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The Indian Premier League (IPL, officially Vivo Indian Premier League for sponsorship reasons) is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested during April and May of every year by teams representing Indian cities. The league was founded by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), however Lalit Modi, the founder and former Commissioner, was the brainchild behind the birth of this league in 2007, which has now become a mammoth, money-spinning cricket venture.[3] Vivo, the Chinese based smartphone multinational company, is serving as the title sponsor since the ninth season of the league. The current IPL title holder is the Mumbai Indians, who won by one run in the 2017 final against the Rising Pune Supergiant.[4]

Indian Premier League (IPL)
Official IPL logo
Countries India India
Administrator IPL Governing Council, BCCI
Format Twenty20
First tournament 2008
Last tournament 2017
Next tournament 2018
Tournament format Double round-robin league and Playoffs
Number of teams 8
Most successful Mumbai Indians (3 titles)
Most runs Suresh Raina (4540)[1]
Most wickets Lasith Malinga (154)[2]
TV List of broadcasters
2017 IPL season

The IPL is the most-attended cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.[5] In 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event in the world to be broadcast live on YouTube.[6][7] The brand value of IPL was estimated to be US$4.5 billion in 2015 by American Appraisal, a Division of Duff & Phelps.[8] According to BCCI, the 2015 IPL season contributed ₹11.5 billion (US$182 million) to the GDP of the Indian economy.[9] Duff & Phelps added that the value of brand IPL has jumped to $4.16 billion after the 2016 edition, against $3.54 billion in 2015. The 19% jump is despite the fact that the US dollar to Indian rupee currency has depreciated by nearly 10%.[10]




The Indian Cricket League (ICL) was founded in 2007, with funding provided by Zee Entertainment Enterprises.[11] The ICL was not recognised by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) or the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the BCCI were not pleased with its committee members joining the ICL executive board.[12] To prevent players from joining the ICL, the BCCI increased the prize money in their own domestic tournaments and also imposed lifetime bans on players joining the ICL, which was considered a rebel league by the board.[13][14]


"The IPL has been designed to entice an entire new generation of sports fans into the grounds throughout the country. The dynamic Twenty20 format has been designed to attract a young fan base, which also includes women and children."
— Modi during the launch of the IPL.[15]

On 13 September 2007, the BCCI announced the launch of a franchise-based Twenty20 cricket competition called Indian Premier League whose first season was slated to start in April 2008, in a "high-profile ceremony" in New Delhi. BCCI vice-president Lalit Modi, said to be the mastermind behind the idea of IPL, spelled out the details of the tournament including its format, the prize money, franchise revenue system and squad composition rules. It was also revealed that the IPL would be run by a seven-man governing council composed of former India players and BCCI officials, and that the top two teams of the IPL would qualify for that year's Champions League Twenty20. Modi also clarified that they had been working on the idea for two years and that IPL was not started as a "knee-jerk reaction" to the ICL.[15] The league's format was similar to that of the Premier League of England and the NBA in the United States.[14]

In order to decide the owners for the new league, an auction was held on 24 January 2008 with the total base prices of the franchises costing around $400 million.[14] At the end of the auction, the winning bidders were announced, as well as the cities the teams would be based in: Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kolkata, Mohali, and Mumbai.[14] In the end, the franchises were all sold for a total of $723.59 million.[16] The Indian Cricket League soon folded in 2008.

Expansions and terminationsEdit

Crowd during a match of the 2015 IPL season in Hyderabad, India.

On 21 March 2010, it was announced that two new franchises – Pune Warriors India and Kochi Tuskers Kerala – would join the league before the fourth season in 2011.[17] Sahara Adventure Sports Group bought the Pune franchise for $370 million while Rendezvous Sports World bought the Kochi franchise for $333.3 million.[17] However, one year later, on 11 November 2011, it was announced that the Kochi Tuskers Kerala side would be terminated following the side breaching the BCCI's terms of conditions.[18]

Then, on 14 September 2012, following the team not being able to find new owners, the BCCI announced that the 2009 champions, the Deccan Chargers, would be terminated.[19] The next month, on 25 October, an auction was held to see who would be the owner of the replacement franchise, with Sun TV Network winning the bid for the Hyderabad franchise.[20] The team would be named Sunrisers Hyderabad.[21]

On 14 June 2015, it was announced that two-time champions, Chennai Super Kings, and the inaugural season champions, Rajasthan Royals, would be suspended for two seasons following their role in a match-fixing and betting scandal.[22] Then, on 8 December 2015, following an auction, it was revealed that Pune and Rajkot would replace Chennai and Rajasthan for two seasons.[23] The two teams were the Rising Pune Supergiant and the Gujarat Lions.


Title sponsorshipEdit

From 2008 to 2012, the title sponsor was DLF, India's largest real estate developer, who had secured the rights with a bid of 200 crore for five seasons.[24] After the conclusion of the 2012 season, PepsiCo bought the title sponsorship rights for 396.8 crore for the subsequent five seasons.[25] However, the company terminated the deal in October 2015 two years before the expiry of the contract, reportedly due to the two-season suspension of Chennai and Rajasthan franchises from the league.[26] The BCCI then transferred the title sponsorship rights for the remaining two seasons of the contract to Chinese mobile handset manufacturer Vivo for an undisclosed amount estimated to be about 200 crore.[27] In June 2017, Vivo retained the rights for the next five seasons (2018–2022) with a winning bid of 2199 crore, in a deal more expensive than Barclays' Premier League title sponsorship contract between 2013 and 2016.[28][29]

Title sponsor Period Sponsorship fee (per year)
DLF 2008–2012 40 crore
Pepsi 2013–2015 79.2 crore
Vivo 2016–2017 100 crore[a]
2018–2022 439.8 crore

Tournament formatEdit

Currently, with eight teams, each team plays each other twice in a home-and-away round-robin format in the league phase. At the conclusion of the league stage, the top four teams will qualify for the playoffs. The top two teams from the league phase will play against each other in the first Qualifying match, with the winner going straight to the IPL final and the loser getting another chance to qualify for the IPL final by playing the second Qualifying match. Meanwhile, the third and fourth place teams from league phase play against each other in an eliminator match and the winner from that match will play the loser from the first Qualifying match. The winner of the second Qualifying match will move onto the final to play the winner of the first Qualifying match in the IPL Final match, where the winner will be crowned the Indian Premier League champions.


Tournament seasons and resultsEdit

Out of the thirteen teams those have played in the Indian Premier League since its inception, one team has won the competition three times, two teams have won the competition twice each and three other teams have won it once each. The Mumbai Indians are the most successful team in league's history in terms of the number of titles won. The Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders have won two titles each, and the other three teams who have won the tournament are the Deccan Chargers, Rajasthan Royals and Sunrisers Hyderabad. The Chennai Super Kings is the only team to have won the tournament and then defended it the next season, winning in 2010 and winning again in 2011, thus becoming the first and only team to win the IPL at their home ground, the MA Chidambaram Stadium. Also the Chennai Super Kings has the better win-loss ratio among all the teams and have qualified to semifinals/Play-offs in every season the team participated. The Chennai Super Kings have also made it to the IPL finals a record 6 times in the 8 years they have played.

The current champions are Mumbai Indians who beat Rising Pune Supergiant in the final of the 2017 season to secure their third title and thus became the most successful team in IPL history ever.

IPL season results[30][31]
Season Final Final venue Number of teams Player of the series
Winner Winning margin Runner-up
Rajasthan Royals[32]
164/7 (20 overs)
Won by 3 wickets
Chennai Super Kings[32]
163/5 (20 overs)
DY Patil Stadium[32] 8[33] Shane Watson[32]
Deccan Chargers[34]
143/6 (20 overs)
Won by 6 runs
Royal Challengers Bangalore[34]
137/9 (20 overs)
Wanderers Stadium[34]
(South Africa)
8[35] Adam Gilchrist[34]
Chennai Super Kings[36]
168/5 (20 overs)
Won by 22 runs
Mumbai Indians[36]
146/9 (20 overs)
DY Patil Stadium[36] 8[37] Sachin Tendulkar[36]
Chennai Super Kings[38]
205/5 (20 overs)
Won by 58 runs
Royal Challengers Bangalore[38]
147/8 (20 overs)
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium[38] 10[39] Chris Gayle[38]
Kolkata Knight Riders[40]
192/5 (19.4 overs)
Won by 5 wickets
Chennai Super Kings[40]
190/3 (20 overs)
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium[40] 9[41] Sunil Narine[40]
Mumbai Indians[42]
148/9 (20 overs)
Won by 23 runs
Chennai Super Kings[42]
125/9 (20 overs)
Eden Gardens[42] 9[43] Shane Watson[42]
Kolkata Knight Riders[44]
200/7 (19.3 overs)
Won by 3 wickets
Kings XI Punjab[44]
199/4 (20 overs)
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium[44] 8[45] Glenn Maxwell[44]
Mumbai Indians[46]
202/5 (20 overs)
Won by 41 runs
Chennai Super Kings[46]
161/8 (20 overs)
Eden Gardens[46] 8[47] Andre Russell[46]
Sunrisers Hyderabad[48]
208/7 (20 overs)
Won by 8 runs
Royal Challengers Bangalore[48]
200/7 (20 overs)
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium[48] 8[49] Virat Kohli[48]
Mumbai Indians[50]
129/8 (20 overs)
Won by 1 run
Rising Pune Supergiant[50]
128/6 (20 overs)
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium[50] 8[51] Ben Stokes[50]

Tournament and salary rulesEdit

A team can acquire players through five ways: The annual auction, signing domestic players, signing uncapped players, trading players, and signing replacements.[52][53] In the trading window, a player can only be traded with his consent, with the franchise paying the difference if any between the old and new contract. If the new contract is worth more than the older one, the difference is shared between the player and the franchise selling the player.[54]

Some of the team composition rules are as follows:

  • A minimum squad strength of 16 players, one physiotherapist and a coach.
  • No more than 10 foreign players on the squad and a maximum of 4 foreign players in the playing XI.
  • A minimum of 14 Indian players must be included in each squad.
  • A minimum of 6 players from the BCCI under-22 pool must be included in each squad.

IPL games utilise television timeouts and hence there is no time limit in which teams must complete their innings. However, a penalty may be imposed if the umpires find teams misusing this privilege. Each team is given a two-and-a-half-minute "strategic timeout" during each innings; one must be taken by the bowling team between the ends of the 6th and 9th overs, and one by the batting team between the ends of the 13th and 16th overs.[55]

Salary capEdit

The total spending cap for a franchise in the first player auction was US$5 million. Under-22 players are to be remunerated with a minimum annual salary of US$20,000, whereas for others the minimum was US$50,000.[56]

Prize moneyEdit

The 2015 season of the IPL offered a total prize money of 40 crore (US$6.2 million), with the winning team netting 15 crore (US$2.3 million).[57] The first and second runners up received 10 and 7.5 crores, respectively, with the fourth placed team also winning 7.5 crores. The others teams are not awarded any prize money. The IPL rules mandate that half of the prize money must be distributed among the players.[58]


Orange CapEdit

The Orange Cap is awarded to the top run-scorer in the IPL during a season. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season.[59]

Purple CapEdit

The Purple Cap is awarded to the top wicket-taker in the IPL. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season.[60]


On 17 January 2008 it was announced that a consortium consisting of India's Sony Entertainment Television (Set Max) network and Singapore-based World Sport Group secured the global broadcasting rights of the Indian Premier League.[61] The record deal has a duration of ten years at a cost of US$1.026 billion. As part of the deal, the consortium will pay the BCCI US$918 million for the television broadcast rights and US$108 million for the promotion of the tournament.[62] The initial plan was for 20% of these proceeds would go to IPL, 8% as prize money and 72% would be distributed to the franchisees from 2008 until 2012, after which the IPL would go public and list its shares.[63] However, in March 2010, IPL decided not to go public and list its shares. Sony-WSG then re-sold parts of the broadcasting rights geographically to other companies. Sony Pictures Networks India (SPN) has raked in Rs 1,200 crore as advertising revenue from the ninth edition of the tournament, a growth of twenty percent from last year. The broadcaster had mopped up Rs. 1,000 crore as advertising revenue in IPL 2015.[64] [65] The popular television talk show Extraaa Innings T20 airs on Sony Max during the matches as a complimentary show.

Territory Network
  Afghanistan Lemar TV (2017)
  Africa (Sub-Sahara) SuperSport (2008–present)[66]
  Australia Network Ten (2008)
One HD (2009-2010)
Fox Cricket (2018-present)
  Bangladesh Maasranga (2014–2016)

Channel 9 (2016 – present)[67]

  Bhutan SET Max (2008–present)[67]
Sony SIX (2013–present)[67]
  Brunei Astro (2008–present)[67]
  Canada Sportsnet (2011–2014)[68]
TSN (2015–2018)
  Caribbean SportsMax (2008–present)[61]
  Hong Kong PCCW (2010–present)[67]
  India Sony MAX (2008–present)[61]
Sony SIX (2013–present)[69]
Sony ESPN (2016–present)
  Malaysia Astro (2008–present)[67]
  Arab world OSN SPORTS (2015–present)[67]
  Nepal Sony MAX (2008–present)[67]
Sony SIX (2013–present)[67]
Sony ESPN (2016–present)
  New Zealand Sky Sport (2012–present)[67]
  Pakistan Geo Super (2008–present)[67]
  Singapore StarHub (2008–present)[67]
Singtel (2015–present)[67]
  Sri Lanka Carlton Sports Network (2012–present)[67]
  United Kingdom ITV4 (2011-2014)[70]
Sky Sports (2015–present)[71]
  United States (2017–present)[72]
Worldwide internet rights The Times Group (2011–2014)[73]

IPL Governing CouncilEdit

The IPL Governing Council is responsible for all the functions of the tournament. The members are Rajeev Shukla, Ajay Shirke, Sourav Ganguly, Anurag Thakur and Anirudh Chaudhary. In January 2016, the Supreme Court appointed Lodha Committee to recommend separate governing bodies for the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and the Indian Premier League (IPL), where Justice RM Lodha suggested a One State-One Member pattern for the board.[75]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ media report estimate
  2. ^ The team was founded in 2012 and made its IPL debut in the 2013 season
  3. ^ The team was founded in 2010 and made its IPL debut in the 2011 season
  4. ^ The team was founded in 2015 and made its IPL debut in the 2016 season
  5. ^ The team was founded in 2010 and made its IPL debut in the 2011 season
  6. ^ The team was founded in 2015 and made its IPL debut in the 2016 season


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External linksEdit