Larnaca International Airport
Larnaca International Airport – Glafcos Clerides[a] (IATA: LCA, ICAO: LCLK) is an international airport located 4 km (2.5 mi) southwest of Larnaca, Cyprus. Larnaca International Airport is Cyprus' main international gateway and the largest of the country's two commercial airports, the other being Paphos International Airport on the island's southwestern coast.
Larnaca International Airport – Glafcos Clerides
Διεθνής Aερολιμένας Λάρνακας
Larnaka Uluslararası Havaalanı
|Operator||Hermes Airports Ltd|
|Serves||Larnaca, Limassol, and southeast Nicosia|
|Location||Larnaca District, Cyprus|
|Elevation AMSL||3 m / 7 ft|
Larnaca Airport was hastily developed towards the end of 1974 after the invasion of Cyprus by Turkey on 20 July of the same year, which forced the closure of the Nicosia International Airport. The site on which it was built (near the Larnaca Salt Lake) had been previously used as an airfield[which?] in the 1930s and, subsequently, as a military installation[which?] by British forces. Larnaca International opened on 8 February 1975, with only limited infrastructure facilities and a prefabricated set of buildings comprising separate halls for departures and arrivals. The first airlines to use the new airport were Cyprus Airways, using Viscount 800s leased from British Midland, and Olympic Airways, using NAMC YS-11s. Initially, the runway at Larnaca International was too short for jet aircraft.
On 19 February 1978, Larnaca Airport was the scene of the Egyptian raid on Larnaca International Airport: a 1-hour gun battle between Unit 777, an Egyptian military counter-terrorism force, who had raided Larnaca International, and the Cypriot National Guard.
The crisis had begun the previous day, when Youssef Sebai, editor of a prominent Egyptian newspaper and friend of Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat, was assassinated at the Nicosia Hilton hotel by two gunmen as he was preparing to address the Afro-Asian Peoples’ Solidarity Organization (AAPSO) conference being held at the hotel. The gunmen, a Jordanian and a Kuwaiti, opposed to the Sadat regime, took 50 hostages among the conference attendees, including two representatives of the PLO who happened to be attending the conference. Non-Arab delegates and women were released shortly. Yasser Arafat, with the Cypriot president's agreement, dispatched an unarmed force of 16 to assist with negotiations and any possible rescue operation.
Through negotiations with the Cypriot government, the two attackers were allowed to board a plane to escape with their 15 remaining hostages, including the two PLO hostages. They forced the plane to approach several countries including Libya and Syria but each time their request to land was refused, so after refueling in Djibouti, the plane was forced to return to Larnaca Airport. Egypt then dispatched its entire antiterrorist squad aboard a C-130 Hercules to deal with the hijacking; however, they did so without the knowledge or consent of the Cypriot government.
On landing in Larnaca, the commandos launched an all-out assault on the DC-8, even as Cypriot negotiators had secured the hostage-takers' surrender. Cypriot President Spyros Kyprianou and other senior officials observing the events on site were forced to retreat from the airport control tower after it was hit by bullets. Eventually the Egyptian commandos surrendered to the Cypriot forces. The two hijackers were persuaded by the British pilots to give up. The hostages exited the aircraft unharmed once the shooting was over. The Cypriots counted eight wounded. 15 members of the 74-man Egyptian Unit 777 died. President Kyprianou offered reconciliation and apologies, but maintained that Cyprus could not have allowed the Egyptians to act. Egypt and Cyprus each withdrew their diplomatic missions, and frosty relations between the two countries persisted for some time. The two hijackers were condemned to death by a Cypriot court, but the sentence was commuted by Kyprianou and the hijackers released.
The status of Cyprus as a major tourist destination means that air traffic has steadily risen to over 5 million passengers a year. This is double the capacity the airport was first designed for. For this reason, a tender was put out in 1998 to develop the airport further and increase its capacity (see below). Already completed elements of the expansion include a new control tower, fire station, runway extension, and additional administrative offices. The surrounding road network was improved by upgrading the B4 road and by completing the A3 Motorway. A new junction has been constructed near the new terminal. The new terminal was built some 500–700 m (1,600–2,300 ft) west of the old terminal, adjacent to the new control tower, with new aprons and jetways. The old terminal building is slated to be partially demolished and refurbished as a cargo centre, and is currently used as a private terminal for visiting heads of state, VIPs, and private aircraft operators.
The airport's geographic location in-between Europe, Africa, Russia and the Middle East facilitates it as an airline hub for traffic and flight operations between these locations. It currently holds domestic, regional and international passenger and cargo services by over 30 airlines. Notably, Gulf Air used to provide a non-stop service to New York-JFK twice a week.
The airport has one primary passenger terminal. Departures are accommodated on the upper level, while arrivals at the ground level. A second "VIP terminal" also exists, which is used for visiting heads of state, some private aviation, and for cargo. The airport utilises a single large apron for all passenger aircraft. The concept architectural design of the passenger terminal was developed by French architects at Aéroports de Paris (ADP) with Sofréavia in France. Detail and Tender design was completed in Cyprus by 1998, with local architectural office Forum Architects and a large engineering team under the coordination of ADP.
The design was later used as a base for the BOT projects of both Larnaca and Paphos International Airports though significant changes were made mainly on "value engineering" grounds. A large amount of controversy spurred by the local media surrounded the granting of the contract when it was put out to tender. A consortium led by BAA and Joannou & Paraskevaides (J&P) construction quickly pulled out when it did not receive assurances from the government of Cyprus that it would receive financial compensation in the event that direct flights were allowed between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the world. The contract was eventually hastily granted to the next best bidder, the French led 'Hermes' Consortium. This too, was not free of controversy, causing legal challenges by BAA and J&P, and adding further delays to a much needed project.
A €650 million upgrade of the Larnaca and Paphos airports was completed in 2006. The international tender was won by Hermes Airports, a French-led group. The consortium is made up of Bouygues Batiment International (22%) Egis Projects (20%), the Cyprus Trading Corporation (a local retail group-10%), Iacovou Brothers (a local contractor-10%), Hellenic Mining (10%), Vancouver Airport Services (10%), Ireland's Dublin Airport Authority (Aer Rianta International) (10%), Charilaos Apostolides (a local construction company-5%) and Nice Côte d'Azur Airport (3%). Hermes Airports built new passenger terminals and plans to extend the runways at both airports under a 25-year concession.
A new terminal building opened on 7 November 2009. It has 16 jetways (boarding bridges), 67 check in counters, 8 self check-in kiosks, 48 departure gates, and 2,450 parking spots. The new terminal can handle 7.5 million passengers per year. Infrastructure also features a large engineering hangar, a cargo terminal, and separate facilities for fuelling and provisioning light aircraft. There is a second, smaller apron where cargo aircraft and private aircraft are often parked. There are also spaces for smaller aircraft for flying schools and privately owned aircraft separate from the main two aprons.
Airlines and destinationsEdit
The following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Larnaca:
- ^1 Kuwait Airways flight to Larnaca makes a stop in Beirut on the inbound flight only. The airline, however, does not have eighth freedom rights to transport passengers solely from Beirut to Larnaca.
The airport can be reached by car, taxi and public transport system. There is a shuttle bus system from/to Limassol, Nicosia, Protaras, Paralimni and Ayia Napa. Local buses are available at the airport to various locations in Larnaca.
Incidents and accidentsEdit
- On 13 October 1977, Lufthansa Flight 181, flying from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt, with 91 passengers and crew was hijacked by four Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) members, and was diverted and landed in turn at the airports in Rome, Larnaca, Bahrain and Dubai. The Boeing 737 was then forced to fly on to Mogadishu Airport, Somalia, where a German antiterrorist squad stormed the plane, killing three hijackers, arresting one and rescuing all passengers. The captain of the flight had previously been murdered by the lead terrorist.
- On 5 April 1988, Kuwait Airways Flight 422, a Kuwait Airways Boeing 747, was hijacked, while en route from Thailand to Kuwait. After forcing the plane to fly to Iran, the hijackers forced the crew to fly the plane further west to Algeria, but the plane landed in Larnaca for refuelling. Two Kuwaiti hostages were murdered by the hijackers and their bodies were thrown out on the airport's runway. The Cypriot authorities managed to release 12 hostages in exchange they agreed to resupply the plane with jet fuel. The hijacking ended in Algeria on 20 April 1988.
- On 29 March 2016, EgyptAir Flight 181, operated by Airbus A320-232 SU-GCB, was hijacked whilst on a Flight from Borg El Arab Airport to Cairo International Airport. The aircraft landed at Larnaca. The hijacker claimed to be wearing an explosive belt, but it was later revealed to be fake.
- "Member Airline Details". Staralliance.com. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Passenger Traffic". hermesairports.com. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "EAD Basic". Ead.eurocontrol.int. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- SigmaLive. "Larnaca Airport becomes Glafcos Clerides Airport - News". www.sigmalive.com.
- "Larnaca Airport". Larnacaairport.co. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "The 1978 Battle of Larnaca Airport, Cyprus, and UK Diplomacy". Gloria-center.org. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- Rescuing Nationals Abroad Through Military Coercion and Intervention on Grounds of Humanity by Ronzitti, Natalino (p.40–41), 1985, Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff, ISBN 90-247-3135-6
- Political Terrorism: Theory, Tactics and Counter-Measures, by Grant Wardlow, (page 60), 1989, Publisher: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521368413
- "Murder and Massacre on Cyprus". Time Magazine. 6 March 1978. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
- "Handy Larnaca airport information from Skyscanner". Skyscanner.co.in. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Larnaca Airport, Cyprus (LCA) - Guide & Flights". Europe-airports.com. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Abacus: Regional airlines eye new Cyprus airport at Larnaca as a new hub". Abacus.com.cy. Retrieved 15 November 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "New airlines and flights to Larnaca Airport - Cyprus Profile". Cyprusprofile.com. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Larnaca International - Cyprus". World-airport-codes.com. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Larnaca International Airport Glafcos Clerides Profile - CAPA". Centreforaviation.com. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "TRAVEL ADVISORY; Gulf Air and Korean Air Begin New U.S. Routes". The New York Times. 1994-12-11. Archived from the original on 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2015-01-05.
- "Foundation stone laid at new Larnaca Airport". Financial Mirror. 26 June 2006. Archived from the original on 17 October 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
- "Official Website for Larnaka & Pafos International Airports". Cyprusairports.com.cy. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Flight schedule". hermesairports.com.
- "Кипр расписание рейсов - КубаньТурист".
- "Flight ticket booking". online-english.mouzenidis-travel.ru. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- tour, Outgoing. "Cyprus - Outgoing tour". Outgoing.sputnik.am. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Flights". www.anextour.com.
- "Top Kinisis Travel - Holiday Packages, Hotels and Flights, Cheap Holidays". www.topkinisis.com.
- "Cyprus Airways announces the launch of ticket sales to Heraklion, Rhodes and Skiathos". www.cyprusairways.com.
- "Cyprus Airways announces the launch of ticket sales for summer 2019. New improved baggage policy as of 31 March 2019". www.cyprusairways.com.
- "Flight". apollorejser.dk.
- "Charter flights". charterflights.r.pl. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Skrydžių tvarkaraštis ir vietos lėktuve". www.tez-tour.com.
- "Расписание рейсов и наличие авиабилетов". www.tez-tour.com.
- Liu, Jim (10 October 2018). "Israir adds Tel Aviv Sde Dov – Larnaca service from late-Nov 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
- "Haifa, Israel briefly resumes regular pax ops in Summer 2018".
- "Only Flight". tui.dk.
- "Only Flight". tui.fi.
- "Only Flight". tui.se.
- https://www.kuwaitairways.com/en/Pages/default.aspx?_ga=2.148743604.2004527025.1548152706-341606192.1548152706. Missing or empty
- Ltd. 2019, UBM (UK). "Neos schedules new European routes in S19". Routesonline.
- "Flight Search". pegasys.pegast.ru.
- "Only Flight". tui.no.
- "Qeshm Air - Orthodoxou Aviation Ltd". Orthodoxouaviation.com. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Flight schedule". bgoperator.ru.
- "LIST OF ROUTES (178) WITH PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATIONS" (PDF). Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Charter flights". TUI.pl.
- Liu, Jim (21 November 2018). "S7 Airlines schedules new 737 MAX 8 international routes in S19". Routesonline. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- "Bergen Airport - Avinor". avinor.no.
- "Flight". apollo.se.
- "Flight". apollo.no.
- Liu, Jim (6 January 2019). "SkyUp Airlines S19 network expansion as of 04JAN19". Routesonline.
- "freight monitor". online.joinup.ua. 9 July 2018.
- group, ripe. "Novaturas flights - Novaturas Flights en". flights.novatours.eu. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "SWISS to fly to Larnaca". ftnnews.com. 24 January 2019.
- "Flight". spies.dk.
- "Flight". ving.se.
- "Flight". tjareborg.fi.
- "Flight". ving.no.
- "Flight Timetable". tui.co.uk.
- TUIfly.com. "TUIfly.com - Schedule". www.tuifly.com.
- "Welcome to the world of opportunity! - Wizz Air". wizzair.com.
- "Wizz Air będzie latał z Krakowa. Tani przewoźnik otworzy 12 tras ze stolicy Małopolski". 21 November 2018.
- "Welcome to the world of opportunity! - Wizz Air". wizzair.com.
- "AirportShuttleBus.eu". AirportShuttleBus.eu. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Kapnos airport shuttle extends service to Ayia Napa - Cyprus Mail". 27 June 2018.
- "Terror and Triumph at Mogadishu". Time Magazine. 31 October 1977. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- "Terrorism Nightmare on Flight 422 – Murder and zealotry meet in a jumbo jet", Time Magazine, 25 April 1988.
- "SU-GCB description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "EgyptAir hijack: Suicide belt worn by the hijacker was fake | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. Retrieved 29 March 2016.