Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients. Most colas now use other flavoring (and caffeinating) ingredients with a similar taste. Cola became popular worldwide after pharmacist John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola in 1886. His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863.
|Country of origin||United States|
|Flavor||Cola (kola nut, citrus, cinnamon and vanilla)|
Modern colas usually contain caramel color, caffeine, and sweeteners such as sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. They now come in numerous different brands. Among them, the most popular are Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. These two cola companies have been rivaling each other since the 1980s.
The primary modern flavoring ingredients in a cola drink are sugar, citrus oils (from oranges, limes, or lemon fruit peel), cinnamon, vanilla, and an acidic flavorant. Manufacturers of cola drinks add trace ingredients to create distinctively different tastes for each brand. Trace flavorings may include nutmeg and a wide variety of ingredients, but the base flavorings that most people identify with a cola taste remain vanilla and cinnamon. Acidity is often provided by phosphoric acid, sometimes accompanied by citric or other isolated acids. Coca-Cola's recipe is maintained as a corporate trade secret.
A variety of different sweeteners may be added to cola, often partly dependent on local agricultural policy. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is predominantly used in the United States and Canada due to the lower cost of government-subsidized corn. In Europe, however, HFCS is subject to production quotas designed to encourage the production of sugar; sugar is thus typically used to sweeten sodas. In addition, stevia or an artificial sweetener may be used; "sugar-free" or "diet" colas typically contain artificial sweeteners only.
Cola can be manufactured with sugar as in Mexican Coca-Cola. Kosher for Passover Coca-Cola sold in the U.S. around the Jewish holiday also uses sucrose rather than HFCS and is also highly sought after by people who prefer the original taste. In addition, PepsiCo has recently been marketing versions of its Pepsi and Mountain Dew sodas that are sweetened with sugar instead of HFCS. These are marketed under the name Throwback and became permanent products.
In Denmark, a popular clear cola was made by the Cooperative FDB in 1976. It was especially known for being the "Hippie Cola" because of the focus of the harmful effects the colour additive could have on children and the boycott of multinational brands. It was inspired by a campaign on harmful additives in Denmark by the Environmental-Organisation NOAH, an independent Danish division of Friends of the Earth. This was followed up with a variety of sodas without artificial colouring. Today many organic colas are available in Denmark, but, for nostalgic reasons, the Cola has still maintained its popularity to a certain degree.
A 2007 study found that consumption of colas, both those with natural sweetening and those with artificial sweetening, was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The phosphoric acid used in colas was thought to be a possible cause.
Studies indicate "soda and sweetened drinks are the main source of calories in [the] American diet", so most nutritionists advise that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed excessively, particularly to young children whose soft drink consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet. Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium, magnesium, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin A.
The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine, which can cause physical dependence (caffeine addiction). A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in older women (but not men). This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk was found to be the same for caffeinated and noncaffeinated colas, as well as the same for diet and sugared colas.
Many soft drinks are sweetened mostly or entirely with high-fructose corn syrup, rather than sugar. Some nutritionists caution against consumption of corn syrup because it may aggravate obesity and type-2 diabetes more than cane sugar.
This article contains a list of miscellaneous information. (December 2017)
- Amrat Cola, popular in Pakistan
- Big Cola, popular in Indonesia
- Bovonto, popular in South India
- Campa Cola was India's most popular brand prior to the introduction of Coca-Cola and Pepsi to the Indian market in 1991
- Clemon by Akij Group, popular in Bangladesh
- Cola Turka is a local brand in Turkey
- Est Cola, a local brand in Thailand
- Future Cola, a local brand in China
- Laoshan Cola, a local brand in China
- Mecca Cola, sold in the Middle East, North Africa, as well as parts of Europe
- Pakola, popular in Pakistan
- Parsi Cola, popular in Iran
- Red Bull Cola, popular in Thailand
- Thums Up, popular in India
- Topsia Cola, popular in Iran
- Zamzam Cola, popular in Iran and parts of the Arab world
- Afri-Cola, a German brand, was relaunched in April 2006 with the original formulation with the higher caffeine content.
- Barr Cola made by A.G. Barr (the makers of the popular Irn-Bru drink) in the United Kingdom
- Breizh Cola is a local brand from Brittany (France).
- Brisa Cola is a local brand from Madeira, Portugal and produced by Empresa de Cervejas da Madeira.
- Cadet-Cola, an Irish brand
- Cockta is a local brand from former Yugoslavia, which does not contain any caffeine or phosphoric acid.
- Corsica Cola is a regional cola distributed by the Corsican brewery Pietra.
- Cuba Cola is the native cola of Sweden.
- Evoca Cola is a cola made with mineral water made by Evoca Drinks.
- Fentimans Curiosity Cola, is an upmarket botanically brewed cola produced by Fentimans, from the UK.
- Fritz-Kola, a cola soft drink from Hamburg, Germany, uses the highest possible concentration of caffeine for beverages allowed by German law.
- Jolly Cola, which was more popular than Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola during the 1960s and 1970s in Denmark.
- Karma Cola, fair trade cola from the UK
- Kofola is the primary rival to Coca-Cola and Pepsi in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and does not contain phosphoric acid.
- Planet Cola, a brand sold at Auchan
- Polo-Cockta, a Polish brand
- Red Bull Cola has been available throughout Europe since 2008.
- Sky Cola, a Bosnian brand since 2002 made by water-bottling company Sarajevski kiseljak
- Sky Cola, a Croatian brand since 2002 made by water-bottling company Jamnica
- Ubuntu Cola is a fair trade cola from the United Kingdom available in parts of Western Europe.
- Virgin Cola was popular in South Africa and Western Europe in the 1990s but has waned in availability.
- Vita-Cola is a German cola brand with a distinct citrus flavor; nowadays it is mostly sold in eastern Germany.
- XL Cola was a Swedish cola brand introduced in 1985, but the drink is not at the market anymore.
- Mole Cola Is an Italian cola sold in Italy it is also occasionally sold in France in stores called Noz only.
- Big Cola, made by Peruvian transnational Ajegroup, sold in the northern parts of Mexico
- Coca-Cola, often referred to simply as Coke, is one of the most popular cola brands in North America and worldwide.
- Cott produces many house brand beverages as well as its own line of products, most notably its Black Cherry cola.
- The Double Cola Company, Double Cola
- Faygo Cola is distributed in the Eastern United States and can be found in some regions of Canada.
- Fentimans Curiosity Cola, originating from the United Kingdom in 1905, now sold across Europe and North America
- Jarritos Cola is a brand of cola from Mexico, native to Mexico and widely distributed to Latino residents of the United States.
- Jolt Cola is sold by Wet Planet Beverages of Rochester, New York.
- Jones Soda also makes a cola using cane sugar.
- Pepsi-Cola, often referred to simply as Pepsi, produced and manufactured by PepsiCo, is also one of the most popular cola brands in North America and worldwide. PepsiCo is the main competitor of Coca-Cola.
- Polar Beverages of Worcester, MA produces its own brand of cola under the Polar name.
- Red Bull Cola was available in the United States from 2008-2011.
- RC Cola, short for Royal Crown Cola, produced by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group
- Shasta Cola, produced by Shasta
- TuKola and Tropicola are brands from Cuba (also sold widely in Italy).
- Zevia Cola is a zero calorie soft drink sweetened with Stevia combined with Monk Fruit and Erythritol.
- Big Cola, a cola produced by Peruvian company Ajegroup which operates in 14 countries in Latin America.
- Perú Cola, created by Peruvian bottler Embotelladora Don Jorge S.A.C. to compete with Coca-Cola and Kola.Real.
- "Coca Wine". Cocaine.org. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- DeNeefe, Janet (March 13, 2008). "The Exotic Romance of Tamarind". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- "Cola 2". Sparror.cubecinema.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- M. Ataman Aksoy; John C. Beghin, eds. (2005). "Sugar Policies: An Opportunity for Change". Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. World Bank Publications. p. 329. ISBN 0-8213-5863-4.
- Is Mexican Coke the real thing? By Louise Chu Associated Press November 9, 2004 The San Diego Union-Tribune
- "Coke". Seattletimes.nwsource.com. October 29, 2004. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- Dixon, Duffie (April 9, 2009). "Kosher Coke". USAtoday.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- Horovitz, Bruce (March 11, 2011). "Pepsi, Frito-Lay capitalize on fond thoughts of the good ol' days". USA Today. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
- Braswell, Sean (April 23, 2015). "Coke made especially for a communist". Ozy. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Tina M. Saldana; Olga Basso; Rebecca Darden; Dale P. Sandler (2007). "Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease". Epidemiology. 18 (4): 501–6. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3180646338. PMC . PMID 17525693.
- "Preliminary Data Suggest That Soda And Sweet Drinks Are The Main Source Of Calories In American Diet". Sciencedaily.com. May 27, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- Jacobson, Michael F. (2005). "Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health", pp. 5–6. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved October 13, 2010.
- Center for Science in the Public Interest (1997). "Label Caffeine Content of Foods, Scientists Tell FDA." Retrieved June 10, 2005. Archived July 10, 2007, at WebCite
- Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP (October 1, 2006). "Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study" (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 84 (4): 336–342. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.4.936. PMID 17023723. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- "Single food ingredient the cause of obesity ? New study has industry up in arms". (April 26, 2004). FoodNavigator.com. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
- "Le Breizh Cola sera intégralement produit en Bretagne". Ouest France. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- "Sky Cola". SkyCola.
- "Ajegroup". Ajegroup. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- "Grupo Perú Cola - Hoy el Perú sabe mejor" (in Spanish). Donjorge.com.pe. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
|Look up cola in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Cola and Mentos mints trick
- OpenCola recipe (originally published by Cory Doctorow)
- Straight Dope article about caffeine levels on soft drinks