Tata Group (//) is an Indian multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Founded in 1868 by Jamsetji Tata, the company gained international recognition after purchasing several global companies. One of India's largest conglomerates, Tata Group is owned by Tata Sons.
Tata Group's headquarters, the Bombay House
|Headquarters||Bombay House, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Natarajan Chandrasekaran (Chairman)|
|Revenue||US$110.7 billion (2018)|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||List of subsidiaries|
Each Tata company operates independently under the guidance and supervision of its own board of directors and shareholders. Significant Tata companies and subsidiaries include Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Jaguar Land Rover, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Advanced Systems Limited, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Coffee, Tata Teleservices, Titan, Voltas, Tata Cliq, Tata Communications, and The Indian Hotels Company Limited (Taj Hotels).
At the age of 29, Jamsetji Tata worked in his father's company. In 1870 with Rs.21,000 capital, he found a trading company. Further he bought a bankrupt oil mill at Chinchpokli and converted it into a cotton mill, under the name Alexandra Mill which he sold in profit after 2 years. In 1874, he set up another cotton mill at Nagpur named as Empress Mill. He dreamed of achieving 4 goals, setting up an iron and steel company, a unique hotel, a world-class learning institution and a hydro-electric plant. During his lifetime, in 1903, the Taj Mahal Hotel at Colaba waterfront was opened making it the first hotel with electricity in India.
After Jamsetji's death, his older son Dorabji Tata became the Chairman in 1904. Sir Dorabji established the Tata Iron and Steel company (TISCO), now known as Tata Steel in 1907. Marking the group's global ambitions, Tata Limited opened its first overseas office in London. Following the founder's goals, Western India's first hydro plant was brought to life, giving birth to Tata Power. Yet another dream, Indian Institute of Science was established with the first batch admitted in 1911.
JRD Tata was made Chairman of Tata Group in 1938. Under his chairmanship, the assets of the Tata Group grew from US$100 million to over US$5 billion. Starting with 14 enterprises, upon his departure half a century later in 1988, Tata Sons had grown to a conglomerate of 95 enterprises. These enterprises consisted of ventures that the company had either started or in which they held controlling interest.
In 1932, JRD founded an airline, known as Tata Air Services (later renamed Tata Airlines). In 1953, the Government of India passed the Air Corporations Act and purchased a majority stake in the carrier from Tata Sons, though JRD Tata would continue as Chairman till 1977.
In 1945, Tata Motors was founded, first focused on locomotives. In 1954, it entered the commercial vehicle market after forming a joint venture with Daimler-Benz. In 1968, Tata Consultancy Services was founded.
In 1991, Ratan Tata was made Chairman of Tata Group. This was also the year of economic liberalization in India, opening up the market to foreign competitors. During this time, Tata Group began to acquire a number of companies, including Tetley (2000), Corus Group (2007), and Jaguar and Land Rover (2008). In 2017, Natarajan Chandrasekaran was appointed chairman.
The Chairman of Tata Sons is usually the Chairman of the Tata Group.
This section lists the Tata companies and details their business:
- Casa Décor
- Eight O'Clock Coffee
- Fastrack, youth fashion brand
- Himalayan, mineral water brand
- Infiniti Retail (Cromā)
- Landmark Bookstores
- Tata Ceramics
- Tata Coffee
- Tata Global Beverages, second-largest global manufacturer of tea products
- Tata Industries
- Tata International Ltd.
- Tata Refractories
- Tata Salt
- Tata Sky
- Tata Starbucks, a 50:50 joint venture company, owned by Starbucks Corporation and Tata Global Beverages
- Tata Swach
- Tata Zoya
- Titan Industries
- Titan Eye Plus (Titan Eye+), Titan Industries optical stores
- Voltas, consumer electronics company
- Hooghly Met Coke and Power Company
- Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company
- Powerlinks Transmission
- Tata Petrodyne
- Tata Power, one of the largest private sector power companies
- Tata Power Delhi Distribution Ltd (formerly known as North Delhi Power Ltd)
- Tata Power Solar, started as a joint venture between Tata Power and BP Solar, now a wholly owned company
- Tata Power Trading
- Tata Projects
- Hispano Carrocera
- TAL Manufacturing Solutions
- TASL (Tata Advanced Systems Limited)
- Tata Advanced Materials
- Tata Advanced Systems
- Tata AutoComp Systems Limited (TACO)
- Tata Consulting Engineers Limited
- Tata Marcopolo
- Tata Cummins
- Tata Motors, India's largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles and passenger cars; parent company of:
- Tata Motors European Technical Centre
- Tata Petrodyne
- Tata Precision Industries
- Tata Projects
- Tata Technologies Limited
- Telco Construction Equipment
- Telcon Construction Equipment
- Voltas Global Engineering Centre
Information systems and communications
- CMC Limited
- Computational Research Laboratories
- Nelco Ltd.
- Nelito Systems
- Tata Business Support Services
- Tata Communications
- Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. (TCS), one of the world's largest IT services companies
- Tata DoCoMo
- Tata Elxsi
- Tata Interactive Systems
- Tata Teleservices
- Tatanet, managed connectivity and VSAT service provider
- VSNL International Canada
- Indicash ATM
- Air Asia India joint venture with Air Asia
- Drive India Enterprise Solutions
- e-Nxt Financials Ltd.
- The Gateway Hotels & Resorts
- Ginger Hotels
- The Indian Hotels Company
- Roots Corporation
- Taj Hotels
- Tata Advanced Systems Limited
- Tata Africa Holdings
- Tata AG
- TATA AIA Life Insurance
- TATA AIG General Insurance
- Tata Asset Management
- Tata Communications Payment Solutions
- Tata AutoComp Systems
- Tata Capital
- Tata Financial Services
- Tata Housing Development Company Ltd. (THDC)
- Tata Industrial Services
- Tata Interactive Systems
- Tata International AG
- Tata Investment Corporation
- Tata Limited
- Tata NYK
- Tata Quality Management Services
- Tata Realty and Infrastructure Limited
- Tata Services
- Tata Strategic Management Group
- TKM Global, Logistics and Supply Chain
- Vistara joint venture with Singapore Airlines
- Vivanta By Taj
- February 2000 – Tetley Tea Company, $407 million
- March 2004 – Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company, $102 million
- August 2004 – NatSteel's Steel business, $292 million
- November 2004 – Tyco Global Network, $130 million
- July 2005 – Teleglobe International Holdings, $239 million
- October 2005 – Good Earth Corporation
- December 2005 – Millennium Steel, Thailand, $165 million
- December 2005 – Brunner Mond Chemicals, $10 million
- June 2006 – Eight O'Clock Coffee, $220 million
- November 2006 – Ritz Carlton Boston, $170 million
- January 2007 – Corus Group, $12 billion
- March 2007 – PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC) (Bumi Resources), $1.1 billion
- April 2007 – Campton Place Hotel, San Francisco, $60 million
- January 2008 – Imacid Chemical Company, Morocco
- February 2008 – General Chemical Industrial Products, $1 billion
- March 2008 – Jaguar Cars and Land Rover, $2.3 billion
- March 2008 – Serviplem SA, Spain
- April 2008 – Comoplesa Lebrero SA, Spain
- May 2008 – Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A., Italy - Sold Off in 2015
- June 2008 – China Enterprise Communications, China
- October 2008 – Miljo Grenland / Innovasjon, Norway
- April 2010 – Hewitt Robins International, United Kingdom
- July 2013 – Alti SA, France
- December 2014 – Energy Products Limited, India
- June 2016 – Welspun Renewables Energy, India
- May 2018 – Bhushan Steel Limited, India
Tata Group has helped establish and finance numerous research, educational and cultural institutes in India, and received the Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy. Some of the institutes established by the Tata Group are:
- The Energy and Resources Institute (formerly known as Tata Energy and Research Institute), a non-governmental research institute
- The JRD Tata Ecotechnology Centre
- National Centre for Performing Arts
- Tata Center for Technology & Design at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Tata Centre for Technology & Design at IIT Bombay
- Tata Cricket Academy
- Tata Football Academy
- Tata Institute of Social Sciences
- Tata Management Training Centre
- Tata Medical Center, inaugurated on 16 May 2011 by Ratan Tata
- Tata Memorial Hospital
- Tata Cancer Hospital
- Tata Trusts, a group of philanthropic organisations run by the head of the business conglomerate Tata Sons
In 2010, Tata Group donated ₹ 2.20 billion ($50 million) to the Harvard Business School (HBS) to build an academic and a residential building for executive education programmes on the institute's campus in Boston, Massachusetts, now Tata Hall, which is the largest endowment received by HBS from an international donor.
Controversies and criticismsEdit
The Tata Group has also attracted some controversy during its more than 150 years in operation, notably:
The Kerala Government filed an affidavit in the high court alleging that Tata Tea had "grabbed" forest land of 3,000 acres (12 km2) at Munnar. The Tatas provided that they possessed 58,741.82 acres (237.7197 km2) of land, which they are allowed to retain under the Kannan Devan Hill (Resumption of Lands) Act, 1971, and there was a shortage of 278.23 hectares in that. The Chief Minister of Kerala V.S. Achuthanandan, who vowed to evict all on government land in Munnar, formed a special squad for the Munnar land takeover mission and started acquiring back properties. However, the mission was aborted due to both influential land-holders and opposition from Achuthanandan's own party.
On 2 January 2006, Kalinganagar, Odisha villagers protested the construction of a compound wall on land historically owned by them, for a Tata steel plant. Police opened fire at a crowd after a policeman was gruesomely killed by the mob.
Supplies to Burma's military regimeEdit
In December 2006, Myanmar's chief of general staff, General Thura Shwe Mann, visited the Tata Motors plant in Pune. In 2009, TATA Motors announced that it would manufacture trucks in Myanmar. Tata Motors reported that these contracts to supply hardware and automobiles to Burma's military were subsequently criticised by human rights activists.
Singur land acquisitionEdit
The Singur controversy in West Bengal was a series of protests by locals and political parties over the forced acquisition, eviction, and inadequate compensation to those farmers displaced for the Tata Nano plant, during which Mamata Banerjee's party was widely criticised as acting for political gain. Despite the support of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) state government, Tata eventually pulled the project out of West Bengal, citing safety concerns. Narendra Modi, then Chief Minister of Gujarat, made land available for the Nano project.
On Aug 31, 2016, in a historic judgement, the Honorable Supreme Court of India set aside the land acquisition by the West Bengal Government in 2006 that had facilitated Tata Motors' Nano plant, stating that the West Bengal government had not taken possession of the land legally, and were now required to repossess and return it to local farmers within 12 weeks without compensation.
Dhamra Port, OdishaEdit
The Port of Dhamara has received significant coverage, sparking controversy in India, and in Tata's emerging global markets. The Dhamra port, an equal joint venture between Tata Steel and Larsen & Toubro, has been criticised for its proximity to the Gahirmatha Sanctuary and Bhitarkanika National Park by Indian and international organisations, including Greenpeace; Gahirmatha Beach is one of the world's largest mass nesting sites for the Olive Ridley Turtle, and India's second largest mangrove forest, Bhitarkanika, is a designated Ramsar site, and critics claimed that the port could disrupt mass nesting at Gahirmtha beaches as well as the ecology of the Bitharkanika mangrove forest. TATA Steel employed mitigation measures set by the project's official advisor, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the company pledging to "adopt all its recommendations without exception" when conservation organisations asserted that a thorough environmental impact analysis had not been done for the project, which had undergone changes in size and specifications since it was first proposed.
Proposed soda extraction plant in TanzaniaEdit
In 2007, Tata Group joined forces with a Tanzanian company to build a soda ash extraction plant in Tanzania. Environmental activists oppose the plant because it would be near Lake Natron, and it has a very high chance of affecting the lake's ecosystem and its neighbouring dwellers, jeopardising endangered Lesser Flamingo birds. Lake Natron is where two-thirds of Lesser Flamingos reproduce. Producing soda ash involves drawing out salt water from the lake, and then disposing the water back to the lake. This process could interrupt the chemical makeup of the lake. 22 African nations signed a petition to stop its construction.
Epic Systems trade-secret case judgementEdit
In April 2016, a U.S. Federal Grand Jury awarded Epic Systems a $940 million judgement against Tata Consultancy Services and Tata America International Corp. Filed 31 October 2014; the suit charged that "6,477 unauthorized downloads could be used to enhance Tata's competing product, Med Mantra." In 2017, U.S. District Court Judge William Conley reduced the Award to $420 million; the company states that the judgement is also being appealed, as "not supported by evidence presented during the trial and a strong appeal can be made to superior court to fully set aside the jury verdict.”
2018 NCLT verdictEdit
In July 2018, the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), which "adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies," issued a verdict in the company's favor on charges of mismanagement leveled in 2016 by ousted chairman, Cyrus Mistry.
2016 fire at headquartersEdit
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According to the 40-page complaint, Tata employees fraudulently accessed Epic documents and downloaded at least 6,477 of them, containing information that could be used to benefit Tata’s own health care software, Med Mantra.
- Kyle Murphy, PhD (11 April 2016). "Epic Systems Taking TCS to Court over Theft of Trade Secrets". EHR Intelligence. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
[T]he documents downloaded by TCS personnel included, among other things, documents detailing over twenty years of development of Epic’s proprietary software and database systems, including programming rules and processes developed to produce optimal functionality of Epic’s software; documents that decode the operation of its source code that would otherwise be unusable to those outside of Epic; and information regarding Epic’s system capabilities and functions, including procedures for transferring data between customer environments, rules related to information collection, methods for limiting access to patient records, and processes for converting customer data, all of which reveal decades of work with its customers to determine the functionality desirable or required for Epic to provide successful products to those customers.
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