A cup of black coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. When coffee berries turn from green to bright red in color – indicating ripeness – they are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as "beans") are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee.

Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular drinks in the world, and can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte, or already-brewed canned coffee). It is usually served hot, although chilled or iced coffee is common. Sugar, sugar substitutes, milk or cream are often used to lessen the bitter taste. It may be served with coffee cake or another sweet dessert like doughnuts. A commercial establishment that sells prepared coffee beverages is known as a coffee shop (not to be confused with Dutch coffeeshops selling cannabis).

Clinical research indicates that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial as a stimulant in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption reduces the risk of some diseases, although some of the long-term studies are of questionable credibility. (Full article...)

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Alfonso Bialetti (Italian pronunciation: [alˈfɔnso bjaˈletti]) (17 June 1888– 4 March 1970) was an Italian engineer who became famous for the invention of the Moka Express coffeemaker. Designed in 1933, the coffee pot has been a style icon since the 1950s. While many variations of the Moka have been developed, including the Bialetti cow-printed Mukka Express (which makes cappuccino), the Moka Express is a time-honoured classic. Bialetti was also the founder of Bialetti Industries, the now giant Italian kitchen-ware company. (Full article...)
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Caffè mocha with a layer of espresso
A caffè mocha (/ˈmɒkə/ or /ˈmkə/), also called mocaccino (Italian: [mokatˈtʃiːno]), is a chocolate-flavoured variant of a caffè latte (Italian: [kafˈfɛ lˈlatte]), commonly served in a glass. Other commonly used spellings are mochaccino and also mochachino. The name is derived from the city of Mocha, Yemen, which was one of the centers of early coffee trade. (Full article...)

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Credit: Vr38dett
Affogato is a coffee-based beverage. It usually takes the form of a scoop of vanilla gelato or ice cream topped with a shot of hot espresso. Some variations also include a shot of Amaretto or other liqueur.

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... that early coffee vending machines used instant coffee powder mixed with hot water, while some modern machines fresh-grind the coffee and dispense various espresso drinks?
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Roasted coffee beans

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