Taoyuan International Airport

Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport (IATA: TPE, ICAO: RCTP) is an international airport serving Taipei and northern Taiwan. Located about 40 km (25 mi) west of Taipei in Dayuan District, Taoyuan, the airport is Taiwan's largest. It was also the busiest airport in Taiwan before the COVID-19 pandemic which began in 2020.[3] It is operated by the Taoyuan International Airport Corporation. In 2016, it was ranked the best airport for its size in the Asia-Pacific region by Airports Council International.[4]

Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport

臺灣桃園國際機場 / 台灣桃園國際機場
Taoyuan Airport Logo.svg
20181104 TPE-CTS 4237 (48428426806).jpg
Bird's-eye view of Terminal 1 of Taoyuan International Airport
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorTaoyuan International Airport Corporation
ServesTaipei–Keelung metropolitan area
LocationDayuan District, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Opened26 February 1979; 43 years ago (1979-02-26)
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL33 m / 108 ft
Coordinates25°4′35″N 121°13′26″E / 25.07639°N 121.22389°E / 25.07639; 121.22389Coordinates: 25°4′35″N 121°13′26″E / 25.07639°N 121.22389°E / 25.07639; 121.22389
Websitewww.taoyuan-airport.com
Maps
TPE is located in Taiwan
TPE
TPE
Location in Taiwan
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
05L/23R[1] 3,660 12,008 Asphalt concrete
05R/23L 3,800 12,467 Asphalt concrete
Statistics (2021)
Number of passengers818,124
Decrease 89.00%
Aircraft Movement96,678
Decrease 18.38%
Airfreight Movements2,562,939 tonnes
Increase 9.40%
Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport
Traditional Chinese臺灣桃園國際機場 / 台灣桃園國際機場
Simplified Chinese台湾桃园国际机场
Chiang Kai-shek International Airport
Traditional Chinese國際機場
Simplified Chinese中正国际机场

The airport opened for commercial operations in 1979 as Chiang Kai-shek International Airport and was renamed in 2006.[5] It is an important regional trans-shipment center, passenger hub, and gateway for destinations in Asia, and is one of two international airports that serve Taipei. The other, Taipei Songshan Airport, is located within city limits and served as Taipei's only international airport until 1979.[6] Songshan now mainly serves chartered flights, intra-island flights, and limited international flights.

In 2018, Taiwan Taoyuan handled a record 46.5 million passengers and 2.3 billion kg of freight, making it the 11th busiest airport worldwide by international passenger traffic, and 8th busiest in terms of international freight traffic in 2018.[7][2][8] It is the main international hub for China Airlines, EVA Air and Starlux Airlines. It is also a hub of Mandarin Airlines, Uni Air and Tigerair Taiwan.

HistoryEdit

In the 1970s, the original airport in Taipei City — Taipei Songshan Airport — had become overcrowded and could not be expanded due to space limitations. Thus, a new airport was planned to alleviate congestion.[6] The new airport opened (with Terminal 1) on 26 February 1979,[5] as part of the Ten Major Construction Projects pursued by the government in the 1970s. The airport was originally planned under the name Taoyuan International Airport but was later changed to Chiang Kai-shek International Airport in memory of former President Chiang Kai-shek.[9]

The airport is the main hub of China Airlines, the Republic of China's flag carrier, as well as EVA Air, a private airline established in 1989. Overcrowding of the airport in recent years prompted the construction of Terminal 2, which was opened on 29 July 2000,[5] with half of its gates operational; EVA Air was the first airline to move into Terminal 2. The remaining gates opened on 21 January 2005 for China Airlines, making China Airlines the only airline to operate from both terminals.[10]

The airport has announced construction plans for a third terminal. In October 2015, the design of British firm Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, founded by Pritzker Architecture Prize-laureate Richard Rogers, was chosen for the 640,000 square meter Terminal 3. Over US$2.3 billion will be poured into the project, among the most costly constructions in modern Taiwanese history. The terminal is expected to be opened in 2020[needs update] and accommodate 45 million passengers per year, boosting the yearly capacity of the airport to 86 million passengers.[11]

Formerly known as Chiang Kai-shek International Airport, it was renamed on 6 September 2006 to its current name.[5] The airport, originally planned as Taoyuan International Airport, bore the name of late President Chiang Kai-shek until 2006.[5] In Chinese, its former name was literally "Chung-Cheng (Zhongzheng) International Airport", where Chung-Cheng is the legal given name that Chiang Kai-shek had used since the 1910s.[12] In Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek is associated with the Chinese Nationalist Party or Kuomintang and its many years of one-party authoritarian rule.[9] Local officials in Taoyuan City and members of the Pan-Green Coalition often referred to the hub by the name originally associated with it: "Taoyuan International Airport".[13] News organizations and local residents sometimes combined the two commonly used names as "Taoyuan Chung-Cheng Airport."[13][14]

The Executive Yuan of then-President Chen Shui-bian's administration officially approved the name Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport for the hub on 6 September 2006.[15][16][17][18] The opposition Kuomintang, which together with its political allies held a one-vote majority in the Legislative Yuan, decried the change and proposed "Taiwan Taoyuan Chiang Kai-shek International Airport" instead.[19] The disagreement, like those affecting the names of the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall and other landmarks in Taiwan, stands as another manifestation of the Taiwan localization efforts by pan-Green officials and resistance against it by Pan-Blue Coalition.[9] The media in mainland China has always referred to the airport as "Taoyuan International Airport" so as to avoid mentioning Chiang Kai-shek.

TerminalsEdit

 
Morning rush hour at TPE

Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport currently has two terminals, which are connected by two short people movers.[20] The third terminal is under construction, while the fourth terminal is planned, however plans may be halted. The Taoyuan Airport MRT links the terminals together underground, and provides transportation to Taipei City.[21][22]

Terminal 1Edit

 
Exterior of Terminal 1
 
Renovated arrival hall

Terminal 1 is the original passenger terminal of the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. The building was designed by Chinese-born, Taiwanese-American structural engineer Tung-Yen Lin and influenced by Eero Saarinen's Washington Dulles International Airport.[23][24] The five-storey, 169,500 m2 (1,824,000 sq ft) terminal, along with the airport, opened in 1979 to relieve the overcrowded Taipei Songshan Airport.[25] All international flights were moved to the airport following the completion of this terminal. Terminal 1 featured 22 gates. A row of 11 gates are located on the north end of the airfield facing the north runway and another row of 11 gates are located on the south end airfield facing the south runway. The two concourses that contained the airplane gates are linked together by a main building that contained the check-in areas, baggage claim, passport immigration areas, and security checkpoint areas. Together they form a giant "H". All gates are equipped with jetways. Gates located at the end of the concourses have one jetway and also reducing people and gates not located at the end of the concourses have two jetways. The terminal was originally white in color when it first opened. As the years gradually passed, the façade and color has become more tan and yellow colored due to air pollution in Taipei.

After the completion of Terminal 2, some gates from Terminal 1 were removed to make space for Terminal 2. Currently Terminal 1 has 18 gates.[26] Alphabetical letters were introduced when Terminal 2 was completed. The north concourse is now Concourse A and the south concourse is now Concourse B. Before Terminal 2, gates were numbered from 1 to 22. China Airlines uses Concourse A for the majority of its flights in Terminal 1, while the third largest carrier of the airport, Cathay Pacific, operates most of its flights at Concourse B.

In 2012, the renovation project of the terminal, designed by Japanese architect Norihiko Dan,[27] was completed, doubling the floor area, expanding check-in counters, increasing shopping areas and expanding car-parking facilities. Part of the project was the complete redesigning of both the exterior and interior of the terminal. The capacity of Terminal 1 is 15 million passengers per year.[citation needed] This renovation received the 2014 Taiwan Architecture Award from the Taiwan Architects Association.[28]

Terminal 2Edit

 
Departure Hall
 
Arrivals Hall

Terminal 2 opened in 2000 to reduce heavy congestion in the aging Terminal 1.[29] Only the South Concourse had been completed by the time the terminal opened. The South Concourse alone has 10 gates, each with 2 jetways and their own security checkpoints. The North Concourse opened later in 2005, bringing the total number of gates for Terminal 2 to 20 gates; the security checkpoints were moved to a central location in front of the passport control. The 318,000-m2 facility is capable of handling 17 million passengers per year.[29]

The Southern and Northern Concourses are also known as Concourse C and Concourse D, respectively. Terminals 1 and 2 are connected by two short people mover lines, with one from Concourse A to D, and the other from B to C. China Airlines uses Concourse D for the majority of its flights in Terminal 2 while EVA Air uses Concourse C for most of its operations.

Terminal 2 was planned to increase the terminal's annual passenger capacity by 5 million to 22 million per annum in 2018. Currently Terminal 2 is undergoing renovation.

Terminal 3 (under construction)Edit

Construction of Terminal 3 is part of the expansion project of Taoyuan International Airport. The 640,000 square meter Terminal 3 is designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners and will accommodate 45 million passengers per year.[11] The new terminal was originally planned to be opened in 2020. However, the project has been delayed, which postpones its targeted completion to 2025.[30]

Terminal 4 (plans halted)Edit

Originally part of the expansion project was a new Terminal 4. However, due to the vast amount of construction, the Ministry of Transportation ordered the airport company to halt the project in order to minimize traveller inconvenience.[31]

Airlines and destinationsEdit

PassengerEdit

AirlinesDestinations
AirAsia[32] Kota Kinabalu (resumes 10 December 2022)
AirAsia X[32] Kuala Lumpur–International
Air Busan[33] Busan (resumes 21 December 2022)[34]
Air Canada Vancouver
Air China[35] Beijing–Capital, Shanghai–Pudong
Air Macau Macau[36]
Air New Zealand Auckland
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
Bamboo Airways Hanoi
Batik Air Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta
Batik Air Malaysia Kuala Lumpur–International (resumes 3 January 2023),[37] Osaka–Kansai (begins 20 January 2023),[38] Sapporo–Chitose (resumes 3 January 2023)[39]
Cathay Pacific[40] Hong Kong
Cebu Pacific Manila
China Airlines[41] Amsterdam, Auckland, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Brisbane, Busan, Cebu, Chengdu–Shuangliu, Chiang Mai (resumes 20 January 2023),[42] Da Nang (begins 2 January 2023),[43] Delhi, Denpasar,[44] Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Hanoi, Hiroshima (resumes 4 January 2023),[45] Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu (resumes 1 July 2023),[46] Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Kagoshima, Koror, Kuala Lumpur–International, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manila, Melbourne, Nagoya–Centrair, Naha, New York–JFK, Ontario (CA), Osaka–Kansai, Penang, Phnom Penh, Rome–Fiumicino (resumes 26 March 2023),[47] San Francisco, Sapporo–Chitose, Seoul–Incheon, Singapore, Sydney, Takamatsu (resumes 19 January 2023),[48] Tokyo–Narita, Vancouver, Vienna, Yangon
Seasonal: Ishigaki
Seasonal Charter: Phoenix–Sky Harbor[49]
China Eastern Airlines[50] Shanghai–Pudong
China Southern Airlines[51] Shanghai–Pudong
Emirates Dubai–International
EVA Air[52][53] Amsterdam, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Brisbane, Cebu, Chengdu–Shuangliu, Chiang Mai (resumes 1 January 2023),[54] Chicago–O'Hare, Chongqing, Da Nang, Denpasar, Fukuoka, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Komatsu (resumes 27 March 2022)[55] Kuala Lumpur–International, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Macau, Manila, Milan–Malpensa,[56] Munich,[57] Naha, New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Phnom Penh, Phuket,[58] San Francisco, Sapporo–Chitose, Seattle/Tacoma, Sendai (resumes 1 January 2023),[59] Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Tianjin, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver, Vienna
Fly Gangwon Yangyang (resumes 7 December 2022)[60]
Greater Bay Airlines Hong Kong
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong
Japan Airlines[61] Nagoya–Centrair, Osaka–Kansai (resumes 21 January 2023),[62] Tokyo–Narita
Jeju Air[63] Busan, Cheongju, Daegu, Jeju, Muan, Seoul–Incheon
Jetstar Japan Osaka–Kansai, Tokyo–Narita
Jin Air Daegu (resumes 30 December 2022),[64] Seoul–Incheon
Seasonal Charter: Cheongju
Juneyao Air Shanghai–Pudong
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Busan, Seoul–Incheon
Malaysia Airlines Kota Kinabalu,[65] Kuala Lumpur–International
Mandarin Airlines[66] Changsha, Nanjing, Shenyang, Xiamen, Zhengzhou
Myanmar Airways International Mandalay
Philippine Airlines Manila
Philippines AirAsia[32] Cebu, Clark, Manila
Royal Air Philippines Caticlan (begins 26 December 2022)[67]
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan (resumes 1 January 2023)[68]
Scoot Seoul–Incheon, Singapore, Tokyo–Narita
Seasonal: Sapporo–Chitose[69]
Singapore Airlines Singapore
Spring Airlines[70] Shanghai–Pudong, Shijiazhuang, Yangzhou
Starlux AirlinesBangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Cebu (begins 17 January 2023),[71] Da Nang, Fukuoka, Hanoi (begins 13 January 2023),[72] Ho Chi Minh City, Kuala Lumpur–International, Macau, Manila, Naha, Osaka–Kansai, Penang, Sapporo–Chitose, Singapore, Tokyo–Narita
Thai AirAsia[32] Chiang Mai (resumes 15 December 2022)[73]
Thai Airways International Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Thai Lion Air Bangkok–Don Mueang (resumes 17 December 2022)[74]
Thai VietJet Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Tigerair Taiwan[75][76] Bangkok–Don Mueang, Busan,[77] Cebu, Da Nang (begins 24 December 2022),[78] Daegu, Fukuoka, Jeju,[79] Kalibo (resumes 29 December 2022),[80] Komatsu, Macau, Nagoya–Centrair, Naha, Osaka–Kansai, Puerto Princesa (resumes 28 December 2022),[81] Saga, Sapporo–Chitose,[82] Seoul–Incheon, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Turkish Airlines Istanbul
T'way Air Daegu,[63] Jeju (begins 24 December 2022)[83]
Uni Air[84] Chongqing, Dalian, Fuzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Seoul–Incheon, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Xi'an
United Airlines San Francisco
VietJet Air Can Tho (resumes 1 January 2023),[85] Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam Airlines[86] Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Charter: Da Nang, Can Tho
XiamenAir[51] Xiamen

CargoEdit

AirlinesDestinations
AirBridgeCargo Moscow–Sheremetyevo (suspended)
Air China Cargo Shanghai–Pudong
ANA Cargo Naha, Osaka–Kansai, Tokyo–Narita
Cargolux Almaty, Baku, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beirut, Budapest, Ho Chi Minh City, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuwait City, Luxembourg, Milan–Malpensa, Mumbai, Novosibirsk, Seoul–Incheon, Vienna
Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong, Tokyo–Narita
China Airlines Cargo Amsterdam, Anchorage, Atlanta, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Boston, Chicago–O'Hare, Chongqing, Columbus–Rickenbacker, Dallas/Fort Worth, Delhi, Dubai–Al Maktoum, Frankfurt, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Kuala Lumpur–International, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, Manila, Miami, Mumbai, Nanjing, New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Penang, Prague, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai–Pudong, Shenzhen, Singapore, Tokyo–Narita, Xiamen, Zhengzhou
China Cargo Airlines Shanghai–Pudong, Xiamen
China Postal Airlines Fuzhou
DHL Aviation
operated by Air Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Emirates SkyCargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Dubai–Al Maktoum
EVA Air Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Chicago–O'Hare, Chongqing, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Los Angeles, New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai–Pudong, Shenzhen, Singapore[87]
FedEx Express Anchorage, Auckland, Clark, Hong Kong, Indianapolis, Memphis, Osaka–Kansai, Penang, Singapore, Tokyo–Narita
Hong Kong Airlines Cargo Hong Kong
Nippon Cargo AirlinesKitakyushu, Seoul–Incheon, Tokyo–Narita
Polar Air Cargo Cincinnati, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Nagoya–Centrair, Seoul–Incheon, Tokyo–Narita
SF Airlines Ningbo, Shenzhen
Suparna Airlines Cargo Guangzhou
Turkish Cargo Almaty, Istanbul, Seoul–Incheon, Tashkent
UPS Airlines Anchorage, Clark, Cologne/Bonn, Louisville, Mumbai, Seoul–Incheon

OperationsEdit

StatisticsEdit

Annual passenger traffic at TPE airport. See Wikidata query.
Operations and Statistics[2]
Year Passenger
movements
Airfreight
movements
(kg)
Aircraft
movement
2011 24,947,751 1,627,462,362 163,199
2012 27,836,550 1,577,730,181 180,761
2013 30,701,987 1,571,814,300 194,239
2014 35,804,465 2,088,726,700 208,874
2015 38,473,333 2,021,865,100 221,191
2016 42,296,322 2,097,228,400 244,464
2017 44,878,703 2,269,585,324 246,104
2018 46,535,180 2,322,820,000 256,069
2019 48,689,372 2,182,341,790 265,625
2020 7,438,325 2,342,714,268 118,449
Capacity
Passenger (current) 37,000,000
Passenger (2022) 82,000,000
Cargo (current) 1.7m tonnes

Busiest routesEdit

Busiest Routes (2019)[88]
Rank City Passengers % Change 2019 / 18 Airport Passengers Carriers 2019 (largest carrier bolded)
1   Hong Kong 6,109,841   4.0% Hong Kong 6,109,841 China Airlines, EVA Air, Cathay Pacific, Cathay Dragon, Hong Kong Airlines
2   Tokyo 3,107,343   3.9% Narita 2,869,918 China Airlines, EVA Air, Tigerair Taiwan, All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, Jetstar Japan, Vanilla Air, Cathay Pacific, Scoot
Haneda 237,425 Tigerair Taiwan, Peach
3   Osaka 2,714,780   7.9% Kansai 2,714,780 China Airlines, EVA Air, Tigerair Taiwan, Japan Airlines, Jetstar Asia Airways, Jetstar Japan, Peach, Vanilla Air, Philippine Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Air Asia X
4   Seoul 2,655,228   4.6% Incheon 2,655,228 China Airlines, EVA Air, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines, Eastar Jet, Jeju Air, Jin Air, Cathay Pacific, Scoot, Thai Airways, Uni Air
5   Bangkok 2,399,311   7.9% Suvarnabhumi 1,847,369 China Airlines, EVA Air, Thai Airways
Don Mueang 551,942 Tigerair Taiwan, NokScoot, Thai Lion Air
6   Singapore 1,926,444   4.8% Changi 1,926,444 China Airlines, EVA Air, Singapore Airlines, Scoot, Jetstar Asia Airways
7   Manila 1,747,881   11.8% Ninoy Aquino 1,685,251 China Airlines, EVA Air, Philippine Airlines, Philippines AirAsia, Cebu Pacific, KLM
Clark 62,630 Philippines AirAsia
8   Shanghai 1,739,872   0.6% Pudong 1,739,872 China Airlines, EVA Air, Air China, China Eastern, China Southern, Juneyao Airlines, Spring Airlines
9   Ho Chi Minh City 1,346,413   3.2% Tan Son Nhat 1,346,413 China Airlines, EVA Air, Vietnam Airlines, Vietjet Air, Uni Air
10   Macau 1,290,114   4.1% Macau 1,290,114 EVA Air, Tigerair Taiwan, Air Macau
11   Naha 1,240,821   2.1% Naha 1,240,821 China Airlines, EVA Air, Tigerair Taiwan, Peach, Vanilla Air
12   Kuala Lumpur 1,172,599   1.9% Kuala Lumpur 1,172,599 China Airlines, EVA Air, Malaysia Airlines, Air Asia X, Malindo Air
13   San Francisco 1,018,562   0.0% San Francisco 1,018,562 China Airlines, EVA Air, United Airlines
14   Los Angeles 1,013,660   1.8% Los Angeles 819,337 China Airlines, EVA Air
Ontario 194,323 China Airlines
15   Nagoya 893,214   30.0% Chubu Centrair 893,214 China Airlines, EVA Air, Tigerair Taiwan, Japan Airlines, Jetstar Japan, StarFlyer, Cathay Pacific, Air Asia Japan
16   Fukuoka 875,214   5.2% Fukuoka 875,214 China Airlines, EVA Air, Tigerair Taiwan, Vanilla Air, Peach
17   Hanoi 798,279   17.0% Noi Bai 798,279 China Airlines, EVA Air, Vietnam Airlines, Vietjet Air, Bamboo Airways
18   Busan 779,828   1.5% Gimhae 779,828 China Airlines, Tigerair Taiwan, Korean Air, Air Busan, Jeju Air, Eastar Jet
19   Sapporo 730,964   5.6% New Chitose 730,964 China Airlines, EVA Air, Peach, Scoot, Malindo Air
20   Beijing 722,073   4.6% Beijing Capital 722,073 China Airlines, EVA Air, Air China, Hainan Airlines
Top Carriers (2018)[2]
Rank Airline Passengers Alliance Carrier Passengers
1   China Airlines 12,365,152 SkyTeam China Airlines 11,829,994
Mandarin Airlines 535,158
2   EVA Air 11,575,809 Star Alliance EVA Air 11,011,832
Uni Air 563,977
3   Cathay Pacific 3,881,836 Oneworld Cathay Pacific 3,650,896
Cathay Dragon 230,940
4   Tigerair Taiwan 2,089,203 Tigerair Taiwan 2,089,203
5   Scoot 1,092,091 Value Alliance Scoot 1,092,091
6   China Southern Airlines 1,061,456 China Southern Airlines 1,061,456
7   China Eastern Airlines 1,003,688 SkyTeam China Eastern Airlines 1,003,688
8   Vanilla Air 815,918 Value Alliance Vanilla Air 815,918
9   Air China 794,139 Star Alliance Air China 794,139
10   Hong Kong Airlines 740,259 Hong Kong Airlines 740,259
11   Peach Aviation 708,746 Peach Aviation 708,746
12   Thai Airways 670,457 Star Alliance Thai Airways 670,457
13   AirAsia X 591,083 AirAsia X 591,083
14   Japan Airlines 540,503 Oneworld Japan Airlines 540,503
15   VietJet Air 464,378 VietJet Air 464,378
Top Countries (2019)[2]
Rank Country/Region Passengers 2019 % Change 2019 / 18 Passengers 2018
1   Japan 10,855,640   5.6% 10,278,657
2   China 8,060,472   0.4% 8,029,380
3   Hong Kong 6,109,841   3.6% 6,337,734
4   South Korea 4,174,175   15.0% 3,629,026
5   United States 3,080,558   0.1% 3,076,022
6   Thailand 2,620,847   14.0% 2,298,615
7   Vietnam 2,309,352   7.4% 2,150,233
8   Philippines 2,209,269   18.9% 1,858,065
9   Singapore 1,926,444   4.8% 1,838,828
10   Malaysia 1,459,480   2.2% 1,491,790
11   Macau 1,290,114   4.1% 1,239,393
12   Indonesia 758,698   6.4% 713,215
13   Canada 745,525   1.3% 754,979
14   Australia 568,987   9.6% 518,959
15   Netherlands 354,931   0.4% 353,566

The airport is operated by the Taoyuan International Airport Corporation, a company wholly owned by the Government of Taiwan. The Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) is responsible for the provision of air traffic control services, certification of Taiwan registered aircraft, and the regulation of general civil aviation activities.

The airport has two parallel runways, with one 3660 meters in length and another 3800 meters in length and both 60 meters wide, enabling them to cater to the next generation of aircraft. Both runways have been given a Category II Precision Approach, which allows pilots to land in only 350-metre visibility. The two runways have an ultimate capacity of over 60 aircraft movements an hour. The Airport is upgrading ATC and runways.

There are 41 frontal stands at the main passenger concourse, 15 remote stands and 25 cargo stands. In 2015, the airport was the 11th busiest airport worldwide in terms of international passenger numbers, and sixth busiest in terms of international freight traffic.[8]

The operation of scheduled air services to and from Taoyuan is facilitated by air services agreements between Taiwan and other countries. Since the opening of RCTP, the Taiwan Government has implemented a policy of progressive liberalisation of air services with the intention of promoting consumer choice and competition. Many low-cost airlines have started various regional routes to compete head-on with full-service carriers on trunk routes.

The airport's long term expansion opportunities are subject to variables. A NTD 300 billion proposal to build a third runway and a third terminal has been under feasibility study and consultation.

Airport facilitiesEdit

Terminal transitEdit

 
The Skytrain shuttles passengers between Terminals 1 and 2

Transportation between Terminal 1 and 2 is provided by the TTIA Skytrain, which transports both passengers who have cleared security and those who have not through separate train cars. The other way is by taking Taoyuan Airport MRT, It offers free fare between A12 and A13 and Airport Hotel with an electronic ticket (Easy Card, i-pass).[89]

Airport Business CenterEdit

Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport finished developing the airports business travel center in late 2011. The facility is a three-story building located between the first and second terminals. Business travelers paying to use the travel center can drive into the airports restricted zone and park their cars directly in front of the building. This allows business travelers to arrive at the airport much closer to the actual departure time versus arriving two hours before departure time like most regular international passengers are required to do. The business center is equipped with over 15 isolated areas allowing travelers to eat their meals without any distractions or disruptions. The facility also includes a spa, sauna, and gymnasium that are available for use by travelers. However, all of these luxuries come with a one-time price tag of $8,000. Travelers who wish to use the facility must make reservations at least three days in advance. Statistics showed that 376 private jets landed and departed the airport through a six-month timeframe in 2011; this is a 100 percent increase from the same time frame in 2010.

Huan Yu VIP TerminalEdit

Huan Yu VIP Terminal, also known as the Taoyuan Business Aviation Centre (TYBAC), began service in September 2011 and was officially opened in mid-October 2011.[90] The three-story facility will have its own terminal and facilities separate from the public terminals. It will provide a multimedia conference room, passenger lounge, private rooms and showers, spa, sauna, gym, and business centre facilities.[90] Other services that will be provided include ground handling, baggage handling, fuelling, security, customs and flight planning. Passengers planning to utilize TYBAC must sign up (to the Taiwanese immigration service) 3 days before use.

E-gateEdit

 
Stamp demonstrating successful enrollment

Passengers who are citizens of the R.O.C (Taiwan) with valid passports or non-citizens who have ROC (Taiwan) Resident Certificate (ARC/APRC) can register with facial features and fingerprints for the E-Gate. After registration, the passengers are able to choose either E-Gate or manual immigration clearance when entering or leaving the country.[91]

Baggage and cargo facilitiesEdit

The handling and transportation of mail, passenger baggage, cargo, and the operation of aerobridges and passenger stairways in Taoyuan Airport is provided by Taoyuan International Airport Services Limited (TIAS) and Evergreen Airline Services (EGAS).

TTIA currently handles over 1.5 million tonnes of cargo annually. There are two air cargo terminals in the airport: one operated by Taiwan Air Cargo Terminals Limited and the other operated by Evergreen Air Cargo Services.

Aircraft maintenance servicesEdit

China Airlines Engineering and Maintenance Organization (CALEMO) and Evergreen Aviation Technologies (EGAT) both offers maintenance services at the airport. With its huge base, CALEMO, with a market share of over 75%, can offer maintenance service of five huge airliners at a time, for example Boeing 747, or three Boeing 747s and another Airbus A330 at a time. In addition, EGAT is capable of aircraft conversion programs, such as the Dreamlifter program.[citation needed]

In 2022 aerospace company Nordam opened a major components repair facility at Taoyuan which will serve as their regional hub replacing operations in Singapore.[92]

Ground transportationEdit

 
Taoyuan Airport MRT Commuter (left) and Express (right) trains.

BusEdit

Frequent buses link the airport to Taipei,[93] Taoyuan,[94] Zhongli,[95] Taichung,[96] Banqiao,[97] Changhua,[98] and THSR's Taoyuan Station.[99] Bus terminals are present at both terminals.

RailEdit

TaxiEdit

Taxi queues are outside the arrival halls of both terminals and are available 24 hours a day. They are metered and subject to a 15-percent surcharge.[102]

Car rentalEdit

Car rentals are available at both terminals.[103] The airport is served by National Highway No. 2.

Other facilitiesEdit

 
CAL Park, the headquarters for China Airlines.

CAL ParkEdit

China Airlines has its headquarters, CAL Park,[104] on the grounds of Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. CAL Park, located at the airport entrance forms a straight line with Terminal 1, Terminal 2, and the future Terminal 3.[105]

Airport hotelsEdit

Located adjacent to the Aviation Museum(now closed) and the convention center is the Novotel Taipei Taoyuan International Airport, which opened in November 2009. The 360-room hotel is equipped with restaurants, recreation and fitness centers, and a hair salon and spa.[106]

Aviation museumEdit

The Chung Cheng Aviation Museum was located in the south-eastern area of the airport between the main freeway entrance and the terminals. It was built in 1981 by Boeing under CAA contract.[107] Many retired Republic of China Air Force fighters are represented here. Its purpose is to preserve aviation history and provide public understanding of the civil aviation industry.[108] It is now currently closed due to the expansion and construction of the new Terminal 3.

AwardsEdit

Future developmentsEdit

 
Planned future layout

Taoyuan International Airport is undergoing major facility-upgrading and expansion plans. While the South runway (05R/23L) just completed its renovation in January 2015, construction started at the North runway (05L/23R) in March 2015. The runway renovations involve upgrading the runway to Category III and improving the surface conditions.[110] On the other hand, two Terminal 2 gates, C2 and D6, had additional jet bridges installed to accommodate the A380 aircraft. After the runway and jetbridge upgrades, the airport will be able to allow regular A380 operations, with likely carriers being Emirates, China Southern and Singapore Airlines.[111]

Also underway are the Terminal 3, satellite terminal, and third runway plans. Terminal 3 will be designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners and have an annual capacity of 45 million passengers.[11] Specific plans for the satellite terminal have not been announced. The third runway is expected to be completed by 2025.[112]

The master plan of the airport is the Taoyuan Aerotropolis project, an urban plan aimed at creating an industrial area surrounding Taoyuan Airport. The aerotropolis will take advantage of the competitive local infrastructure to attract developments and help stimulate economic growth. The total area, including the "yolk" airport area and the "white" area, will exceed 6845 hectares. The Terminal 3 and third runway plans are all part of the "yolk" area projects. The official year of completion is 2023.[113] However, due to land resumption controversies, the estimated year may be delayed.[114]

Terminal 2 expansionEdit

With the unanticipated rise of the number of passengers, the Ministry of Transportation has planned an expansion project for Terminal 2, increasing its capacity by 5 million passengers per year from 17 mil to 22 mil.[115]

Terminal 3 constructionEdit

In October 2015, it was announced that Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners won the bid to design the 640,000 square meter terminal. Structures will include a processor (main terminal building), two concourses, and a multi-functional building to connect the terminal with Terminal 2. The processor will have a wave-like roof structure from which lights will be hung. The lights will move up and down to reflect the flow of passengers. Terminal 3 was initially expected to be completed in 2020 and will be able to handle up to 50 million passengers per year, thus increasing the overall yearly capacity of the airport to over 90 million passengers.[11] The opening of the terminal has since been delayed to at least 2023.[30] It is now scheduled to be complete by 2025.[116]

Accidents and incidentsEdit

  • On 28 November 1987, South African Airways flight 295 experienced a catastrophic in-flight fire in the cargo area, broke up in mid-air, and crashed into the Indian Ocean east of Mauritius, killing all 159 people on board. The Boeing 747 combi was flying from Chiang Kai-shek International Airport to Jan Smuts International Airport, Johannesburg, South Africa with a stopover in Plaisance Airport, Plaine Magnien, Mauritius.[117][118]
  • On 10 August 1993, Air China Flight 973, a Boeing 767 was hijacked after takeoff from Beijing en route to Jakarta. A 30-year-old Chinese man passed a handwritten note to a flight attendant demanding to be flown to Taiwan. He threatened that his "accomplice" would destroy the aircraft unless he was flown to Taiwan. He was carrying a shampoo bottle containing a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, and he threatened to disfigure nearby passengers with the acid if his demands were ignored. The aircraft was flown to Taoyuan International Airport, where the hijacker surrendered.[119]
  • Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport was one of many airports targeted by the failed Project Bojinka plot in 1995.
  • On 16 February 1998, China Airlines Flight 676, which was arriving from Ngurah Rai International Airport, Indonesia, crashed into a residential area while landing in poor weather, killing all 196 people on board and seven on the ground.[120]
  • On 31 October 2000, Singapore Airlines Flight 006 crashed into construction equipment taking off on the wrong runway, killing 83 of the 179 occupants aboard.[121]

See alsoEdit

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External linksEdit