusations of irregularities in his party election campaign in 2017. However, Gwede Mantashe, national chairperson, indicated that the suspension is invalid, as Magashule was himself suspended at the time of writing the letter[65]

Presidency (2018–present)

 
Presidency of Cyril Ramaphosa
15 February 2018 – present
Cyril Ramaphosa
Cabinet1st Ramaphosa Cabinet
2nd Ramaphosa Cabinet
PartyAfrican National Congress
Election2019
SeatMahlamba Ndlopfu, Pretoria
Genadendal Residence, Cape Town
 
Ramaphosa at the 10th BRICS summit, July 2018

Following President Jacob Zuma's resignation in February 2018, Ramaphosa was elected unopposed as President of South Africa by the National Assembly on 15 February 2018.[66] Ramaphosa took his oath of office in the presidential guesthouse, Tuynhuys, by Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng.[67][68][69]

Markets rallied strongly the day after Ramaphosa assumed the presidency with stocks rising and the rand reaching its firmest since early 2015. Government bonds also increased in strength.[70][71]

On 16 February 2018, Ramaphosa gave his first State of the Nation Address as the President of South Africa, the first time in a democratic South Africa where the President delivered his State of the Nation Address without a Deputy President. Ramaphosa emphasised the need to grow the economy of South Africa, Tourism, youth employment as well as reducing the size of the Cabinet. In this speech, Ramaphosa also focused on the importance of keeping Mandela's legacy alive.[72]

Ramaphosa's speech was met with mostly positive reviews from opposition parties saying that his speech was positive and that it would bring about change, but that they would hold him accountable.[73][74]

On 17 February 2018, Ramaphosa, as commander in chief of the South African National Defence Force, attended the Armed Forces Inter-Faith Service at the Mittah Seperepere Convention Centre in Kimberley and made his first public speech as the President of South Africa.[75]

On 26 February 2018, Ramaphosa, who had inherited Jacob Zuma's cabinet, reshuffled cabinet for the first time removing many of the cabinet members who had been controversial through the Zuma era and who had close links to the Gupta family. Ramaphosa also named the deputy president of the African National Congress and the Premier of Mpumalanga, David Mabuza, as the country's Deputy President.[76][77]

Ramaphosa made his first international trip as the President of South Africa on 2 March 2018 to the Republic of Angola and met with President João Lourenço as the chair of the SADC.[78]

On 8 May 2019, the African National Congress led by President Ramaphosa won 57.50% of the vote in the 2019 South African general election.[79][80] Ramaphosa was subsequently elected unopposed to his first full term as president by the National Assembly on 22 May 2019.[81] As Ramaphosa had previously been elected as president to fill the vacancy left by the resignation of his predecessor, he is constitutionally eligible to serve two full terms.[82]

On 19 July 2019, the Public Protector, Busisiwe Mkhwebane, released a report in which she claimed that Ramaphosa had intentionally misled the Parliament of South Africa over the controversial Bosasa donations to his CR17 ANC presidential campaign. COPE Leader Mosiuoa Lekota called for Ramaphosa to be impeached while DA Leader Mmusi Maimane proposed the establishment of an ad hoc committee to effectively investigate these allegations. Ramaphosa briefed the nation on 21 July 2019 and described the report as "fundamentally flawed" and called for a judicial review of Mkhwebane's findings.[83][84][85][86][87]

At the 2020 AU summit, Ramaphosa expressed support for the African Continental Free Trade Area and described it as a major driver for reigniting industrialization and paving the way for Africa's integration into the global market.[1] Ramaphosa also stated that the free trade agreement will make Africa a player of considerable weight and scale in the global market as well.[1]

At the 2020 AU Summit, Ramaphosa also expressed support for closing the gender gap and ending gender inequality.[1]

Domestic policy

Since Ramaphosa became president he has made land reform and the economy his main priorities, as well as dealing with the outbreak of listeriosis which has claimed the lives of over 100 since the start of 2018.

In February 2018, South Africa's parliament voted 241–83 to begin amending the "property clause" in the constitution to allow the expropriation of land without compensation.[88][89]

On 19 March 2018, Ramaphosa suspended Tom Moyane as the Commissioner of the South African Revenue Service after Moyane had refused to step down.[90][91]

Under his leadership, the African National Congress has pushed for a constitutional amendment allowing the government to confiscate farms owned by White South Africans. He has said that the state having the power to seize property for no compensation will encourage economic growth.[92] In a time when the Rand is at a two-year low, economists have been doubtful over the possibility of this policy being successful.[93]

On 14 August 2018, Ramaphosa appointed Dr. Silas Ramaite as the Acting National Director of Public Prosecutions (NDPP) following the ruling by the Constitutional Court that Director Shawn Abrahams had been appointed unlawfully by former President Jacob Zuma.[94]

South Africa made world headlines because of attacks against foreign nationals within the borders of the country, with many South Africans blaming foreign nationals for the country's socio-economic issues.[95]

On 10 June 2021, Ramaphosa announced that his government would raise the threshold for the amount of electricity that private companies could produce without a license - from 1 Megawatt to 100 Megwatts.[96] The decision was taken in order to respond to the increasing challenges faced by the country during the ongoing energy crisis, and to give "oomph" in Ramaphosa's words, to South Africa's economic recovery.[97]

Initiatives

Ramaphosa launched the Youth Employment Service (YES) initiative as a means to employ one million youth and giving them more experience in the working field, with the South African Government even introducing the Employment Tax Incentive, which would reduce employer's costs when hiring youth.[98][99]

On 14 August 2018, President Ramaphosa addressed the launch of the Sanitation Appropriate For Education (SAFE) initiative in Pretoria to respond to the sanitary challenges facing the country's poorest schools.[100][101]

Foreign policy

 
Ramaphosa with Vladimir Putin, president of Russia

Ramaphosa made his first international trip as President of South Africa to the Republic of Angola and met with President João Lourenço in his capacity as chairperson of the SADC to talk about peace and defence.

On 20 March 2018, Ramaphosa made a trip to Kigali, Rwanda along with Foreign Minister Lindiwe Sisulu, and met with President Paul Kagame and spoke about restoring relations between South Africa and Rwanda, later participating as panelists on the African Continental Free Trade Area Business Forum (ACFTABF) ahead of the 10th African Union Extraordinary Summit. The following day, Ramaphosa signed the Kigali Declaration on the establishment of the ACFTABF at the 10th African Union Extraordinary Summit.[102]

Ramaphosa hosted the 11th BRICS summit for 25–27 July 2018, at the Sandton Convention Centre in Johannesburg.[103]

In January 2019, Ramaphosa congratulated Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro following his second inauguration.[104]

On 10 May 2021, Ramaphosa said that the ANC condemned "in the strongest possible terms" the potential evictions of Palestinian families from their homes in Israeli-occupied East Jerusalem and the "brutal attacks on Palestinian protesters" at Al-Aqsa Mosque.[105]

Coronavirus response

Ramaphosa has been internationally praised for his response to the Coronavirus pandemic in South Africa with the BBC commenting that, in this regard, "Ramaphosa has emerged as a formidable leader - composed, compassionate, but seized by the urgency of the moment."[106] In October 2020, Ramaphosa began a period of self-isolation after a guest at a dinner party he attended tested positive for coronavirus.[107]

Political philanthropy

Ramaphosa publicly declared in South Africa on 24 May 2018 that he would be donating half of his salary (R3.6 million annually) to charity in honour of late former South African president Nelson Mandela. He said the gesture was aimed at encouraging the wealthy to dedicate some of their pay to help build the nation. The donation was set to be managed by the Nelson Mandela Foundation (NMF).[108]

Business career

Among other positions, he was an executive chairman of Shanduka Group, a company he founded. Shanduka Group has investments in the resources sector, energy sector, real estate, banking, insurance, and telecoms (SEACOM).[109] He was also a chairman of Bidvest, and MTN. His other non-executive directorships include Macsteel Holdings, Alexander Forbes and Standard Bank. In March 2007, he was appointed Non-Executive joint Chairman of Mondi, a leading international paper and packaging group, when the company demerged from Anglo American plc. In July 2013, he retired from the board of SABMiller plc.[110]

He is one of South Africa's richest men,[111] with an estimated wealth of R6.4 billion ($450 million).[112]

In 2011, Ramaphosa paid for a 20-year master franchise agreement to run 145 McDonald's restaurants in South Africa.[113] Shortly after the 2014 general election, Ramaphosa announced that he was going to disinvest from Shanduka to fulfil his new responsibilities as Deputy President without the possibility of conflict of interest.[114] McDonald's South Africa announced that there would be a process underway to replace Ramaphosa as the current development licensee of the fast-food chain operation in South Africa.[115]

In 2014, after Ramaphosa became Deputy President of South Africa, the Register of Members' Interests, tabled in Parliament, revealed his wealth. Over and above the more than R76 million he had accumulated in the company shares, the documents showed that he owned 30 properties in Johannesburg and two apartments in Cape Town. The register also confirmed Ramaphosa's resignation from his directorship at Lonmin, for which he had been criticised over the Marikana massacre in 2012.[116][117]

Farmer

During a visit to Uganda in 2004, Ramaphosa became interested in the Ankole cattle breed. Because of inadequate disease control measures in Uganda, the South African government denied him permission to import any of the breed. Instead, Ramaphosa purchased 43 cows from Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni and shipped them to Kenya. There the cows were artificially inseminated, the embryos removed and shipped to South Africa, there transferred to cows and then quarantined for two months. As of August 2017, Ramaphosa had 100 Ankole breeding cows at his Ntaba Nyoni farm in Mpumalanga.[118][119]

In 2017, Ramaphosa co-wrote a book on the breed, Cattle of the Ages, Stories, and Portraits of the Ankole Cattle of Southern Africa.[120]

Controversies

The Marikana massacre,[121] as referred to in the media, occurred when police broke up an occupation by striking Lonmin workers of a "koppie" (hilltop) near Nkaneng shack settlement in Marikana on 16 August 2012. As a result of the police shootings, 34 miners died and an additional 78 miners were injured causing anger and outcry against the police and South African government. Further controversy emerged after it was discovered that most of the victims were shot in the back[122] and many victims were shot far from police lines.[123] The violence on 16 August 2012 was the single most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since the end of the apartheid era.[124]

During the Marikana Commission, it also emerged that Lonmin management solicited Ramaphosa, as Lonmin shareholder and ANC heavyweight, to coordinate "concomitant action" against "criminal" protesters and therefore is seen by many as being responsible for the massacre.[125][126]

Under the investigation of Farlam committee, Ramaphosa said that Lonmin lobbied government and the SAPS firstly to secure a massive police presence at Lonmin and secondly to characterise what was taking place as a criminal rather than an industrial relations event.[127]

The Marikana Commission of Inquiry ultimately found that given the deaths that had already occurred, his intervention did not cause the increase in police on site, nor did he know the operation would take place on 16 August.[128]

In August 2017, Ramaphosa was involved in a scandal that alleged he had been in several extramarital affairs and was involved in paying money to individuals while maintaining the affairs. Ramaphosa later denied the allegations claiming they were politically motivated to derail his presidential campaign.[129]

Honorary doctorates and awards

Among others, Ramaphosa has received honorary doctorates from the University of Natal, the University of Port Elizabeth, the University of Cape Town, the University of the North, the National University of Lesotho, National University of Ireland Galway[130] the University of Massachusetts Boston[131] and the University of Pennsylvania.[132]

Ramaphosa received the Olof Palme prize in Stockholm in October 1987.[133]

In 2004, he was voted 34th in the Top 100 Great South Africans.

Ramaphosa was included in the 2007 Time 100,[134] an annual list of 100 men and women whose power, talent or moral example is transforming the world.

Ramaphosa received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement in 2009, presented by Awards Council member Archbishop Desmond Tutu at an awards ceremony at St. George's Cathedral in Cape Town, South Africa.[135][136]

Ramaphosa was named one of Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People of 2019.[137]

International positions

In his role as a businessman, Ramaphosa is a member of the Coca-Cola Company International Advisory Board as well as the Unilever Africa Advisory Council. He was also the first deputy chairman of the Commonwealth Business Council.

Along with the ex-president of Finland, Martti Ahtisaari, he was appointed an inspector of the Irish Republican Army weapon dumps in Northern Ireland. Ramaphosa is the honorary consul general for Iceland in Johannesburg, South Africa.

In the 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis, which followed the disputed re-election of President Mwai Kibaki in December 2007, Ramaphosa was unanimously chosen by the mediation team headed by Kofi Annan to be the chief mediator in charge of leading long-term talks. However, Kibaki's government expressed dissatisfaction with the choice of Ramaphosa, saying that he had business links with Kibaki's opponent Raila Odinga, and Annan accepted Ramaphosa's withdrawal from the role of chief mediator on 4 February.[138] According to Ramaphosa, Odinga visited him in 2007, but he did not have any "special interest" that would lead him to favour one side or the other;[139] however, he said that he could not be an effective mediator without "the trust and confidence of all parties" and that he, therefore, felt it would be best for him to return to South Africa to avoid becoming an obstacle in the negotiation.[140]

Personal life

Ramaphosa is a very private person and not much is known about his personal life. Ramaphosa was previously married to Hope Ramaphosa (1978–1989) with whom he has a son, and later married and divorced, the now late businesswoman Nomazizi Mtshotshisa (1991–1993). In 1996, he married Tshepo Motsepe,[141] a medical doctor and the sister of South African mining billionaire Patrice Motsepe.[142] Ramaphosa has five known children.[143][144]

He owns a luxury mansion at the foot of Lion's Head in Cape Town.[145] Ramaphosa is known to be one of the richest people in South Africa, with an estimated net worth of more than $450 million and has appeared in financial magazines such as Forbes Africa and Bloomberg.[146]

He is a polyglot, and is known for including a variety of South African languages when delivering most of his speeches.[147] Ramaphosa is also the founder of the Cyril Ramaphosa Foundation.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Simon (10 February 2020). "South African President Cyril Ramaphosa elected African Union Chairperson as continent vows to "silence the guns," boost trade and close gender gap". Today News Africa. Archived from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b "NPC Commissioners". National Planning Commission. 4 February 2015. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  3. ^ Mtimka, Ongama. "Ramaphosa has what it takes to fix South Africa's ailing ANC. But ..." The Conversation. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  4. ^ "How Cyril Ramaphosa and Roelf Meyer joined forces to bring democracy to SA". 702. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Ramaphosa has what it takes to fix South Africa's ailing ANC. But …". Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  6. ^ S., Saul, John. South Africa – the present as history : from Mrs. Ples to Mandela & Marikana. Woodbridge, Suffolk. ISBN 9781847010926. OCLC 872681428.
  7. ^ tinashe (30 June 2011). "Negotiations and the transition". South African History Online. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  8. ^ Munusamy, Ranjeni (20 December 2012). "Cyril Ramaphosa: the return of Nelson Mandela's chosen one". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  9. ^ "Here are the 20 richest people in South Africa". BusinessTech. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  10. ^ "Ramaphosa declares ownership of 31 properties". Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  11. ^ "National Planning Commission". National Planning Commission. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  12. ^ "R2K protest for investigation into MTN and Ramaphosa corruption allegations". Right2Know Campaign. 12 October 2015. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  13. ^ Turner, Craig McKune and George Turner, Craig McKune, George. "Ramaphosa and MTN's offshore stash". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  14. ^ "Ramaphosa sells business stakes, creates billion-dollar black-owned company". BizNews.com. 26 May 2015. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  15. ^ Mawson, Nicola. "Ramaphosa steps down as MTN chairman". ITWeb Technology News. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  16. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa's conflict of interest – Corruption Watch". Corruption Watch. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  17. ^ "Glencore, Ramaphosa eye 50/50 mining JVs in SA". Moneyweb. 11 October 2011. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  18. ^ "Presidency, Glencore slam Ramaphosa Eskom claims". Fin24. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  19. ^ "Did Ramaphosa benefit from Eskom coal deals?". Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  20. ^ "Bosasa paid me R2m, says Andile Ramaphosa | IOL News". www.iol.co.za. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  21. ^ "The Ramaphosas' Bosasa money: Same script, different cast". News24. 27 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  22. ^ Smith, David (24 October 2012). "Lonmin emails paint ANC elder as a born-again robber baron". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  23. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa: The true betrayal | Daily Maverick". Daily Maverick. 26 October 2012. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  24. ^ Butler, Anthony (2011). Cyril Ramaphosa. Johannesburg: Jacana. p. 1. ISBN 9781431401840.
  25. ^ Matlala, Ngwako Modjadji and Alex. "Ramaphosa 'not born in Limpopo'". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  26. ^ Village, Youth (25 October 2013). "25 Things you don't know about Cyril Ramaphosa". Youth Village. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  27. ^ a b c Anonymous (17 February 2011). "Cyril Matamela Ramaphosa". South African History Online. Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Who is Cyril Ramaphosa?". 21 December 2017. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  29. ^ www.lesideesnet.com, Les Idées Net -. "African Success : Biography of Cyril RAMAPHOSA". africansuccess.org. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  30. ^ "South Africa: Overcoming Apartheid". overcomingapartheid.msu.edu. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  31. ^ "Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa | GEC 2017". gec.co. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  32. ^ a b "Cyril Ramaphosa – the man who wants to make South Africa great". BBC News. 2 August 2017. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  33. ^ KAUMBI, UAZUVA. "The curious case of Comrade Cyril – Windhoek Observer". Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  34. ^ "Today in History – YFM | Yona Ke Yona". yworld.co.za. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  35. ^ Anonymous (16 March 2011). "Ramaphosa is arrested". South African History Online. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  36. ^ a b c "PressReader.com – Connecting People Through News". pressreader.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  37. ^ Battersby, John D. (22 February 1988). "Blacks Pressing A Rent Boycott In South Africa". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  38. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: Profile". www.dpme.gov.za. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  39. ^ Spector, J Brooks (22 August 2013). "The UDF at 30: An organisation that shook Apartheid's foundation". The Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  40. ^ "Reports of the Weapons Inspectors". Reports and Statements by the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD). CAIN. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2008.
  41. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  42. ^ Gon, Sara (27 August 2018). "Ramaphosa says he's a socialist – believe him! - Rational Standard". irr.org.za. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  43. ^ "News24, South Africa's premier news source, provides breaking news on national, world, Africa, sport, entertainment, technology & more". News24. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007.
  44. ^ "Reuters.com". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
  45. ^ "Hanekom talks up Ramaphosa". News24. 19 May 2012. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  46. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa: the return of Nelson Mandela's chosen one". The Guardian. 20 December 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  47. ^ Subramany, Deshnee (18 December 2012). "Mangaung: The ANC's newly elected top six". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  48. ^ Bauer, Nickolaus. "Ramaphosa the comeback kid of SA politics". www.enca.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  49. ^ "Profile for new SA ruling party President". www.channelafrica.co.za. 2017. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018.
  50. ^ Ramaphosa: Controversy over "Die Stem" unfortunate Archived 22 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Drum, 24 July 2014
  51. ^ DEPUTY PRESIDENT RAMAPHOSA ON WORKING VISIT TO VIETNAM AND SINGAPORE Archived 7 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Department of International Relations and Cooperation, 10 October 2016
  52. ^ Ramaphosa in Vietnam to boost trade ties Archived 22 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine, eNCA, 5 October 2016
  53. ^ Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa arrives in Vietnam for a Working Visit from 03-04 October 2016 Archived 22 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine, The Presidency, 3 October 2016
  54. ^ Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa lauds visit to Singapore Archived 25 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, The Presidency, 9 October 2016
  55. ^ Groenewald, Yolandi (18 January 2018). "We'll win over sceptics in Davos - Ramaphosa". Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  56. ^ "Address by Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa at the Limpopo Provincial Economic Summit, Polokwane". The Presidency. 4 November 2016. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  57. ^ de Villiers, James; Mathebula, Austil (4 November 2017). "The ANC will remove liars, thieves, at its elective conference in December – Ramaphosa". News24. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  58. ^ "Ramaphosa pledges corruption crackdown in first speech as ANC leader". The Guardian. Johannesburg. Reuters. 21 December 2017. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  59. ^ Gedye, Lloyd. "Ramaphosa: The ANC's prodigal son returns". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  60. ^ "No going back for presidential hopeful Ramaphosa". 6 August 2017. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  61. ^ Whittles, Govan. "ANC presidential race wide open". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  62. ^ Reporter, Citizen (17 June 2017). "Another endorsement for Ramaphosa as West Rand ANC backs him for president". Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  63. ^ Burke, Jason (18 December 2017). "Cyril Ramaphosa chosen to lead South Africa's ruling ANC party". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  64. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa wins ANC presidential race". Archived from the original on 19 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  65. ^ "Even if letter is legit, Magashule has no power to suspend Ramaphosa, says Gwede Mantashe". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  66. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa has been elected president of South Africa". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  67. ^ "WATCH: President Ramaphosa takes oath of office". www.enca.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  68. ^ "The oath is sealed: Ramaphosa is officially President". Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  69. ^ AP, AFP, Bloomberg (15 February 2018). "South Africa's Cyril Ramaphosa takes oath of office". GulfNews. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  70. ^ "Rand rallies over 4% as Ramaphosa takes ANC top job in close contest". Fin24. 18 December 2017. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  71. ^ Khanyile, Neo (19 December 2017). "Stocks rally as Ramaphosa seen as watershed". Moneyweb. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  72. ^ Burke, Jason (16 February 2018). "South Africa: Ramaphosa invokes Mandela in first major speech". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  73. ^ Merten, Marianne (17 February 2017). "SONA 2018: President Ramaphosa promises to turn the tid..." Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  74. ^ Herman, Paul (16 February 2018). "Ramaphosa promises corruption crackdown at maiden SONA". News24. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  75. ^ Gous, Nico (18 February 2018). "Armed Forces Day commemoration will have special meaning this year: Ramaphosa". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  76. ^ Crabtee, Justina (27 February 2018). "Ramaphosa cabinet reshuffle sees investor favorites return to run South Africa's economy". CNBC. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  77. ^ "Ramaphosa's Cabinet reshuffle leaves some happy, others not, as it happened". News24. 26 February 2018. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  78. ^ "Ramaphosa on first official visit to Angola on Friday". SABC NEWS. 1 March 2018. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  79. ^ "South Africa's President Ramaphosa, ANC Hold On To Power In National Elections". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  80. ^ "National Assembly 2019". Elections.org.za. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  81. ^ "#6thParliament: Ramaphosa elected as president | IOL News". www.iol.co.za. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  82. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 5: The President and National Executive". South African Government. Archived from the original on 13 June 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  83. ^ Ramaphosa to launch an urgent judicial review of Mkhwebane's findings Archived 21 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 21 July 2019.
  84. ^ Ramaphosa to brief the nation on Public Protector's Bosasa report Archived 21 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 21 July 2019.
  85. ^ Ramaphosa in desperate fight to defend his presidency Archived 21 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 21 July 2019.
  86. ^ DA wants committee to examine PP's Ramaphosa findings Archived 21 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 21 July 2019.
  87. ^ Cyril Ramaphosa must be impeached, says Mosiuoa Lekota Archived 21 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 21 July 2019.
  88. ^ Da Silva, Chantal (1 March 2018). "Thousands Sign Petition Asking Trump To Let White Farmers in South Africa Migrate to U.S. After Country Votes To Force Them Off Land". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  89. ^ "South Africa farm seizure: Terrified white farmers plot escape as crackdown looms - World - News - Express.co.uk". www.express.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  90. ^ Marrian, Natasha (19 March 2018). "SARS boss Moyane refuses to step down despite Ramaphosa's request". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  91. ^ Marrian, Natasha (19 March 2018). "SARS boss Tom Moyane suspended". BusinessLIVE. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  92. ^ the state having the power to seize property for no compensation will encourage economic growth
  93. ^ Withers, Paul (21 August 2018). "South Africa farm seizures 'could become next ZIMBABWE', warns expert". Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  94. ^ Mahlase, Mahlatse (14 August 2018). "Silas Ramaite appointed as acting NPA head". News24. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  95. ^ "What is behind South Africa's xenophobic attacks". Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  96. ^ Zwane, Thuletho. "Ramaphosa lifts generation threshold for companies without a license to 100MW". Citypress. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  97. ^ Merten, Marianne (10 June 2021). "POWER BOOST: Increase to 100MW embedded generation threshold will give 'oomph' to South African economy, says Ramaphosa". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  98. ^ Head, Tom (27 March 2018). "Cyril Ramaphosa outlines how the Youth Employment Service will solve jobs crisis". The South African. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  99. ^ Khoza, Amanda (27 March 2018). "Ramaphosa launches YES initiative to address youth unemployment". Fin24. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  100. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa launches safe sanitation for schools". South African Government. 14 August 2018. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  101. ^ Sobuwa, Yoliswa (14 August 2018). "Ramaphosa launches campaign to make school toilets safer". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  102. ^ Du Plessis, Carien (21 March 2018). "Diplomatic relations between SA, Rwanda to return to normal". EWN. Kigali. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  103. ^ "President Ramaphosa to lead South Africa's hosting of the 10th BRICS Summit". The Presidency. 25 July 2018. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  104. ^ "South Africa congratulates Maduro on second term". African Daily Voice. 11 January 2019. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  105. ^ "South Africans protest over Palestinian deaths". France24. Cape Town, South Africa. 11 May 2021. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021.
  106. ^ "South Africa's ruthlessly efficient fight against coronavirus". BBC. 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  107. ^ "South Africa's Ramaphosa Begins Covid-19 Self-Quarantine". Bloomberg.com. 28 October 2020. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  108. ^ "SA leader gives half his pay to charity". BBC News. 24 May 2018. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  109. ^ "Shanduka Group sees leadership changes". IOL. 20 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  110. ^ "Ramaphosa exits Lonmin, Mondi boards". IOL. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  111. ^ "Return of a prodigal son". The Economist. 22 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  112. ^ "Here are the 20 richest people in South Africa". Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  113. ^ "McDonald's South Africa chain bought by Cyril Ramaphosa". BBC News. 17 March 2011. Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  114. ^ Mataboge, Mmanaledi (27 May 2014). "Ramaphosa withdraws from Shanduka Group". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  115. ^ Peyper, Liesl (21 September 2016). "Cyril Ramaphosa selling McDonald's SA to foreign firm". Fin24. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  116. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa declares R76m in shares, but ..." CityPress - News24. 17 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  117. ^ "Ramaphosa declares R76-million, rest kept confidential". Mail & Guardian. 18 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  118. ^ "Ankole Longhorn: Cyril Ramaphosa's passion and pride". farmersweekly.co.za. 22 August 2017. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  119. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa's Ankole bull sells for R640 000". farmersweekly.co.za. 12 May 2017. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  120. ^ "Ramaphosa writes book on cattle | Independent on Saturday". Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  121. ^ "South Africa's ANC to discuss mine shootings row". BBC News. 27 August 2012. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  122. ^ Laing, Aislinn (27 August 2012). "Striking South African miners 'were shot in the back'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  123. ^ "The murder fields of Marikana. The cold murder fields of Marikana". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  124. ^ "South African police open fire as striking miners charge, killing and wounding workers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  125. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa: The true betrayal". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  126. ^ "iafrica.com 'Ramaphosa must say sorry'". iAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  127. ^ "MARIKANA COMMISSION INQUIRY REPORT" (PDF). The Marikana Commission of Inquiry. October 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2016.
  128. ^ "Marikana report: Key findings and recommendations | Daily Maverick". Daily Maverick. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  129. ^ "Article alleging Ramaphosa extramarital affairs published". News24. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  130. ^ "NUI Galway honours seven outstanding individuals with Honorary Degrees". www.nuigalway.ie. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  131. ^ "UMass/South African Story | University of Massachusetts Office of the President". www.umassp.edu. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  132. ^ "COMMENCEMENT 2008: Commencement Speaker and Honorary Degree Recipients". University of Pennsylvania Almanac. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  133. ^ "Black South African Union Leader Receives Palme Prize". AP News. 24 October 1987. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  134. ^ Holbrooke, Richard C. (3 May 2007). "Cyril Ramaphosa – The 2007 TIME 100 – TIME". Time. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  135. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
  136. ^ "2009 Summit Highlights Photo". Archbishop Desmond Tutu presents Cyril Ramaphosa, Executive Chairman of Shanduka Group, with the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement at the 2009 International Achievement Summit in Cape Town, South Africa.
  137. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa: The 100 Most Influential People of 2019". TIME. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  138. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  139. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 7 February 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  140. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  141. ^ "Cyril Ramaphosa rejects state house". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  142. ^ Head, Tom (16 February 2018). "Six things you didn't know about Tshepo Motsepe: SA's new First Lady". The South African. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  143. ^ "Women go wild for Ramaphosa son". IOL. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  144. ^ Maune, Bernice. "I support and love him, says Ramaphosa's wife following cheating scandal". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  145. ^ Huisman, Bienne (12 July 2015). "Cyril Ramaphosa's R30m posh plot". City Press. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  146. ^ "Here are 24 of the richest people in South Africa". BusinessTECH. 3 July 2019. Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  147. ^ Karrim, Azarrah (24 September 2019). "'There is no language that is superior to another' - Ramaphosa celebrates Heritage Day with a focus on African languages". News24. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Kgalema Motlanthe
Deputy President of South Africa
2014–2018
Succeeded by
David Mabuza
Preceded by
Trevor Manuel
Chair of the National Planning Commission
2014–2018
Succeeded by
Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma
Preceded by
Jacob Zuma
President of South Africa
2018–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Alfred Baphethuxolo Nzo
Secretary General of the African National Congress
1991–1997
Succeeded by
Kgalema Motlanthe
Preceded by
Kgalema Motlanthe
Deputy President of the African National Congress
2012–2017
Succeeded by
David Mabuza
Preceded by
Jacob Zuma
President of the African National Congress
2017–present
Incumbent
Trade union offices
Preceded by
New position
General Secretary of the National Union of Mineworkers
1982–1991
Succeeded by
Kgalema Motlanthe