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Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink flavored with vanilla, cinnamon, citrus oils and other flavorings. Most contain caffeine, which was originally sourced from the kola nut, leading to the drink's name, though other sources are now also used. Cola became popular worldwide after pharmacist John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola in 1886.[1] His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863.[1]

Cola
Tumbler of cola with ice.jpg
A glass of cola served with ice cubes
Type soft drink
Manufacturer Various
Country of origin United States
Introduced 1886
Color Caramel
Flavor Cola (kola nut, citrus, cinnamon and vanilla)

Most modern colas usually contain caramel color, and are sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. They now come in numerous different brands. Among them, the most popular are Coca-Cola and Pepsi. These two companies have been competing since the 1890s, but their rivalry has intensified since the 1980s.

Contents

FlavoringsEdit

The primary modern flavoring ingredients in a cola drink are citrus oils (from oranges, limes, or lemon fruit peel), cinnamon, vanilla, and an acidic flavorant.[2][3] Manufacturers of cola drinks add trace flavorings to create distinctively different tastes for each brand. Trace flavorings may include a wide variety of ingredients, such as spices like nutmeg or coriander, but the base flavorings that most people identify with a cola taste remain citrus, vanilla and cinnamon. Acidity is often provided by phosphoric acid, sometimes accompanied by citric or other isolated acids. Coca-Cola's recipe is maintained as a corporate trade secret.

A variety of different sweeteners may be added to cola, often partly dependent on local agricultural policy. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is predominantly used in the United States and Canada due to the lower cost of government-subsidized corn. In Europe, however, HFCS is subject to production quotas designed to encourage the production of sugar; sugar is thus typically used to sweeten sodas.[4] In addition, stevia or an artificial sweetener may be used; "sugar-free" or "diet" colas typically contain artificial sweeteners only.

Clear colaEdit

 
Crystal Pepsi, 20 oz. bottle, as seen in the US in 2016

In the 1940s, Coca-Cola produced White Coke at the request of Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov.[5]

Clear colas were again produced during the Clear Craze of the early 1990s. Brands included Crystal Pepsi, Tab Clear, and 7 Up Ice Cola. Crystal Pepsi has been repeatedly reintroduced in the 2010s.

In Denmark, a popular clear cola was made by the Cooperative FDB in 1976. It was especially known for being the "Hippie Cola" because of the focus of the harmful effects the color additive could have on children and the boycott of multinational brands. It was inspired by a campaign on harmful additives in Denmark by the Environmental-Organisation NOAH, an independent Danish division of Friends of the Earth. This was followed up with a variety of sodas without artificial coloring.[6] Today many organic colas are available in Denmark, but, for nostalgic reasons, clear cola has still maintained its popularity to a certain degree.[7]

Health effectsEdit

A 2007 study found that consumption of colas, both those with natural sweetening and those with artificial sweetening, was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The phosphoric acid used in colas was thought to be a possible cause.[8]

Studies indicate "soda and sweetened drinks are the main source of calories in [the] American diet",[9] so most nutritionists advise that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed excessively, particularly to young children whose soft drink consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet. Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium, magnesium, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin A.[10]

The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine, which can cause physical dependence (caffeine addiction).[11] A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in older women (but not men).[12] This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk was found to be the same for caffeinated and noncaffeinated colas, as well as the same for diet and sugared colas.

Many soft drinks are sweetened mostly or entirely with high-fructose corn syrup, rather than sugar. Some nutritionists caution against consumption of corn syrup because it may aggravate obesity and type-2 diabetes more than cane sugar.[13]

Regional brandsEdit

AsiaEdit

EuropeEdit

 
Bottles of "Berry cola", a soft drink produced in Indre (France).

North AmericaEdit

 
Coca-Cola

South AmericaEdit

OceaniaEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Coca Wine". Cocaine.org. Retrieved September 29, 2013. 
  2. ^ DeNeefe, Janet (March 13, 2008). "The Exotic Romance of Tamarind". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved September 29, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Cola 2". Sparror.cubecinema.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013. 
  4. ^ M. Ataman Aksoy; John C. Beghin, eds. (2005). "Sugar Policies: An Opportunity for Change". Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. World Bank Publications. p. 329. ISBN 0-8213-5863-4. 
  5. ^ Braswell, Sean (April 23, 2015). "Coke made especially for a communist". Ozy. Retrieved May 25, 2018. 
  6. ^ http://classic.samvirke.dk/node/287945
  7. ^ https://www.bt.dk/danmark/husker-du-kult-colaen-vender-endelig-tilbage
  8. ^ Tina M. Saldana; Olga Basso; Rebecca Darden; Dale P. Sandler (2007). "Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease". Epidemiology. 18 (4): 501–6. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3180646338. PMC 3433753 . PMID 17525693. 
  9. ^ "Preliminary Data Suggest That Soda And Sweet Drinks Are The Main Source Of Calories In American Diet". Sciencedaily.com. May 27, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  10. ^ Jacobson, Michael F. (2005). "Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health", pp. 5–6. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved October 13, 2010.
  11. ^ Center for Science in the Public Interest (1997). "Label Caffeine Content of Foods, Scientists Tell FDA." Retrieved June 10, 2005. Archived July 10, 2007, at WebCite
  12. ^ Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP (October 1, 2006). "Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study" (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 84 (4): 336–342. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.4.936. PMID 17023723. Retrieved April 21, 2008. 
  13. ^ "Single food ingredient the cause of obesity ? New study has industry up in arms". (April 26, 2004). FoodNavigator.com. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
  14. ^ "Le Breizh Cola sera intégralement produit en Bretagne". Ouest France. Retrieved 11 October 2017. 
  15. ^ "LOCKWOODS-Cola-330mL-Great Britain". CanMuseum.com. CanMuseum.com. Retrieved 2018-07-21. 
  16. ^ "LOCKWOODS-Cola (diet)-326mL-Great Britain". CanMuseum.com. CanMuseum.com. Retrieved 2018-07-21. 
  17. ^ "Sky Cola". SkyCola. 
  18. ^ "Ajegroup". Ajegroup. Retrieved September 29, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Grupo Perú Cola - Hoy el Perú sabe mejor" (in Spanish). Donjorge.com.pe. Retrieved September 29, 2013. 

External linksEdit