Clark International Airport

Clark International Airport (Kapampangan: Pangyatung Sulapawan ning Clark; Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Clark; IATA: CRK, ICAO: RPLC), known as Diosdado Macapagal International Airport from 2003 to 2012, is an international airport covering portions of the cities of Angeles and Mabalacat within the Clark Freeport Zone in the province of Pampanga, Philippines. It is located 43.2 nautical miles (80.0 km; 49.7 mi)[6] northwest of Manila. It is accessible through the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX).

Clark International Airport

Pangyatung Sulapawan ning Clark
Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Clark
CRK InterAir logo.svg
Newclarkairport.png
Summary
Airport typePublic
OwnerClark International Airport Corporation
OperatorLuzon International Premier Airport Development (LIPAD) Corporation[1][2]
ServesCentral Luzon and Greater Manila Area
LocationClark Freeport Zone, Angeles City and Mabalacat, Pampanga, Philippines
OpenedJune 16, 1996; 26 years ago (1996-06-16)[3][4]
Hub for
Focus city for
Time zonePHT (UTC+08:00)
Elevation AMSL148 m / 484 ft
Coordinates15°11′09″N 120°33′35″E / 15.18583°N 120.55972°E / 15.18583; 120.55972Coordinates: 15°11′09″N 120°33′35″E / 15.18583°N 120.55972°E / 15.18583; 120.55972
WebsiteOfficial website, CIAC
Map
CRK/RPLC is located in Philippines
CRK/RPLC
CRK/RPLC
Location in the Philippines
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
02/20 3,200 10,499 Asphalt/concrete
Statistics (2021)
Passengers192,542
Decrease 79.55%
Aircraft movements2,386
Decrease 73.25%
Cargo volume (in tonnes)36,975
Source: CIAC[5]

The airport serves Central Luzon, Northern Luzon, and to an extent, Metro Manila. The name is derived from the former American Clark Air Base which was the largest overseas base of the United States Air Force until it was closed in 1991 and handed over to the Government of the Philippines.

The airport is managed and operated by Luzon International Premier Airport Development (LIPAD) Corp., a consortium of JG Summit Holdings, Filinvest Development Corporation, Philippine Airport Ground Support Solutions (PAGSS) Inc., and Changi Airports Philippines Pte. Ltd.;[1][2] while the southern part of the facility is utilized by the Philippine Air Force as Clark Air Base.[7]

The airport serves both international and domestic flights. The airport was nominated for the 2021 Prix Versailles [it] awards[8] but lost to LaGuardia Airport Terminal B as the best new airport in 2021.[9]

HistoryEdit

 
The logo of Clark International Airport used until 2019.

The United States Cavalry established Fort Stotsenberg in 1902 and later converted a portion of it into an air field, which was, in turn, renamed Clark Air Field in 1919—in honor of aviator Major Harold Melville Clark—and was used as one of the most important overseas bases during World War II.

In 1947, the RP-US Military Bases Agreement was signed, integrating Clark Air Field and Fort Stotsenberg into Clark Air Base but, after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 and the non-renewal of the military bases agreement, Clark Air Base was reverted to the Philippine government.

The Bases Conversion Development Act of 1992 accelerated the conversion of Clark Air Base into a Special Economic Zone, and in 2007, the Congress of the Philippines enacted Republic Act No. 9400, which renamed the base to Clark Freeport Philippines. It is now segregated in two separate entities: Clark Freeport Zone administered by the Clark Development Corporation, and the Clark Civil Aviation Complex administered by the Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC).

In 1993, the former Clark Air Base was reopened as the Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) after the area was cleared from lahar debris from Mount Pinatubo explosion and a typhoon that followed. During the administration of President Fidel V. Ramos, it was designated to be the future primary international gateway of the Philippines and the major international airport of Metro Manila and its neighboring provinces when Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Metro Manila has reached full capacity and can no longer be expanded.

CIAC traces its origin from Republic Act No. 7227, otherwise known as the "Bases Conversion and Development Act of 1992", which authorized the conversion of several military reservations, including the former Clark Air Base, into sustainable economic zones. Jurisdiction over the corporation shifted from the Bases Conversion Development Authority (BCDA) and the Clark Development Corporation (CDC) since its formal incorporation with the SEC in 1995.

The airport opened for commercial operations on June 16, 1996.[3]

In 2003, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo renamed the airport to Diosdado Macapagal International Airport (DMIA), in memory of her father, former President Diosdado Macapagal, and ordered the Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC) in February 2007 to fund the US$1.7 billion (₱76.5 billion) expansion of DMIA and the approval of a US$2 million (₱90 million) study plan financed by the Korean International Cooperation Agency. The first stage of Clark Airport's expansion program, a ₱130 million terminal expansion, was completed in January 2008 to accommodate more than 2 million passengers annually.[10]

In 2011, CIAC was transferred from the Bases Conversion and Development Authority and became an attached agency of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) by virtue of Executive Order No. 64 issued by President Benigno Aquino III.[11][12]

The airport's name was reverted to Clark International Airport in February 2012,[13] but the original passenger terminal continued to bear Macapagal's name.

On February 28, 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte issued Executive Order No. 14, reverting CIAC as a subsidiary of the BCDA, but with the Department of Transportation (DOTr) maintaining supervision and operational control of the airport.[14]

Expansion and future developmentEdit

Four new terminals are expected to be completed and all will be fully operational by 2025. Upon completion, these four terminals will boost Clark's passenger capacity to more than 110 million annually. The airport is also being groomed to become one of the country's first "aerotropolis" or a community that features a world-class airport and surrounded by business clusters and residential developments.[15] The project involves the operations and maintenance of the existing and the proposed new passenger terminal buildings on the airport with a 25-year concession period. The ₱12.55-billion project involves the construction of a new passenger terminal building with a design capacity of twelve million passengers per annum.

North Luzon Airport Consortium (NLAC), which is a consortium of JG Summit Holdings, Filinvest Development Corporation, Philippine Airport Ground Support Solutions Inc. and Changi Airports Philippines Pte. Ltd. (which is a subsidiary of Changi Airports International Pte. Ltd, which is itself a subsidiary of Changi Airport Group, the operator of Singapore Changi Airport) won the open bid by the BCDA to take over the operations and maintenance of the airport.[16] On January 25, 2019, NLAC signed the 25-year contract for the operations and maintenance for the airport.[17] On August 16, Clark International Airport's operations and maintenance were officially handed over to the winning bid (now renamed as Luzon International Premier Airport Development (LIPAD) Corporation in a ceremony held at the new terminal building along with the unveiling of its new logo.[1][2]

The new passenger terminal building was completed in September 2020.[18] Trial flights to and from the new terminal were conducted in December 2021,[19] and the terminal opened for commercial operations on May 2, 2022.[20] All flights moved to the new terminal on the day of its opening.[21] Following the opening of the new terminal, the old terminal was decommissioned.[22] The new terminal was officially opened by President Bongbong Marcos during a grand opening event on September 28.[23]

Geographical locationEdit

Clark International Airport is located within the Clark Freeport Zone in the island of Luzon, approximately 98 kilometers (61 mi) from Manila in the south and 163 kilometers (101 mi) from Baguio. The airport lies in between Mount Pinatubo to the west and Mount Arayat to the east.

The airport site is inside the Clark Freeport Zone's Civil Aviation Complex which occupies 2,367 hectares (5,850 acres) and directly linked to the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX) which is connected to the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) providing a direct link to Metro Manila.

It has a local catchment area with an estimated population of 23 million covering the Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, the Cordillera Administrative Region, and northern Metro Manila.

StructureEdit

Passenger terminalEdit

The airport has a 82,600-square-meter (889,000 sq ft) four-level passenger terminal building which replaced the original terminal in 2022.[20] Designed by Populous and Casas+Architects and constructed by Megawide Construction Corporation and GMR Infrastructure,[24][25] the terminal has a total floor area of 110,000 square meters (1,200,000 sq ft) and a design capacity of twelve million passengers per annum.[22]

The ground level holds the baggage claim and arrival halls, while the second floor holds the transfer facilities, immigration facilities for arriving international passengers, and 18 jet bridges. Aside from the jet bridges, there are remote gates at the apron. The third level houses the check-in counters and pre-departure areas including gate lounges, while the fourth level houses food and beverage areas and commercially important person lounges.[26]

The facade of the terminal sports a wave roof design inspired by the mountains of Mount Arayat, Mount Pinatubo, and the Sierra Madre mountain range.[26]

Former terminalEdit

Views of the departure hall of the former passenger terminal.

The original terminal was expanded for $3 million (PH₱130 million) to accommodate 1 million passengers annually. The expansion project was inaugurated by President Arroyo in April 2008 to serve the growing passenger volume due to the entry of foreign and local budget carriers at the airport.[27]

The first phase of the expansion of the terminal started in April 2010 at a cost of $12 million (PH₱550 million), saw a second story, arrival and departure lounges, and two aerobridges added to the terminal building. The expansion boosted the airport's capacity to 2.5 million annually.[28]

The passenger terminal was expanded again in 2013 at a cost of $9.6 million (PH₱417 million), increasing the capacity of the terminal from 2.5 million to 4.2 million passengers per annum. The expansion increased the size of the passenger terminal building from 11,439 square meters (123,130 sq ft) to 19,799 square meters (213,110 sq ft). It added 21 new check-in counters, increasing the total number of counters from 13 to 34. Five arrival counters and 12 departures counters were also constructed. The expanded terminal has eight entry points and three customs stations. The modernized terminal started operations in May 2013.[29]

RunwaysEdit

Clark International Airport used to have two 3,200-meter (10,500 ft) parallel runways. Since the runways are closely spaced, the secondary runway (02L/20R) has been decommissioned and is no longer in use. The new terminal occupies the end that was formerly Runway 20R, while a new maintenance hangar is currently being constructed on the stopway of Runway 02L.[30]

  • The primary runway (Runway 02R/20L) has a length of 3,200 meters (10,500 ft) and a width of 60 meters (200 ft). It is equipped with various navigational aids and lighting facilities, and it has a Category 1 rating for precision approach.[31]
  • The former secondary runway (Runway 02L/20R) has the same length as the primary runway but is only 45 meters (148 ft) wide, 15 meters (49 ft) narrower than the primary runway. Unlike the primary runway, the secondary runway was used for visual flight rules (VFR) only. The secondary runway was decommissioned in 2017.[31]

Air traffic control towerEdit

In 2020, the Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC) announced plans to construct the tallest air traffic control tower in the Philippines which will stand around 54 meters (177 ft) in height.[32] The tower is projected to be completed by December 2021.[33][needs update]

Airlines and destinationsEdit

PassengerEdit

AirlinesDestinations
AirSWIFT El Nido
Cebgo Cebu
Cebu Pacific Cebu
Emirates Dubai–International
Fly Gangwon Yangyang
Jeju Air Seoul–Incheon
Jetstar Asia Singapore
Jin Air Busan, Seoul–Incheon
PAL Express Cebu
Philippine Airlines Busan, Seoul–Incheon
Philippines AirAsia Cagayan de Oro (resumes December 5, 2022),[34] Caticlan
Qatar Airways Doha
Royal Air Philippines Caticlan
Scoot Singapore
T'way Air Seoul–Incheon

CargoEdit

AirlinesDestinations
FedEx Express Guangzhou, Taipei–Taoyuan
Suparna Airlines Cargo Xiamen
Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Hong Kong
UPS Airlines Dubai–International, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita

StatisticsEdit

Data from Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC).[35][5]


Annual passenger traffic at CRK airport. See Wikidata query.
Year Passenger movements Aircraft movements Cargo movements (in tonnes)
Domestic International Total % change Domestic International Total % change Domestic International Total % change
2004 9,442 49,546 58,988   432 230 662   No data provided
2005 7,816 224,497 232,313   293.83 455 1,188 1,643   148.19
2006 17,889 470,867 488,756   110.39 437 2,065 2,502   52.28 3,774 124,981 128,755  
2007 43,650 489,969 533,619   9.18 621 1,975 2,596   3.51 3,533 125,124 128,657   0.08
2008 39,681 490,748 530,429   0.60 584 2,039 2,623   1.04 2,780 127,805 130,585   1.50
2009 30,732 559,792 590,524   11.33 572 2,613 3,185   21.43 No data provided[note 1] 132,078   1.14
2010 46,525 607,704 654,229   10.79 379 2,672 3,051   4.21 No data provided
2011 42,118 725,023 767,141   17.26 609 6,971 7,580   148.44
2012 300,438 1,015,319 1,315,757   71.51 3,501 9,313 12,814   69.05
2013 215,173 985,419 1,200,592   8.75 1,916 8,420 10,336   19.34
2014 90,948 786,809 877,757   23.89 936 5,715 6,651   35.65 1,280 46,702 47,982
2015 41,824 826,704 868,528   1.05 348 5,709 6,057   8.93 2,217 32,796 35,013   37.04
2016 51,625 899,382 951,007   9.50 360 5,852 6,212   2.56 2,120 13,236 15,356   56.14
2017 431,343 1,083,188 1,514,531   59.26 5,399 7,221 12,620   103.16 2,789 13,656 16,445   7.09
2018 1,350,168 1,314,210 2,664,378   75.92 16,267 8,650 24,873   97.09 2,875 15,342 18,217   10.78
2019 1,780,000 2,200,000 4,000,211   50.14 23,856 11,882 35,738   43.68 11,055 15,267 26,322   44.49
2020 508,795 432,773 941,532   76.46 5,591 3,329 8,920   75.04 No data provided
2021 9,405 131,997 192,542   79.55 234 971 2,386   73.25 No data provided[note 1] 36,975

AwardsEdit

  • Center for Asia Pacific Aviation
    Low-Cost Airport of the Year (2006)[36]
  • Frost & Sullivan Asia Pacific Aerospace and Defense Awards
    Airport of the Year (2008) (for airports under 15 million passengers category)[37]
  • Routes Airport Marketing Awards
    Winner (2013) (for 'Under 20 Million' Category)[38]

Ground transportationEdit

Motor vehicleEdit

The Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEx) provides high-speed automobile access to the airport from the southwest, with two exits: Clark North and Clark South interchange. The latter leads directly to Clark. Passengers with connecting flights at Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Metro Manila can take the North Luzon Expressway which is linked via SCTEx, then passing through Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, Roxas Boulevard, and finally onto NAIA Road.

Alternatively, since December 29, 2020, drivers can pay a toll to use Skyway, the newest expressway between Clark and NAIA, from NLEx to NAIA Expressway connecting NAIA Terminals 1, 2 and 3.

Park and fly services are provided within the airport as well.[39]

Public transportationEdit

For short-distance routes, air-conditioned jeepneys connect Clark to nearby Dau Bus Terminal in Mabalacat and SM City Clark in Angeles City. From Dau, passengers can ride intercity buses leading to other cities and towns in Northern and Central Luzon as well as Metro Manila. Direct Premium Point-to-Point Bus Services (P2Ps) for long-distance routes are provided by four bus companies leading to TriNoma in Quezon City, Subic and neighboring Olongapo in Zambales, Dagupan in Pangasinan, and Vigan in Ilocos Sur.[40]

The airport will also be served by the Clark International Airport station of the North–South Commuter Railway, connecting the airport to the New Clark City in Capas, Tarlac, as well as Tutuban in Manila and Calamba in Laguna. The connection is scheduled to be completed by 2023.[41]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b The combined international and domestic cargo volume is only indicated.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Lipad Corporation takes over Clark airport operations". Rappler. August 18, 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Orejas, Tonette (August 16, 2019). "Lipad consortium takes over Clark airport". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  3. ^ a b "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). Clark International Airport Official Website. Clark International Airport Corporation. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  4. ^ "Remembering CRK's 1st flight 20 years ago, June 16, 1996". Facebook. Clark International Airport Corporation. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Annual Report". Clark International Airport Corporation. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
  6. ^ Baluyut, Joelyn (October 10, 2012). "NAIA flights diverted to Clark". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  7. ^ "Clark Air Base". Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2012. Though the air facility principally handled civilian air traffic (it was planned to replace Ninoy Aquino International Airport as Metro Manila's primary airport), the Philippine Air Force maintained a presence there, and part of it was still known as Clark Air Base.
  8. ^ San Juan, Alexandria Dennise (August 19, 2021). "Wow! Clark International Airport gets Prix Versailles nomination". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  9. ^ "LaGuardia Airport Terminal B Wins UNESCO's Prestigious 2021 Prix Versailles for Best New Airport In The World". Metropolitan Airport News. December 30, 2021. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  10. ^ Navales, Reynaldo G. "Korean firm prepares $2M Clark airport master plan". SunStar Pampanga. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008.
  11. ^ "Executive Order No. 64, s. 2011". Official Gazette. December 21, 2011.
  12. ^ "Clark International Airport". Bases Conversion and Development Authority.
  13. ^ "Clark airport name-change plan sparks debate". ABS-CBN News. February 28, 2012.
  14. ^ "Executive Order No. 14, s. 2017" (PDF). Official Gazette. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  15. ^ "Central Luzon: The newest emerging business destination". SunStar. February 4, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  16. ^ Cabuenas, Jon Viktor D. (December 21, 2018). "Changi-led consortium to take over Clark airport ops, maintenance". GMA News.
  17. ^ Rey, Aika (January 25, 2019). "Filinvest, JG Summit sign 25-year Clark airport operations deal". Rappler. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  18. ^ Rey, Aika (October 13, 2020). "Construction of new Clark airport terminal completed". Rappler. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
  19. ^ "Clark International Airport's new terminal welcomes first arrivals". ABS-CBN News. December 15, 2021. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
  20. ^ a b Sarao, Zacarian (May 2, 2022). "Clark Int'l Airport in Pampanga opens new terminal". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  21. ^ Abadilla, Emmie V. (April 27, 2022). "All Clark flights departures, arrivals move to CRK New Terminal by May 2". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  22. ^ a b Mercurio, Richmond (April 28, 2022). "New Clark airport terminal to open on May 2". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  23. ^ Bajo, Anna Felicia (September 28, 2022). "Marcos graces opening of new Clark airport building, cites importance of PPP". GMA News. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
  24. ^ Orejas, Tonette (October 16, 2020). "Design firm named for interior of new Clark airport terminal". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  25. ^ Camus, Miguel R. (October 15, 2020). "Clark Airport gets new passenger terminal". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  26. ^ a b "Clark International Airport New Passenger Terminal". Airport Technology. November 20, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  27. ^ Cervantes, Ding (April 2, 2008). "GMA to inaugurate $125-M Clark airport expansion project". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  28. ^ "Clark (formerly Diosdado Macapagal) International Airport". Airport Technology. February 2, 2018. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  29. ^ "Clark International Airport (CIA) Expansion, Pampanga". Airport-technology.com.
  30. ^ "CLARK INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT OPERATION & MAINTENANCE CONCESSION" (PDF). Ppp.gov.ph. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  31. ^ a b "Clark airport's second runway decommissioned". SunStar. February 3, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  32. ^ "CIAC to build Philippines' tallest airport control tower". Sun Star Pampanga. July 20, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  33. ^ "Clark airport tower completed by Dec". Malaya Business Insight. March 1, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  34. ^ "AirAsia to start Clark to Cagayan de Oro flights and vice-versa (via Cebu) on December 5". CDODev. November 26, 2022. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  35. ^ "Vital Information" (PDF). Clark International Airport Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 14, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  36. ^ "DMIA bags Low-Cost Airport Award". Archived from the original on October 22, 2012.
  37. ^ "DMIA awarded 'Airport of the Year' by global consulting group". Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
  38. ^ "Routes Asia 2013 :: Routes Airport Marketing Awards". Routesonline. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
  39. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Clark International Airport Corporation. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  40. ^ Pavia, Joey (January 13, 2013). "CIA eyes 2M passengers in 2013, launches Clark-TriNoma bus route". BusinessMirror. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  41. ^ "Project Details – Build". Build.gov.ph. June 1, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2020.[permanent dead link]

External linksEdit