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Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport

Rome–Fiumicino International Airport "Leonardo da Vinci" (Italian: Aeroporto Internazionale di Roma–Fiumicino "Leonardo da Vinci") (IATA: FCO, ICAO: LIRF), is an international airport in Rome and the major airport in Italy. It is one of the busiest airports in Europe by passenger traffic with 41.7 million passengers served in 2016.[2] It is located in Fiumicino, 18.9 nautical miles (35.0 km; 21.7 mi) west of Rome's historic city centre.[1]

Rome–Fiumicino International Airport "Leonardo da Vinci"

Aeroporto Internazionale di Roma–Fiumicino "Leonardo da Vinci"
Rom Fiumicino 2011-by-RaBoe-02.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic
OperatorAeroporti di Roma
ServesRome, Italy
LocationFiumicino
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL13 ft / 4 m
Coordinates41°48′01″N 012°14′20″E / 41.80028°N 12.23889°E / 41.80028; 12.23889Coordinates: 41°48′01″N 012°14′20″E / 41.80028°N 12.23889°E / 41.80028; 12.23889
Websiteairport-fco.com
Map
FCO is located in Lazio
FCO
FCO
Location in Lazio
FCO is located in Italy
FCO
FCO
FCO (Italy)
FCO is located in Europe
FCO
FCO
FCO (Europe)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
07/25 3,800 12,467 Asphalt
16R/34L 3,900 12,795 Asphalt
16L/34R 3,900 12,795 Asphalt
16C/34C 3,700 12,139 Asphalt
Statistics (2017)
Passengers40.971.881
Passenger change 16-17Decrease 1.9%
Aircraft movements297.491
Movements change 16–17Decrease 5.3%
Source: Italian AIP at EUROCONTROL[1]
Statistics from Assaeroporti[2]

The airport serves as the main hub for Alitalia, the largest Italian airline and Vueling, a Spanish low-cost carrier owned by International Airlines Group. Based on total passenger numbers, it is the eighth-busiest airport in Europe and was the world's 47th-busiest airport in 2017. It covers an area of 29 square kilometres (7,200 acres)[citation needed] and is named after polymath Leonardo da Vinci who, in 1480, designed a flying machine with wings and the first proto helicopter.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Early yearsEdit

The airport was officially opened on 15 January 1961, with two runways, replacing the smaller Rome Ciampino Airport, which remains in service for some low-cost airlines as well as domestic and charter operations. Despite being officially opened in 1961, Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport had actually been in use since 20 August 1960. This was to help relieve air traffic that was congesting Rome Ciampino Airport during the 1960 Summer Olympics.[3]

During the 1960s, home-carrier Alitalia invested heavily in the new airport, building hangars and maintenance centres; in the same period a third runway was added (16L/34R).

Later developmentEdit

Security Services transferred from the Polizia di Stato (Italian State Police) to Aeroporti di Roma S.p.A. in 2000. Aeroporti di Roma created ADR Security S.r.l. (100%-owned) to provide these services as well as security services to airlines (in competition with other security companies such as IVRI). Airport Security is supervised by Polizia di Stato, Guardia di Finanza (Italian Customs Police), Italian Civil Aviation Authority and Aeroporti di Roma S.p.A..[citation needed] Ground handling services were provided by Aeroporti di Roma until 1999, when it created Aeroporti di Roma Handling (to serve all airlines except for Alitalia, which continued to be handled by Aeroporti di Roma itself). Alitalia provided passenger assistance even before 1999. In 2001, Alitalia created "Alitalia Airport" and started providing ground handling for itself and other airlines. Aeroporti di Roma Handling remains the biggest handler in terms of airlines handled, but Alitalia Airport is the biggest handler in terms of airplanes handled as Alitalia aircraft account for 50% of the ones at Fiumicino. In May 2006, Italy's Civil Aviation Authority announced that it took off the limitation of 3 ramp handlers in Rome Leonardo da Vinci airport. ARE Group and Aviapartner announced that they would create a company called Aviapartner (51% Aviapartner; 49% ARE Group) to serve Milan Malpensa and Rome Leonardo da Vinci.[citation needed]

Since 2005 the airport operates a category III B instrument landing system (ILS). Further improvement work was implemented in 2007 to enable the airport to handle 30 takeoffs/landings per hour, up from 10, in the event of thick fog. Four runways presently operate at Leonardo da Vinci airport: 16L/34R and 16R/34L (separated by a distance of 4,000 m (13,000 ft)), 16C/34C (close to 16L/34R), mostly used as a taxiway or as a backup for 16L/34R, and 07/25, used only westwards for takeoffs owing to the prevailing winds.

In 2010, the new single baggage handling system for more efficient luggage delivery began operations.

Several projects are planned. These include the construction of an environmentally-friendly cogeneration system, which would allow the airport to produce its own energy; construction of Pier C (dedicated to international flights) with 16 additional loading bridges, to handle the expected growth from 38 million passengers per year in 2014 to 55 million by 2018; and the "Masterplan Fiumicino Nord", involving four new terminals and two new runways to be built by 2044, when there are estimated to be 100 million passengers per year.

TerminalsEdit

The airport currently features three passenger terminals, of which two are operational.

  • Terminal 1 (Gates B1–B13 and B14–B30) is used by Alitalia and other SkyTeam airlines.
  • Terminal 3 (Gates C8–C16, D1–D10, E1-E8, E11-E24, E31-44 and E51-61) is the largest terminal which is used by most of the companies.
  • Terminal 5 (under refurbishment) (formerly Gates E1-E8, E11-E24, E31-44 and E51-61) was used by all U.S. and Israeli carriers. This terminal is currently closed for extensive renovation.[4]

The terminals were upgraded during the 1990s and 2000s.[5] In 1991, the domestic Pier A with 12 gates opened. In 1995, the international Pier B with 10 gates opened. In 1999, the international Satellite C with 14 gates and an elevated automated people mover, called SkyBridge, connected it with the main terminal. In 2000, the new domestic Terminal A opened, and the terminal buildings, then consisting of Terminal A (with Pier A), Terminal AA, Terminal B (with Pier B) and Terminal C (with Satellite C), were reorganized. In 2004, the new Cargo City terminal opened. In 2008, Terminal 5 opened for check-in for American carriers and El Al. Passengers are then bused to what was then called Satellite C. The terminal serves 950,000 passengers per year. In 2009, the terminals were renamed — A was renamed T1, AA was renamed T2, B and C became T3 and T5 stayed the same. The former Terminal 2 has been closed permanently on 15 December 2017 to make way for the expansion of Terminal 1.

Airlines and destinationsEdit

PassengerEdit

AirlinesDestinations
Aegean Airlines Athens
Aer Lingus Dublin
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo
Aerolíneas Argentinas Buenos Aires–Ezeiza
Air Algérie Algiers
Air Arabia Maroc Fez
Air Cairo Sharm El Sheikh
Air Canada Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson
Air China Beijing–Capital
Air Europa Madrid
Air India Delhi
Air Italy Milan–Malpensa, Olbia
Air Malta Malta
Air Moldova Chișinău
Air Serbia Belgrade
Air Transat Seasonal: Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson
airBaltic Riga
AlbaStar Seasonal: Lourdes
Alitalia Algiers, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Bari, Beirut, Belgrade, Bergamo (begins 27 July 2019),[6] Berlin–Tegel, Bologna, Boston, Brindisi, Brussels, Budapest, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cagliari, Cairo, Casablanca, Catania, Copenhagen, Delhi, Düsseldorf, Florence, Frankfurt, Geneva, Genoa, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo,[7] Kyiv–Zhuliany, Lamezia Terme, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Málaga, Malta, Marseille, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Linate, Milan–Malpensa,[8] Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Munich, Naples, New York–JFK, Nice, Palermo, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Pisa, Podgorica, Prague, Reggio Calabria, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Santiago de Chile, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seoul–Incheon, Sofia, Tehran–Imam Khomeini, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Tirana, Tokyo–Narita, Toulouse, Trapani, Trieste, Tunis, Turin, Valencia, Venice, Verona, Warsaw–Chopin, Washington–Dulles (begins 2 May 2019),[9] Zürich
Seasonal: Amman–Queen Alia, Chicago–O'Hare, Corfu, Dubrovnik, Havana, Heraklion, Ibiza, Lampedusa, Larnaca, Malé, Mauritius,[10][11] Menorca, Mykonos, Palma de Mallorca, Pantelleria, Rhodes, Saint Petersburg, Santorini, Split, Tenerife–North, Thessaloniki, Toronto–Pearson
Seasonal charter: La Romana, Pointe-à-Pitre
AlMasria Universal Airlines Seasonal charter: Sharm El Sheikh
American Airlines Philadelphia
Seasonal: Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, New York–JFK
Armenia Aircompany Charter: Yerevan
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
ASL Airlines France Charter: Ostend/Bruges, Paris–Orly, Tangier
Belavia Minsk
Blue Air Alghero, Bacău, Bucharest, Constanța, Iași, Liverpool
Bluebird Airways Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion
Blue Panorama Airlines Cancún, Cayo Largo, Havana, La Romana, Reggio Calabria, Santiago de Cuba, Tirana
Seasonal: Corfu, Heraklion, Ibiza, Kefalonia, Kos, Lampedusa, Mykonos, Pantelleria, Preveza, Rhodes, Santorini, Skiathos, Turin, Zakynthos
BRA Braathens Regional Airlines Charter: Billund, Odense
British Airways London–City,[12] London–Gatwick, London–Heathrow
Brussels Airlines Brussels
Bulgaria Air Sofia
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong
China Airlines Taipei–Taoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong, Wenzhou
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Wuhan
Croatia Airlines Split, Zagreb
Seasonal: Dubrovnik
Czech Airlines Prague
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, New York–JFK
Seasonal: Detroit
easyJet Amsterdam, Berlin–Tegel, Bristol, London–Gatwick, London–Luton, Lyon, Nice, Paris–Orly, Toulouse
easyJet Switzerland Basel/Mulhouse, Geneva
EgyptAir Cairo
El Al Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion
Emirates Dubai–International
Enter Air Seasonal charter: Maastricht/Aachen
Ernest Airlines Kharkiv (begins 21 March 2019)[13] Kyiv–Zhuliany, Lviv
Estelar Latinoamerica Caracas
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
Eurowings Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Vienna
Finnair Helsinki
Flybe Cardiff
FlyOne Chișinău
Hainan Airlines Chongqing, Xi'an
HOP! Bordeaux, Lyon
Iberia Madrid
Iran Air Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Israir Airlines Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion
Jet2.com Birmingham, Manchester
Seasonal: Glasgow, Leeds/Bradford, Newcastle
Joon Paris–Charles de Gaulle
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon
Kuwait Airways Kuwait
LATAM Brasil São Paulo–Guarulhos
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich
Luxair Luxembourg
Middle East Airlines Beirut
Montenegro Airlines Podgorica
Neos Boa Vista, Cancún, Fuerteventura, Malé, Marsa Alam,[14] Sal, Sharm El Sheikh,[14] Tenerife–South
Seasonal: Heraklion (begins 9 June 2019),[14] Ibiza (begins 2 June 2019),[14] Marsa Matruh, Menorca (begins 8 June 2019),[14] Mykonos (begins 6 June 2019),[14] Nosy Be, Rhodes
Norwegian Air Shuttle Copenhagen, Helsinki, Los Angeles, Newark, Oslo–Gardermoen, Reykjavík–Keflavík, Stockholm–Arlanda, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Tenerife–South
Seasonal: Bergen, Boston (begins 31 March 2019),[15] Fort Lauderdale,[16] Gothenburg, Oakland
Pegasus Airlines Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen
Pobeda Kaliningrad
Qatar Airways Doha
Rossiya St. Petersburg
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia
Ryanair Alicante, Barcelona, Bari, Brindisi, Brussels, Catania, Comiso, Lanzarote, Málaga, Malta, Marseille, Palermo, Seville, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion
Seasonal: Corfu, Chania
S7 Airlines Moscow–Domodedovo
Saudia Jeddah, Riyadh
Scandinavian Airlines Aarhus, Copenhagen, Stockholm–Arlanda
Seasonal: Oslo–Gardermoen
Singapore Airlines Singapore
SmartWings Prague
SunExpress Seasonal: Izmir
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
TAP Portugal Lisbon
TAROM Bucharest
Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Transavia Rotterdam/The Hague
Transavia France Nantes
TUI fly Belgium Seasonal charter: Casablanca
Tunisair Tunis
Seasonal charter: Djerba, Monastir, Tabarka
Turkish Airlines Ankara (resumes 7 January 2019),[17] Istanbul–Atatürk (ends 31 December 2018), Istanbul–New (begins 1 January 2019), Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen
Seasonal charter: Izmir
Ukraine International Airlines Kyiv–Boryspil, Lviv
United Airlines Newark
Seasonal: Chicago–O'Hare, Washington–Dulles
Ural Airlines Moscow–Zhukovsky, Yekaterinburg
Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent
Seasonal: Urgench
Vueling Alicante, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Bilbao, Catania, Dubrovnik, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, London–Gatwick, Lyon, Madrid, Málaga, Marseille, Munich, Nantes, Palermo, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Paris–Orly, Prague, Santiago de Compostela, Santorini, Seville, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Tenerife–South, Valencia, Vienna, Zürich
Seasonal: Cephalonia, Corfu, Heraklion, Ibiza, Karpathos, Kos, Lampedusa, Menorca, Mykonos, Palma de Mallorca, Preveza/Lefkhada, Rhodes, Split, Zadar, Zakynthos
Wizz Air Bucharest, Budapest, Cluj–Napoca, Katowice, Sofia, Kutaisi, Vienna,[18] Vilnius, Warsaw–Chopin

CargoEdit

AirlinesDestinations
ASL Airlines Belgium Liège
FedEx Express Ancona, Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Mistral Air Brescia, Milan–Linate

StatisticsEdit

Busiest domestic routesEdit

Busiest domestic routes from/to Rome–Fiumicino (2016)[19]
Rank Rank
var.
(15–16)
Airport Passengers Airline(s)
1     Catania, Sicily   2,047,240 Alitalia, Ryanair, Vueling
2     Palermo, Sicily   1,596,598 Alitalia, Ryanair, Vueling
3     Milan–Linate, Lombardy   1,189,185 Alitalia
4     Cagliari, Sardinia   935,510 Alitalia
5   2   Bari, Apulia   798,325 Alitalia, Ryanair
6     Lamezia Terme, Calabria   685,630 Alitalia, Ryanair
7   2   Turin, Piedmont   638,229 Alitalia, Blue Air
8   1   Brindisi, Apulia   585,012 Alitalia, Ryanair
9   1   Venice, Veneto   540,397 Alitalia
10     Genoa, Liguria   378,147 Alitalia
11   5   Alghero, Sardinia   361,576 Alitalia
12   1   Naples, Campania   326,541 Alitalia
13   1   Reggio Calabria, Calabria   313,586 Alitalia, Blu-express
14   1   Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia   293,874 Alitalia
15   4   Milan–Malpensa, Lombardy   291,701 Alitalia, easyJet
16   2   Olbia, Sardinia   289,840 Meridiana
17   1   Bologna, Emilia-Romagna   253,531 Alitalia
18   1   Firenze, Toscana   228,543 Alitalia
19     Verona, Veneto   195,967 Alitalia
20     Pisa, Toscana   132,845 Alitalia

Busiest European routesEdit

Busiest European Routes from/to Rome–Fiumicino (2016)[20]
Rank Rank
var.
15–16
Airport Passengers Airline(s)
1     Barcelona, Spain   1,314,602 Alitalia, Ryanair, Vueling
2   2   Madrid, Spain   1,106,699 Air Europa, Alitalia, Iberia, Vueling
3   1   Paris–Charles de Gaulle, France   1,105,420 Air France, Alitalia
4   1   Amsterdam, Netherlands   1,098,610 Alitalia, KLM, easyJet, Vueling
5     London–Heathrow, United Kingdom   987,509 Alitalia, British Airways
6   2   London–Gatwick, United Kingdom   748,995 British Airways, easyJet, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Vueling
7   2   Paris–Orly, France   729,929 easyJet, Vueling
8   2   Brussels, Belgium   715,336 Alitalia, Brussels Airlines, Ryanair, Vueling
9   2   Munich, Germany   709,747 Alitalia, Lufthansa, Vueling
10     Frankfurt am Main, Germany   693,327 Alitalia, Lufthansa
11     Athens, Greece   572,440 Aegean Airlines, Alitalia
12   3   Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Russia   470,942 Aeroflot, Alitalia
13   3   Zürich, Switzerland   446,144 Alitalia, Swiss International Air Lines, Vueling
14   1   Vienna, Austria   434,968 Eurowings, Niki, Vueling
15   3   Istanbul–Atatürk, Turkey   402,675 Alitalia, Turkish Airlines
16   2   Copenhagen, Denmark   380,417 Alitalia, easyJet, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines
17     Lisbon, Portugal   370,423 TAP Portugal
18   2   Geneva, Switzerland   352,566 Alitalia, easyJet, Swiss International Air Lines, Vueling
19     Berlin–Tegel, Germany   340,882 Air Berlin , Alitalia, Vueling
20   5   Luqa, Malta   318,238 Air Malta, Alitalia, Ryanair

Busiest intercontinental routesEdit

Busiest intercontinental routes from/to Rome–Fiumicino (2016)[20]
Rank Rank
var.
15/16
Airport Passengers Airline(s)
1   2   Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Israel   677,453 Alitalia, El Al, Israir Airlines, Vueling
2     New York–John F. Kennedy, United States   652,262 Alitalia, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines
3   2   Dubai, United Arab Emirates   610,339 Emirates
4     Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates   372,977 Alitalia, Etihad Airways
5   1   Doha, Qatar   313,758 Qatar Airways
6   1   Toronto–Pearson, Canada   304,425 Alitalia, Air Canada, Air Transat
7   11   Seoul–Incheon, South Korea   300,365 Alitalia, Asiana Airlines, Korean Air
8   1   Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Argentina   284,066 Aerolíneas Argentinas, Alitalia
9   1   Cairo, Egypt   267,099 Alitalia, Egyptair
10   1   Atlanta, United States   221,287 Delta Air Lines
11   1   Tunis, Tunisia   209,843 Alitalia, Tunisair
12   1   Chicago–O'Hare, United States   209,521 Alitalia, American Airlines, United Airlines
13   1   Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen, Turkey   194,878 Pegasus Airlines, Turkish Airlines
14   1   Tokyo–Narita, Japan   191,257 Alitalia
15   5   São Paulo–Guarulhos, Brazil   187,466 Alitalia, LATAM Brasil
16   8   Beijing–Capital, China   184,865 Air China, Alitalia
17   2   Casablanca, Morocco   169,689 Alitalia, Royal Air Maroc
18   4   Beirut, Lebanon   167,155 Alitalia, Middle East Airlines
19   3   Miami, United States   166,689 Alitalia
20   1   Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Brazil   159,124 Alitalia

Ground transportationEdit

TrainEdit

Fiumicino Aeroporto railway station is served by the Leonardo Express train operated by Trenitalia, available at the airport terminal. It takes 30 minutes to get to Termini Station in a non-stop trip that is provided every 15 minutes. Alternatively, local trains (FL1 line) leave once every 15 minutes, stopping at all stations. However, these trains do not head to Termini station. Passengers have to change at Trastevere, Ostiense (Metro Piramide) or Tuscolana.[21] The railway opened in December 1989, with nonstop and several stop services available.[22]

RoadEdit

Leonardo da Vinci is about 35 km (22 mi) by car from Rome's historic city centre. The airport is served by a six-lane motorway and numerous buses and taxis.

Incidents and accidentsEdit

From the 1960s until the 1980s, the airport experienced significant aircraft hijackings as well as being the scene of two major terrorist attacks and the port of origin for an aircraft bombing in flight—some engendered by Palestinians as part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "EAD Basic". Ead.eurocontrol.int. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  2. ^ a b Assaeroporti Statistiche
  3. ^ "Fiumicino: Italy's Fast Growing Airport | Italy". Lifeinitaly.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  4. ^ http://www.adr.it/documents/10157/554493/Allocazione+Terminal+per+Vettori_24luglio.pdf
  5. ^ "Expansion projects at Fiumicino". Airport-technology.com. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2014.[unreliable source?]
  6. ^ "Alitalia adds Rome - Milan Bergamo service from late-July 2019". routesonline.com. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  7. ^ https://www.routesonline.com/news/38/airlineroute/275770/alitalia-resumes-2-african-routes-in-ns18/
  8. ^ Alitalia, torna il volo Malpensa-Roma che perdeva 6 milioni di euro all'anno Archived 14 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ https://airlinegeeks.com/2018/11/05/alitalia-to-begin-flights-between-rome-and-washington-dulles/
  10. ^ https://www.alitalia.com/it_it/volare-alitalia/news-e-attivita/nuovi-voli/mauritius.html
  11. ^ http://www.agenparl.com/alitalia-volo-diretto-roma-male-dal-31-ottobre-collegamento-tutta-la-stagione-invernale/
  12. ^ "MORE ROUTES AND MORE AIRCRAFT FOR LONDON CITY". British Airways. 29 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  13. ^ Liu, JIm (14 November 2018). "Ernest Airlines schedules new Ukrainian routes in March 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  14. ^ a b c d e f "Flight Times". neosair.it/en.
  15. ^ Mutzabaugh, Ben (28 November 2018). "Norwegian Air to fly from Miami, San Francisco; expand in Boston". KFMB Channel 8. KFMB-TV. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  16. ^ Liu, Jim (18 June 2018). "Norwegian confirms W18 Europe long-haul increases". Routesonline. UBM (UK) Ltd. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  17. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-airlines-to-restart-ankara-rome-direct-flights-after-60-years-137979
  18. ^ "Wizz Air Announces Austrian Base in Vienna with 3 Based Aircraft and 17 New Low-Fare Routes". wizzair.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Italy 2016 Civil Aviation Statistics" (PDF) (in Italian). ENAC. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  20. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference ENAC 2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ [1] Archived 23 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Flight International. 23 May 1987. 5.
  23. ^ a b Ramsden, J. M., ed. (27 December 1973). "Rome hijacking" (PDF). FLIGHT International. IPC Transport Press Ltd. 104 (3380): 1010. Retrieved 11 February 2015 – via flightglobal.com/pdfarchive. ... ran on to the apron and two phosphorus bombs were thrown into the front and rear entrances of a Pan American 707 Celestial Clipper, with 170 passengers on board
  24. ^ a b "Hijacking description: Monday 17 December 1973". aviation-safety.net. Flight Safety Foundation. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  25. ^ Official Italian accident report issued by ANSV and its english translation. Aviation Accidents Database. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  26. ^  Posted by foxcrawl at 2:31 am. "Carpatair ATR-72 plane overruns runway on landing in Rome". Foxcrawl. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  27. ^ Squires, Nick (4 February 2013). "Alitalia paints over crashed plane's markings". Telegraph. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  28. ^ Matt Blake (30 September 2013). "Alitalia plane carrying 151 passengers crash lands in Rome after its landing gear fails to open in a storm | Mail Online". London: Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 17 January 2014.

External linksEdit