Indian Premier League
The Indian Premier League (IPL), officially Vivo Indian Premier League for sponsorship reasons, is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested during April and May of every year by teams representing Indian cities and some states. The league was founded by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) in 2008, and is regarded as the brainchild of Lalit Modi, the founder and former commissioner of the league. IPL has an exclusive window in ICC Future Tours Programme.
Official IPL logo
|Tournament format||Double round-robin league and Playoffs|
|Number of teams||8|
|Current champion||Chennai Super Kings|
Chennai Super Kings
(3 titles each)
|Most runs||Suresh Raina (4985)|
|Most wickets||Lasith Malinga (154)|
|TV||List of broadcasters|
|2018 IPL season|
The IPL is the most-attended cricket league in the world and in 2014 ranked sixth by average attendance among all sports leagues. In 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event in the world to be broadcast live on YouTube. The brand value of IPL in 2018 was US$6.3 billion, according to Duff & Phelps. According to BCCI, the 2015 IPL season contributed ₹11.5 billion (US$182 million) to the GDP of the Indian economy.
There have been eleven seasons of the IPL tournament. The current IPL title holders are the Chennai Super Kings, who won the 2018 season. The most successful franchises in the tournament are the Chennai Super Kings and Mumbai Indians with 3 tournament wins each.
The Indian Cricket League (ICL) was founded in 2007, with funding provided by Zee Entertainment Enterprises. The ICL was not recognised by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) or the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the BCCI were not pleased with its committee members joining the ICL executive board. To prevent players from joining the ICL, the BCCI increased the prize money in their own domestic tournaments and also imposed lifetime bans on players joining the ICL, which was considered a rebel league by the board.
— Modi during the launch of the IPL.
On 13 September 2007, the BCCI announced the launch of a franchise-based Twenty20 cricket competition called Indian Premier League whose first season was slated to start in April 2008, in a "high-profile ceremony" in New Delhi. BCCI vice-president Lalit Modi, said to be the mastermind behind the idea of IPL, spelled out the details of the tournament including its format, the prize money, franchise revenue system and squad composition rules. It was also revealed that the IPL would be run by a seven-man governing council composed of former India players and BCCI officials, and that the top two teams of the IPL would qualify for that year's Champions League Twenty20. Modi also clarified that they had been working on the idea for two years and that IPL was not started as a "knee-jerk reaction" to the ICL. The league's format was similar to that of the Premier League of England and the NBA in the United States.
In order to decide the owners for the new league, an auction was held on 24 January 2008 with the total base prices of the franchises costing around $400 million. At the end of the auction, the winning bidders were announced, as well as the cities the teams would be based in: Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kolkata, Mohali, and Mumbai. In the end, the franchises were all sold for a total of $723.59 million. The Indian Cricket League soon folded in 2008.
Expansions and terminations
On 21 March 2010, it was announced that two new franchises – Pune Warriors India and Kochi Tuskers Kerala – would join the league before the fourth season in 2011. Sahara Adventure Sports Group bought the Pune franchise for $370 million while Rendezvous Sports World bought the Kochi franchise for $333.3 million. However, one year later, on 11 November 2011, it was announced that the Kochi Tuskers Kerala side would be terminated following the side breaching the BCCI's terms of conditions.
Then, on 14 September 2012, following the team not being able to find new owners, the BCCI announced that the 2009 champions, the Deccan Chargers, would be terminated. The next month, on 25 October, an auction was held to see who would be the owner of the replacement franchise, with Sun TV Network winning the bid for the Hyderabad franchise. The team would be named Sunrisers Hyderabad.
Pune Warriors India withdrew from the IPL on 21 May 2013 over financial differences with the BCCI. The franchise was officially terminated by the BCCI, on 26 October 2013, on account of the franchise failing to provide the necessary bank guarantee.
On 14 June 2015, it was announced that two-time champions, Chennai Super Kings, and the inaugural season champions, Rajasthan Royals, would be suspended for two seasons following their role in a match-fixing and betting scandal. Then, on 8 December 2015, following an auction, it was revealed that Pune and Rajkot would replace Chennai and Rajasthan for two seasons. The two teams were the Rising Pune Supergiant and the Gujarat Lions.
Currently, with eight teams, each team plays each other twice in a home-and-away round-robin format in the league phase. At the conclusion of the league stage, the top four teams will qualify for the playoffs. The top two teams from the league phase will play against each other in the first Qualifying match, with the winner going straight to the IPL final and the loser getting another chance to qualify for the IPL final by playing the second Qualifying match. Meanwhile, the third and fourth place teams from league phase play against each other in an eliminator match and the winner from that match will play the loser from the first Qualifying match. The winner of the second Qualifying match will move onto the final to play the winner of the first Qualifying match in the IPL Final match, where the winner will be crowned the Indian Premier League champions.
Player acquisition, squad composition and salaries
A team can acquire players through any of the three ways: the annual player auction, trading players with other teams during the trading windows, and signing replacements for unavailable players. Players sign up for the auction and also set their base price, and are bought by the franchise that bids the highest for them. Unsold players at the auction are eligible to be signed up as replacement signings. In the trading windows, a player can only be traded with his consent, with the franchise paying the difference if any between the old and new contract. If the new contract is worth more than the older one, the difference is shared between the player and the franchise selling the player. There are generally three trading windows–two before the auction, and one after the auction but before the start of the tournament. Players can not be traded outside the trading windows or during the tournament, whereas replacements can be signed before or during the tournament.
Some of the team composition rules (as of 2018 season) are as follows:
- The squad strength must be between 18 and 25 players, with a maximum of 8 overseas players.
- Salary cap of the entire squad must not exceed ₹80 crore.
- Under-19 players can not be picked unless they have previously played first-class or List A cricket.
- A team can play a maximum of 4 overseas players in their playing eleven but there are some instances in IPL when a team have been played with less than 4 overseas players.
The term of a player contract is one year, with the franchise having the option to extend the contract by one or two years. Since the 2014 season, the player contracts are denominated in the Indian rupee, before which the contracts were in U.S. dollars. Overseas players can be remunerated in the currency of the player's choice at the exchange rate on either the contract due date or the actual date of payment. Prior to the 2014 season, Indian domestic players were not included in the player auction pool and could be signed up by the franchises at a discrete amount while a fixed sum of ₹10 to 30 lakh would get deducted per signing from the franchise's salary purse. This received significant opposition from franchise owners who complained that richer franchises were "luring players with under-the-table deals" following which the IPL decided to include domestic players in the player auction.
According to a 2015 survey by Sporting Intelligence and ESPN The Magazine, the average IPL salary when pro-rated is US$4.33 million per year, the second highest among all sport leagues in the world. Since the players in IPL are only contracted for the duration of the tournament (less than two months), the weekly IPL salaries are extrapolated pro rata to obtain average annual salary, unlike other sport leagues in which players are contracted by a single team for the entire year.
The 2015 season of the IPL offered a total prize money of ₹40 crore (US$5.6 million), with the winning team netting ₹15 crore (US$2.1 million). The first and second runners up received 10 and 7.5 crores, respectively, with the fourth placed team also winning 7.5 crores. The others teams are not awarded any prize money. The IPL rules mandate that half of the prize money must be distributed among the players.
IPL games utilise television timeouts and hence there is no time limit in which teams must complete their innings. However, a penalty may be imposed if the umpires find teams misusing this privilege. Each team is given a two-and-a-half-minute "strategic timeout" during each innings; one must be taken by the bowling team between the ends of the 6th and 9th overs, and one by the batting team between the ends of the 13th and 16th overs.
|Deccan Chargers||Hyderabad, Telangana||Rajiv Gandhi Cricket Stadium||2008||2012|
|Gujarat Lions||Rajkot, Gujarat||SCA Stadium||2016||2017|
|Kochi Tuskers Kerala||Kochi, Kerala||Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium||2011||2011|
|Pune Warriors India||Pune, Maharashtra||MCA Stadium||2011||2013|
|Rising Pune Supergiant||Pune, Maharashtra||MCA Stadium||2016||2017|
Tournament seasons and results
Out of the thirteen teams that have played in the Indian Premier League since its inception, two teams has won the competition three times, one team have won the competition twice each and three other teams have won it once each. The Mumbai Indians and Chennai Super Kings are the most successful team in league's history in terms of the number of titles won. The Kolkata Knight Riders have won two titles, and the other three teams who have won the tournament are the Deccan Chargers, Rajasthan Royals and Sunrisers Hyderabad. The current champions are Chennai Super Kings who beat Sunrisers Hyderabad in the final of the 2018 season to secure their third title and thus became the joint most successful team in IPL history ever with Mumbai Indians.
|Team \ Host||2008
|Chennai Super Kings||2nd||SF||1st||1st||2nd||2nd||3rd||2nd||Suspended||1st|
|Deccan Chargers†||8th||1st||4th||7th||8th||Team not exists|
|Gujarat Lions†||Team not existed||3rd||7th||×|
|Kings XI Punjab||SF||5th||8th||5th||6th||6th||2nd||8th||8th||5th||7th|
|Kochi Tuskers Kerala†||Team not existed||8th||Team not exists|
|Kolkata Knight Riders||6th||8th||6th||4th||1st||7th||1st||5th||4th||3rd||3rd|
|Pune Warriors India†||Team not existed||9th||9th||8th||Team not exists|
|Rising Pune Supergiant†||Team not existed||7th||2nd|
|Royal Challengers Bangalore||7th||2nd||3rd||2nd||5th||5th||7th||3rd||2nd||8th||6th|
|Sunrisers Hyderabad||Team not existed||4th||6th||6th||1st||4th||2nd|
†No longer exists.
The Orange Cap is awarded to the top run-scorer in the IPL during a season. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season.
The Purple Cap is awarded to the top wicket-taker in the IPL. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season.
From 2008 to 2012, the title sponsor was DLF, India's largest real estate developer, who had secured the rights with a bid of ₹200 crore for five seasons. After the conclusion of the 2012 season, PepsiCo bought the title sponsorship rights for ₹396.8 crore for the subsequent five seasons. However, the company terminated the deal in October 2015 two years before the expiry of the contract, reportedly due to the two-season suspension of Chennai and Rajasthan franchises from the league. The BCCI then transferred the title sponsorship rights for the remaining two seasons of the contract to Chinese smartphone manufacturer Vivo for ₹190 crore. In June 2017, Vivo retained the rights for the next five seasons (2018–2022) with a winning bid of ₹2199 crore, in a deal more expensive than Barclays' Premier League title sponsorship contract between 2013 and 2016.
|Title sponsor||Industry||Period||Sponsorship fee (per year)|
|DLF||Real Estate||2008–2012||₹40 crores|
|Vivo||Consumer electronics||2016–2017||₹95 crores|
The IPL has seen a spike in its brand valuation to US$5.3 billion after the 10th edition, according to research conducted by global valuation and corporate finance advisor Duff & Phelps. The brand value of IPL was estimated to be US$5.3 billion after 2017 IPL by American Appraisal, a Division of Duff & Phelps. Duff & Phelps added that the value of brand IPL has jumped to $4.16 billion after the 2016 edition, against $3.54 billion in 2015. The 19% jump is despite the fact that the US dollar to Indian rupee currency has depreciated by nearly 10%. According to managing director at Duff & Phelps India. "What IPL has achieved in this short time is phenomenal. Not just in India, but internationally also," IPL not only negotiated a tough pitch but also ultimately came out on top as a true winner. This IPL season has grabbed the eyeballs for all the right reasons with a relatively controversy free tournament, coupled with some scintillating on-field performances which have brought the spotlight back on the game."
According to another independent report conducted by Brand Finance, a London-based company, after the conclusion of the 2018 Indian Premier League, the IPL has seen its business value grow by 37% to an all-time high of US$5.3 billion — crossing the five billion mark for the first time in a season. According to the director of the company: “Now in it’s 11th season, the Indian Premier League is here to stay. The league has delivered financially for the players, franchisees, sponsors and India as a whole, prompting a strong desire among a range of stakeholders to appropriately value it. To ensure continued development, management and team owners will have to explore innovative ways of engaging fans, clubs, and sponsors.
With the brand value of $65 million and winning the 2018 season title, Chennai Super Kings (CSK) have been ranked as the most valuable IPL franchise brand. CSK has topped the Brand Finance IPL league table for the third time, after leading the rankings in 2010 and 2013. Last year's most valuable brand, Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR) come second in IPL 2018 ranking with brand value up 5% from 2017. Sun Risers Hyderabad (SRH) retained their third position with a brand value up 17%, Mumbai Indians (MI) were ranked fourth with a brand value up 11%, Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB) is at number five, Delhi Daredevils (DD), Rajasthan Royals (RR) and Kings XI Punjab (KXIP) are at sixth ,seventh & eighth in the valuation table. Despite being at the bottom half of the table, all these teams have seen a 10% growth in brand valuation.
Team Brand Valuation in 2018,
|Team||Brand Value in US$|
|Chennai Super Kings||65 million|
|Kolkata Knight Riders||62 million|
|Sunrisers Hyderabad||54 million|
|Mumbai Indians||53 million|
|Royal Challengers Bangalore||49 million|
|Delhi Daredevils||44 million|
|Rajasthan Royals||40 million|
|Kings XI Punjab||40 million|
The IPL's broadcast rights were originally held by a partnership between Sony Pictures Networks and World Sport Group, under a ten-year contract valued at US$1.026 billion. Sony would be responsible for domestic television, while WSG would handle international distribution. The initial plan was for 20% of these proceeds to go to the IPL, 8% as prize money and 72% would be distributed to the franchisees from 2008 until 2012, after which the IPL would go public and list its shares. However, in March 2010, IPL decided not to go public and list its shares. As of the 2016 season, Sony MAX, Sony SIX, and Sony ESPN served as the domestic broadcasters of the IPL; MAX and SIX aired broadcasts in Hindi, while SIX also aired broadcasts in the Bengali, Tamil, and Telugu languages. Sony ESPN broadcast English-language feeds.
The IPL became a major television property within India; Sony MAX typically became the most-watched television channel in the country during the tournament, and by 2016, annual advertising revenue surpassed ₹1,200 crore. Viewership numbers were expected to increase further during the 2016 season due to the industry adoption of the new BARC ratings system, which also calculates rural viewership rather than only urban markets. In the 2016 season, Sony's broadcasts achieved just over 1 billion impressions (television viewership in thousands), jumping to 1.25 billion the following year. Sony also broadcast a companion talk show, Extraaa Innings T20.
On 4 September 2017, it was announced that the then-current digital rightsholder, Star India (a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox), had acquired the global media rights to the IPL under a five-year contract beginning in 2018. Valued at ₹16,347.5 crore (₹163.475 billion, US$2.55 billion, £1.97 billion), it is a 158% increase over the previous deal, and the most expensive broadcast rights deal in the history of cricket. The IPL sold the rights in packages for domestic television, domestic digital, and international rights; although Sony held the highest bid for domestic television, and Facebook had made a US$600 million bid for domestic digital rights (which U.S. media interpreted as a sign that the social network was interested in pursuing professional sports rights), Star was the only bidder out of the shortlist of 14 to make bids in all three categories.
Star CEO Uday Shankar stated that the IPL was a "very powerful property", and that Star would "remain very committed to make sure that the growth of sports in this country continues to be driven by the power of cricket". He went on to say that "whoever puts in that money, they put in that money because they believe in the fans of the sport. The universe of cricket fans, it tells you, continues to very healthy, continues to grow. What was paid in 2008, that was 2008. India and cricket and IPL—all three have changed dramatically in the last 10 years. It is a reflection of that." The deal led to concerns that Star India now held a monopoly on cricket rights in the country, as it is also the rightsholder of ICC competitions and the Indian national team.
For its inaugural season, Star aimed to put a larger focus on widening the IPL's appeal with a "core" cricket audience. The network aimed to broadcast at least two hours of IPL-related programming daily from January until the start of the season, having organized televised announcements of player retention selections and new team captains. Viewership of the player auction, which featured pre- and post-auction reactions and analysis, increased six-fold to 46.5 million. In March, Star Sports broadcast Game Plan: In Your City specials from the home city of each of the IPL's franchises. Star Sports stated that its in-season coverage and studio programming would focus more on the game itself and behind-the-scenes coverage of the IPL's teams, rather than trying to incorporate irrelevant entertainment elements. The network introduced a new studio program known as The Dugout, which broadcasts coverage of matches with analysis from a panel of experts.
|Afghanistan||Lemar TV (2017-present)|
|Africa (Sub-Sahara)||SuperSport (2008–present)|
|Australia||Network Ten (2008)|
One HD (2009–2010)
Fox Sports Australia (2018–present)
Star Sports (2018–present)
|Canada||Rogers Media (Sportsnet, Omni Television) (2011–2014)Ethnic Channels Group, CricketGateway|
|Hong Kong||PCCW (2010–present)|
Star Sports (2018–present)
|Arab world||OSN Sports (2015–present)|
Star Sports (2018–present)
|New Zealand||Sky Sport (2012–present)|
|Pakistan||Geo Super (2008–present)|
|United Kingdom||ITV4 (2011–2014)|
Sky Sports (2015–present)
|United States||Willow (2017–present; cable/satellite and TV Everywhere-only digital rights)|
|Worldwide internet rights||Times Internet (2011–2014)|
IPL Governing Council
The IPL Governing Council is responsible for all the functions of the tournament. The members are Rajeev Shukla, Ajay Shirke, Sourav Ganguly, Anurag Thakur and Anirudh Chaudhary. In January 2016, the Supreme Court appointed Lodha Committee to recommend separate governing bodies for the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and the Indian Premier League (IPL), where Justice RM Lodha suggested a One State-One Member pattern for the board.
- "IPL Most runs". Cricinfo.com. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- "IPL Most wickets". Cricinfo.com. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "How can the IPL become a global sports giant?".
- "IPL confirms South Africa switch". BBC. 24 March 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- "IPL now has window in ICC Future Tours Programme".
- "Big Bash League jumps into top 10 of most attended sports leagues in the world". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- "IPL matches to be broadcast live on Youtube". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- "IPL to broadcast live on YouTube". The Telegraph UK. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- Gupta, Gaurav (8 August 2018). "Brand IPL now soars to $6.3 billion". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- "IPL 2015 contributed Rs. 11.5 bn to GDP: BCCI". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "ICL announces team lists". Rediff. 14 November 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- Press Trust of India (13 June 2007). "BCCI shoots down ICL". Rediff.com. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- Press Trust of India (21 June 2007). "BCCI hikes domestic match fees". Rediff.com. Retrieved 22 August 2007.
- "Indian Premier League: How it all started". Times of India. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- Alter, Jamie (13 September 2007). "Franchises for board's new Twenty20 league". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Cricinfo – Big business and Bollywood grab stakes in IPL". ESPNcricinfo. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Ravindran, Siddarth; Gollapudi, Nagraj (21 March 2010). "Pune and Kochi unveiled as new IPL franchises". ESPN CricInfo. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- "Kochi franchise terminated by BCCI". ESPN CricInfo. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- ESPN, CRICINFO. "BCCI terminates Deccan Chargers franchise". ESPN CRICINFO. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- "Sun TV Network win Hyderabad IPL franchise". Wisden India. 25 October 2012.
- "Hyderabad IPL franchise named Sunrisers". Hyderabad IPL franchise named Sunrisers, ESPN Cricinfo. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Pune Warriors pull out of IPL". Cricinfo. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
- "BCCI terminates contract with Sahara, Pune Warriors out of IPL - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
- "IPL scandal: Chennai Super Kings and Rajasthan Royals suspended". BBC. 14 July 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- "Pune, Rajkot to host new IPL franchises". ESPN CricInfo. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- "IPL player policies declared for the upcoming season". iplt20.com. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "Instances in IPL when team played less than 4 overseas players". CricTracker. 5 May 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- "Player regulations for IPL 2014". ESPNcricinfo. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- "IPL longlist features 651 uncapped players". ESPNcricinfo. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- "IPL cricketers world's No.2 sports earners". Emirates 24/7. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- "Rs 40 Crore Prize Money On Offer in IPL Playoffs". The New Indian Express. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "IPL-onomics: where Indian players call the shots". 22 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Law 15 – Intervals". Indian Premier League. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- Bharath Seervi (30 May 2016). "A great tournament for captains, a poor one for spinners". Sony ESPN. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- "IPL all seasons' results". Iplt20.com. Board of Control for Cricket in India. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- "2008 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2008 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2009 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2009 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2010 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2010 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2011 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2011 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2012 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2012 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2013 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2013 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2014 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2014 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2015 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2015 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2016 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "IPL 2016 season squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "2017 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "IPL 2017 Squads". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "2018 IPL Final scorecard, venue and MVP details". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "IPLT20.com – Indian Premier League Official Website". IPLT20 – 2015 Orange Cap Final Leaderboard. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
- "IPLT20.com – 2015 Purple Cap Final Leaderboard". IPLT20. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
- Bhat, Varada; Kamath, Raghavendra (27 April 2012). "DLF unlikely to continue with IPL title sponsorship". Business Standard. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- Gollapudi, Nagraj (21 November 2012). "IPL sells title rights to PepsiCo for $71m". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "PepsiCo set to end IPL sponsorship two years early". ESPNcricinfo. 9 October 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "Title sponsorship: Mobile companies gear up for IPL Innings". The Economic Times. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- Venugopal, Arun (27 June 2017). "Vivo retains IPL title rights till 2022 after massive bid". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- Choudhary, Vidhi (28 June 2017). "Vivo sponsorship may make IPL world's richest sports league". Livemint. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "IPL 2017 Valuation". TOI. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
- Laghate, Gaurav (2017-08-24). "Brand IPL gets stronger, valuation soars to $5.3 billion". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
- "IPL 2016 brand valuation". Economic Times. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- "Sony and World Sports Group bag IPL television rights". ESPNcricinfo. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008.
- "Billion dollar rights deal for IPL". The Australian. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008.
- IndranilBasu (27 January 2008). "Does the IPL model make sense?". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 March 2008.
- "IPL viewership may touch 500 million this year: Sony". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- Ahluwalia, Harveen (2017-06-01). "IPL viewership jumped 22.5% in 2017: BARC". Livemint. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- "Sony rakes in Rs. 1,200 crore advertising revenue from IPL 9". SportsCafe.in. 5 June 2016.
- "Anchoring the innings off the field". DNAIndia.com. 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2017-09-08.
- Kafka, Peter (2017-09-04). "Facebook just bid $600 million to stream Indian cricket matches. Will it try NFL games next?". Recode. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- Madhok, Diksha. "Facebook may have failed with its $600 million bid for cricket, but this is only the beginning". Quartz. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- "Star India wins IPL rights for US $2.55 billion". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- Reuters (2017-09-04). "IPL television and broadcast rights sold for massive £1.97bn to Star India". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- "Five stand-out numbers from the IPL media rights sale". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- "Star Sports mega deal: How buying IPL media rights will change sports broadcasting?". The Indian Express. 2017-09-05. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
- Vaidya, Jaideep. "No more 'Thoko taali': Inside Star Sports' major rebranding of the Indian Premier League". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
- "TV channels showing IPL matches in US, Canada, UK, Australia, India, UAE and Africa". kalyansuman.com. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Fox Sports To Show Every Game Of The Vivo Indian Premier League For The First Time". foxsports.com.au. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- "List of broadcasters in Pepsi IPL 2014". IPLT20.com. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "IPL Cricket live on Sportsnet". sportscastermagazine.ca. 1 April 2011.
- "VIVO IPL lines up the best global broadcasters for fans across the world". Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- "Sky Sports grabs rights to IPL cricket from 2015". uSwitch. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "IPL on Sky Sports: Indian Premier League live on Sky from 2015". Sky Sports. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Willow TV bags the exclusive media rights of IPL 2017 in US". Business Standard.
- "Times Group-led consortium wins IPL internet, mobile rights". The Times of India.
- "Star unit wins Internet, mobile rights for IPL". Mint. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Lodha Committee recommends separate governing bodies for BCCI, IPL". mid-day. Retrieved 2016-03-22.