Indian Premier League
The Indian Premier League (IPL, officially Vivo Indian Premier League for sponsorship reasons) is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested during April and May of every year by teams representing Indian cities. The league was founded by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), however Lalit Modi, the founder and former Commissioner, was the brainchild behind the birth of this league in 2007, which has now become a mammoth, money-spinning cricket venture. Vivo, the Chinese based smartphone multinational company, is serving as the title sponsor since the ninth season of the league. The current IPL title holder is the Mumbai Indians, who won by one run in the 2017 final against the Rising Pune Supergiant.
Official IPL logo
|Administrator||IPL Governing Council, BCCI|
|Tournament format||Double round-robin league and Playoffs|
|Number of teams||8|
|Most successful||Mumbai Indians (3 titles)|
|Most runs||Suresh Raina (4540)|
|Most wickets||Lasith Malinga (154)|
|TV||List of broadcasters|
|2017 IPL season|
The IPL is the most-attended cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues. In 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event in the world to be broadcast live on YouTube. The brand value of IPL was estimated to be US$4.5 billion in 2015 by American Appraisal, A Division of Duff & Phelps. According to BCCI, the 2015 IPL season contributed ₹11.5 billion (US$182 million) to the GDP of the Indian economy. Duff & Phelps added that the value of brand IPL has jumped to $4.16 billion after the 2016 edition, against $3.54 billion in 2015. The 19% jump is despite the fact that the US dollar to Indian rupee currency has depreciated by nearly 10%.
The Indian Cricket League was founded in 2007, with funding provided by Zee Entertainment Enterprises. The ICL was not recognised by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) or the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the BCCI were not pleased with its committee members joining the ICL executive board. To prevent players from joining the ICL, the BCCI increased the prize money in their own domestic tournaments and also imposed lifetime bans on players joining the ICL, which was considered a rebel league by the board. BCCI started a new Twenty20 league that would rival the Indian Cricket League. In early 2008, the BCCI announced the launch of the Indian Premier League, a new franchise based T20 league, which is among the first of its kind in the cricketing world. The league was based on the Premier League of England and the NBA in the United States.
In order to decide the owners for the new league, an auction was held on 24 January 2008 with the total base prices of the franchises costing around $400 million. At the end of the auction, the winning bidders were announced, as well as the cities the teams would be based in: Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kolkata, Mohali, and Mumbai. In the end, the franchises were all sold for a total of $723.59 million. The Indian Cricket League soon folded in 2008.
Expansions and terminations
On 21 March 2010, it was announced that two new franchises – Pune Warriors India and Kochi Tuskers Kerala – would join the league before the fourth season in 2011. Sahara Adventure Sports Group bought the Pune franchise for $370 million while Rendezvous Sports World bought the Kochi franchise for $333.3 million. However, one year later, on 11 November 2011, it was announced that the Kochi Tuskers Kerala side would be terminated following the side breaching the BCCI's terms of conditions.
Then, on 14 September 2012, following the team not being able to find new owners, the BCCI announced that the 2009 champions, the Deccan Chargers, would be terminated. The next month, on 25 October, an auction was held to see who would be the owner of the replacement franchise, with Sun TV Network winning the bid for the Hyderabad franchise. The team would be named Sunrisers Hyderabad.
On 14 June 2015, it was announced that two-time champions, Chennai Super Kings, and the inaugural season champions, Rajasthan Royals, would be suspended for two seasons following their role in a match-fixing and betting scandal. Then, on 8 December 2015, following an auction, it was revealed that Pune and Rajkot would replace Chennai and Rajasthan for two seasons. The teams are the Rising Pune Supergiant and the Gujarat Lions.A major announcement was made by the Pune team owner Sanjeev Goenka where the existing captain MS Dhoni was replaced by Steve Smith as the new captain of the team.
Currently, with eight teams, each team plays each other twice in a home-and-away round-robin format in the league phase. At the conclusion of the league stage, the top four teams will qualify for the Playoffs. The top two teams from the league phase will play against each other in the first Qualifying match, with the winner going straight to the IPL final and the loser getting another chance to qualify for the IPL final by playing the second Qualifying match. Meanwhile, the third and fourth place teams from league phase play against each other in an eliminator match and the winner from that match will play the loser from the first Qualifying match. The winner of the second Qualifying match will move onto the final to play the winner of the first Qualifying match in the IPL Final match, where the winner will be crowned the Indian Premier League champions.
Tournament seasons and results
Out of the thirteen teams those have played in the Indian Premier League since its inception, one team has won the competition three times, two teams have won the competition twice each and three other teams have won it once each. The Mumbai Indians are the most successful team in league's history in terms of the number of titles won. The Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders have won two titles each, and the other three teams who have won the tournament are the Deccan Chargers, Rajasthan Royals and Sunrisers Hyderabad. The Chennai Super Kings is the only team to have won the tournament and then defended it the next season, winning in 2010 and winning again in 2011, thus becoming the first and only team to win the IPL at their home ground, the MA Chidambaram Stadium. Also the Chennai Super Kings has the better win-loss ratio among all the teams and have qualified to semifinals/Play-offs in every season the team participated. The Chennai Super Kings have also made it to the IPL finals a record 6 times in the 8 years they have played.
Tournament and salary rules
A team can acquire players through five ways: The annual auction, signing domestic players, signing uncapped players, trading players, and signing replacements. In the trading window, a player can only be traded with his consent, with the franchise paying the difference if any between the old and new contract. If the new contract is worth more than the older one, the difference is shared between the player and the franchise selling the player.
Some of the team composition rules are as follows:
- A minimum squad strength of 16 players, one physiotherapist and a coach.
- No more than 10 foreign players on the squad and a maximum of 4 foreign players in the playing XI.
- A minimum of 14 Indian players must be included in each squad.
- A minimum of 6 players from the BCCI under-22 pool must be included in each squad.
IPL games utilise television timeouts and hence there is no time limit in which teams must complete their innings. However, a penalty may be imposed if the umpires find teams misusing this privilege. Each team is given a two-and-a-half-minute "strategic timeout" during each innings; one must be taken by the bowling team between the ends of the 6th and 9th overs, and one by the batting team between the ends of the 13th and 16th overs.
The total spending cap for a franchise in the first player auction was US$5 million. Under-22 players are to be remunerated with a minimum annual salary of US$20,000, whereas for others the minimum was US$50,000.
The 2015 season of the IPL offered a total prize money of ₹40 crore (US$6.2 million), with the winning team netting ₹15 crore (US$2.3 million). The first and second runners up received 10 and 7.5 crores, respectively, with the fourth placed team also winning 7.5 crores. The others teams are not awarded any prize money. The IPL rules mandate that half of the prize money must be distributed among the players.
The Orange Cap is awarded to the top run-scorer in the IPL during a season. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season.
The Purple Cap is awarded to the top wicket-taker in the IPL. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season.
On 17 January 2008 it was announced that a consortium consisting of India's Sony Entertainment Television (Set Max) network and Singapore-based World Sport Group secured the global broadcasting rights of the Indian Premier League. The record deal has a duration of ten years at a cost of US$1.026 billion. As part of the deal, the consortium will pay the BCCI US$918 million for the television broadcast rights and US$108 million for the promotion of the tournament. The initial plan was for 20% of these proceeds would go to IPL, 8% as prize money and 72% would be distributed to the franchisees from 2008 until 2012, after which the IPL would go public and list its shares. However, in March 2010, IPL decided not to go public and list its shares. Sony-WSG then re-sold parts of the broadcasting rights geographically to other companies. Sony Pictures Networks India (SPN) has raked in Rs 1,200 crore as advertising revenue from the ninth edition of the tournament, a growth of twenty percent from last year. The broadcaster had mopped up Rs. 1,000 crore as advertising revenue in IPL 2015. 
|Afghanistan||Lemar TV (2017)|
|Africa (Sub-Sahara)||SuperSport (2008–present)|
|Australia||Network Ten (2008)
One HD (2009-2010)
|Bhutan||SET Max (2008–present)
Sony SIX (2013–present)
|Hong Kong||PCCW (2010–present)|
|India||Sony MAX (2008–present)
Sony SIX (2013–present)
Sony ESPN (2016–present)
|Arab world||OSN SPORTS (2015–present)|
|Nepal||Sony MAX (2008–present)
Sony SIX (2013–present)
Sony ESPN (2016–present)
|New Zealand||Sky Sport (2012–present)|
|Pakistan||Geo Super (2008–present)|
|Sri Lanka||Carlton Sports Network (2012–present)|
|United Kingdom||ITV4 (2011-2014)
Sky Sports (2015–present)
|United States||Willow.tv (2017–present)|
|Worldwide internet rights||The Times Group (2011–2014)
IPL Governing Council
The IPL Governing Council is responsible for all the functions of the tournament. The members are Rajeev Shukla, Ajay Shirke, Sourav Ganguly, Anurag Thakur and Anirudh Chaudhry. In January 2016, the Supreme Court appointed Lodha Committee to recommend separate governing bodies for the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and the Indian Premier League (IPL), where Justice RM Lodha suggested a One State-One Member pattern for the board.
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