Land Rover is a luxury car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors since 2008. The Land Rover is regarded as a British icon, and was granted a Royal Warrant by King George VI in 1951. In 2001 it received the Queen's Award for Enterprise for outstanding contribution to international trade.
|Owner||Jaguar Land Rover (since 2013) |
|Produced by||Jaguar Land Rover|
|Fate||2013 merged with Jaguar Cars to form Jaguar Land Rover|
|Successor||Jaguar Land Rover |
|Defunct||31 December 2012|
|Headquarters||England: Solihull, West Midlands (1978–2012)|
The Land Rover name was originally used by the Rover Company for the Land Rover Series, launched in 1948. It developed into a brand encompassing a range of four-wheel-drive models, including the Defender, Discovery, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport, and Range Rover Evoque.
Land Rovers are currently assembled in England, India, China, and other markets.
Originally, the vehicles was simply called the Land Rover – an off-road capable car model of the Rover Company. The "Series" indication later became a retronym model name, once 'Land Rover' had started becoming a brand, with the introduction of the Range Rover in 1970, and eventually even a British Leyland subsidiary in 1978. In 1983 and 1984, the long and the short wheelbase Land Rovers were finally given official names — the One Ten, and the Ninety respectively, and together they were badged the Defender models in 1990, after the 1989 introduction of the new Discovery model.
The design for the original vehicle was started in 1947 by Maurice Wilks. Wilks, chief designer at the Rover Company, on his farm in Newborough, Anglesey, working in conjunction with his brother Spencer who was the managing director of Rover. The design may have been influenced by the Jeep and the prototype, later nicknamed Centre Steer, was built on a Jeep chassis and axles. The early choice of colour was dictated by military surplus supplies of aircraft cockpit paint, so early vehicles only came in various shades of light green; all models until recently feature sturdy box section ladder-frame chassis. Early vehicles like the Series I were field-tested at Long Bennington and designed to be field-serviced.
Land Rover Ltd - subsidiary of BL
Land Rover as a company has existed since 1978. Prior to this, it was a product line of the Rover Company which was subsequently absorbed into the Rover-Triumph division of the British Leyland Motor Corporation (BL) following Leyland Motor Corporation’s takeover of Rover in 1967. The ongoing commercial success of the original Land Rover series models, and latterly the Range Rover in the 1970s in the midst of BL's well-documented business troubles prompted the establishment of a separate Land Rover company but still under the BL umbrella, remaining part of the subsequent Rover Group in 1988, under the ownership of British Aerospace after the remains of British Leyland were broken up and privatised.
In 1994 Rover Group plc, including Land Rover, was acquired by BMW. In 2000, Rover Group was broken up by BMW and Land Rover was sold to Ford Motor Company, becoming part of its Premier Automotive Group.
In 2006 Ford also purchased the Rover brand from BMW for around £6 million. BMW had retained ownership of the brand to protect the integrity of the Land Rover brand, with which 'Rover' might be confused in the US 4x4 market and allowed it to be used under licence by MG Rover until it collapsed in 2005, at which point it was offered to the Ford Motor Company, who by then owned Land Rover. On 11 June 2007, Ford announced that it planned to sell Land Rover along with Jaguar Cars. Private equity firms such as Alchemy Partners of the UK, TPG Capital, Ripplewood Holdings, Cerberus Capital Management and One Equity Partners of the US, Tata Motors of India and a consortium comprising Mahindra & Mahindra of India and Apollo Management all initially expressed interest in purchasing the marques from the Ford Motor Company. On 1 January 2008, Ford formally declared that Tata was the preferred bidder. In 2008, On 26 March 2008, Ford announced that it had agreed to sell its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors, and that it expected to complete the sale by the end of the second quarter of 2008.
Tata Motors era
On 18 January 2008, Tata Motors, a part of the Tata Group, established Jaguar Land Rover Limited as a British-registered and wholly owned subsidiary. The new company was to be used as a holding company for the acquisition of the two businesses from Ford - Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover. That acquisition was completed on 2 June 2008 at a cost of £1.7 billion. Included in the deal to buy Land Rover and Jaguar Cars were the rights to three other British brands: the Daimler marque, as well as two dormant brands Lanchester and Rover.
On 1 January 2013, the group, which had been operating as two separate companies (Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover), although on an integrated basis, underwent a fundamental restructuring. The parent company was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC, Jaguar Cars Limited was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Limited and the assets (excluding certain Chinese interests) of Land Rover were transferred to it. The consequence was that Jaguar Land Rover Limited became responsible in the UK for the design, manufacture and marketing of both Jaguar and Land Rover branded products, and Land Rover and Jaguar Cars ceased to be separate vehicle producing entities.
- 1947: Rover's chief designer Maurice Wilks and his associates create a prototype using Jeep chassis and components
- 1948: The first Land Rover was officially launched 30 April 1948, at the Amsterdam Motor Show
- 1958: Series II launched
- 1961: Series IIA began production
- 1967: Rover becomes part of Leyland Motors, later British Leyland (BL) as Rover Triumph
- 1970: Introduction of the Range Rover
- 1971: Series III launched
- 1974: Land Rover abandons US market facing competitive pressure from Japanese 4x4 brands
- 1975: BL collapses and is nationalised, publication of the Ryder Report recommends that Land Rover be split from Rover and be treated as a separate company within BL and becomes part of the new commercial vehicle division called the Land Rover Leyland Group
- 1976: One-millionth Land Rover leaves the production line
- 1978: Land Rover Limited formed as a separate subsidiary of British Leyland
- 1980: Rover car production ends at Solihull with the transfer of SD1 production to Cowley, Oxford; Solihull is now exclusively for Land Rover manufacture. 5-door Range Rover introduced
- 1983: Land Rover 90 (Ninety)/110 (One-Ten)/127 (renamed Defender in 1990) introduced
- 1986: BL plc becomes Rover Group plc; Project Llama started
- 1987: Range Rover is finally introduced to the US market, following many years of demand being filled by grey market sales
- 1988: Rover Group is privatised and becomes part of British Aerospace, and is now known simply as Rover
- 1989: Introduction of Discovery
- 1990: The Ninety and One-Ten range of models are given the generic name of Defender
- 1994: Rover Group is taken over by BMW. Introduction of second-generation Range Rover. (The original Range Rover was continued under the name 'Range Rover Classic' until 1995)
- 1997: Land Rover introduces the Special Edition Discovery XD with AA yellow paint, subdued wheels, SD type roof racks, and a few other off-road upgrades directly from the factory. Produced only for the North American market, the Special Vehicles Division of Land Rover created only 250 of these bright yellow SUVs.
- 1997: Introduction of Freelander
- 1998: Introduction of second generation of Discovery
- 2000: BMW breaks up the Rover Group and sells Land Rover to Ford for £1.8 billion
- 2002: Introduction of third-generation Range Rover
- 2004: Introduction of third-generation Discovery/LR3
- 2005: Introduction of Range Rover Sport
- 2005: Adoption of Jaguar AJ-V8 engine to replace the BMW M62 V8 in the Range Rover
- 2006: Announcement of a new 2.4-litre diesel engine, 6-speed gearbox, dash and forward-facing rear seats for Defender. Introduction of second generation of Freelander (Freelander 2). Ford acquires the Rover trademark from BMW, who previously licensed its use to MG Rover Group
- 8 May 2007: 4,000,000th Land Rover rolls off the production line, a Discovery 3 (LR3), donated to The Born Free Foundation
- 12 June 2007: Announcement from the Ford Motor Company that it plans to sell Land Rover and also Jaguar Cars
- August 2007: Tata Motors and Mahindra & Mahindra as well as financial sponsors Cerberus Capital Management, TPG Capital and Apollo Global Management expressed their interest in purchasing Jaguar Cars and Land Rover from the Ford Motor Company.
- 26 March 2008: Ford agreed to sell the Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors.
- 2 June 2008: Tata Motors finalised their purchase of Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford and put them into their new subsidiary, Jaguar Land Rover
- 2010: Introduction of fourth-generation Discovery/LR4
- 2011: The Range Rover Evoque introduced
- 2012: Fourth-generation Range Rover was exhibited at the 2012 Paris Motor Show
- 1 January 2013 : Land Rover and Jaguar Cars merged to form a single company, Jaguar Land Rover Limited, producing vehicles under both marques
- 2014: The New Discovery Range was unveiled at the 2014 New York Motor Show
- 1 March 2017: The Range Rover Velar was unveiled in London
- Land Rover Defender (L663) (future vehicle)
- June 2018: representatives of the company Land Rover announced the launch of a new project called "Cortex", for the implementation of which will be spent about $5 million. The goal of this project is "to create self-propelled cars-robots that are able to independently navigate off-road in all weather conditions".
Land Rovers were manufactured primarily at the Solihull plant, near Birmingham, but production of the Freelander was moved to the Halewood Body & Assembly plant near Liverpool, a former Ford car plant. The Freelander is also assembled in Knock-down kit (CKD) form at Land Rover's facility in Pune, India. As of 2015, the company continued to expand by building locally in India as well as increasing the number of models made at JLR’s Chikhali facility near Pune to include the Discovery Sport and Evoque.
- Series I, II, IIA and III – the original 4×4
- Range Rover Classic – the original Range Rover, produced from 1970 to 1996
- Defender - Large off-road 4×4
- Freelander 2 (Were sold in some markets as LR2)- Small off-road 4×4
|Discovery Sport||Medium off-road 4x4|
|Discovery 5||Large off-road 4×4|
|Range Rover Evoque||Small off-road 4×4|
|Range Rover Velar||Large off-road 4×4|
|Range Rover Sport||Large off-road 4×4|
|Range Rover||Large off-road 4×4|
Land Rover LRX – Land Rover's second concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. Originally a vehicle with ERAD technology, the production version did not include this. The car was then launched in 2011 as the Range Rover Evoque, and was the first Range Rover branded product to be offered with front wheel drive, and no low ratio transfer box.
Land Rover DC100 – Land Rover's third concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show, designed to be a replacement for the Land Rover Defender, though it is unlikely that the Defender's replacement will be exactly the same as the DC100 concept.
Land Rover Discovery Vision Concept – Land Rover's fourth concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2014, was designed to be a replacement for the Land Rover Discovery, This concept features Transparent Bonnet, Suicide doors, and Laser assisted lamps (there is a very little chance this will be included in any future production vehicles).
Models developed for the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) include:
- 101 Forward Control – also known as the "Land Rover One Tonne FC"
- 1/2 ton Lightweight – airportable military short-wheelbase from the Series 2a
- Land Rover Wolf – an uprated Military Defender
- Snatch Land Rover – Land Rover with composite armoured body in UK Armed Forces Service
- 109 Series IIa and III ambulance (body by Marshalls of Cambridge)
- Range Rover '6x6' Fire Appliance (conversion by Carmichael and Sons of Worcester) for RAF airfield use
- 130 Defender ambulance
- 'Llama' prototypes for 101 replacement.
Models developed for the Australian Army
- Land Rover Perentie 4X4 and 6X6
During the history of the Land Rover many different engines have been fitted:
- The inlet-over-exhaust petrol engines ("semi side-valve"), in both four- and six-cylinder variants, which were used for the very first Land Rovers in 1948, and which had their origins in pre-war Rover cars. Displacement of the first models was 1,600 cc.
- The four-cylinder overhead-valve engines, both petrol and diesel, which first appeared (in diesel form) in 1957, near the end of Series One production, and evolved over the years to the 300 TDi turbodiesel, which remains in production today for some overseas markets.
- The Buick-sourced all aluminium Rover V8 engine.
- 1,997 cc Petrol, inlet-over-exhaust: Series I engine, carried over for the first few months of Series II production.
- 2,052 cc Diesel, overhead-valve: Land Rover's first diesel engine, and one of the first small high-speed diesels produced in the UK. It appeared in 1957, and was used in Series II production until 1961. Looks almost identical to the later 2,286 cc engine, but many internal differences. It produced 51 bhp (38 kW).
- 2,286 cc Petrol, overhead-valve, three-bearing crank:
- 2,286 cc Diesel, overhead-valve, three-bearing crank: Appeared in 1961 alongside the redesigned 2,286 cc petrol engine at the start of Series IIA production, and shared its cylinder block and some other components. It produced 62 bhp (46 kW).
- 2,625 cc Petrol, inlet-over-exhaust: Borrowed from the Rover saloon range, in response to demands from mid-1960s Land Rover users for more power and torque.
- 2,286 cc petrol/diesel, overhead-valve type 11J: five-bearing crank: In 1980, Land Rover finally did something about the crank failures which had plagued its four-cylinder engines for 22 years. These engines lasted beyond the end of Series III production and into the first couple of years of the new Ninety and One Ten ranges.
- 3,258 cc V8 Petrol: The ex-Buick all alloy V8 engine appeared in the Range Rover right from the start of production in 1970, but did not make its way into the company's utility vehicles until 1979.
- 2,495 cc petrol, overhead valve: The final development of Land Rover's ohv petrol 'four', with hardened valve seats which allow running on unleaded (or LPG).
- 2,495 cc diesel, overhead valve, type 12J: Land Rover reworked the old 'two and a quarter' diesel for the 1980s. The injection pump was driven off a toothed belt at the front of the engine (together with the camshaft), a change compared with the older diesels.
- 2,495 cc turbodiesel, overhead valve, type 19J
- 2,495 cc turbodiesel, overhead valve, 200TDi and 300TDi: Used in the Defender and Discovery from 1990. The cylinder block was similar to the previous engine, although strengthened but the cylinder head was all-new and a direct injection fuel system was used.
- 2,495 cc turbodiesel, five-cylinder, TD5: An all-new engine for the second generation Discovery, and the Defender featuring electronic control of the fuel injection system, 'drive by wire' throttle, and other refinements
- The original Freelander models were available with various Rover K-series engines.
- In beginning of 2015 they start to use the all new Ingenium engine family, to replaced Ford sourced engines.
Integrated Electric Rear Axle Drive (ERAD) technology, dubbed e-terrain technology, will allow the vehicle to move off without starting the engine as well as supplying extra power over tough terrain. Land Rover's Diesel ERAD Hybrid was developed as part of a multimillion-pound project supported by the UK Government's Energy Saving Trust, under the low carbon research and development programme. ERAD programme is one of a broad range of sustainability-focused engineering programmes that Land Rover is pursuing, brought together by the company under the collective name "e TERRAIN Technologies".
Land Rover presented at the 2008 London Motor Show its new ERAD diesel-electric hybrid in a pair of Freelander 2 (LR2) prototypes. The new hybrid system is being designed as a scalable and modular system that could be applied across a variety of Land Rover models and powertrains.
Land Rover unveiled the LRX hybrid concept at the 2008 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, for it to be going into production. An ERAD will enable the car to run on electric power at speeds below 20 mph (32 km/h).
In September 2011, the Range Rover Evoque was launched, though it was based on the LRX hybrid concept presented at the 2008 North American International Auto Show, it did not include the ERAD system, included in the original concept.
In February 2013, Land Rover unveiled at the 83rd Geneva Motor Show an All-Terrain Electric Defender that produces zero emissions. The electric vehicle was developed for research purposes following successful trials of the Defender-based electric vehicle, Leopard 1. The vehicle is capable of producing 70 kW and 330 Nm of torque and has a range of 80 kilometres or in low speed off-road use it can last for up to eight hours before recharging.
Power take-off (PTO) was integral to the Land Rover concept from 1948, enabling farm machinery and many other items to be run with the vehicle stationary. Maurice Wilks' original instruction was "...to have power take-offs everywhere!" The 1949 report by British National Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Scottish Machinery Testing Station contained this description: "the power take-off is driven through a Hardy Spicer propeller shaft from the main gearbox output and two interchangeable pinions giving two ratios. The PTO gearbox casing is bolted to the rear chassis cross-member and an 8 by 8 inches (200 mm × 200 mm) belt pulley driven from the PTO shaft through two bevel gears can be bolted to the PTO gearbox casing." PTOs remained regular options on Series I, II and III Land Rovers up to the demise of the Series Land Rover in 1985. An agricultural PTO on a Defender is possible as a special order.
Land Rovers (the Series/Defender models) are available in a variety of body styles, from a simple canvas-topped pick-up truck to a twelve-seat fully trimmed station wagon. Both Land Rover and out-of-house contractors have offered conversions and adaptations to the basic vehicle, such as fire engines, excavators, 'cherry picker' hydraulic platforms, ambulances, snowploughs, and six-wheel-drive versions, as well as one-off special builds including amphibious Land Rovers and vehicles fitted with tracks instead of wheels.
Various Land Rover models have been used in a military capacity, most notably by the British Army and Australian Army. Modifications may include military "blackout" lights, heavy-duty suspension, uprated brakes, 24 volt electrics, convoy lights, electronic suppression of the ignition system, blackout curtains and mounts for special equipment and small arms. Dedicated military models have been produced such as the 101 Forward Control and the air-portable 1/2 ton Lightweight. Military uses include light utility vehicle; communications platform; weapon platform for recoilless rifles, Anti-tank (e.g. TOW or M40 recoilless rifle) / Surface-to-Air Guided Weapons or machine guns; ambulances and workshops. The Discovery has also been used in small numbers, mostly as liaison vehicles.
Two models that have been designed for military use from the ground up are the 101 Forward Control from the early 1970s and the Lightweight or Airportable from the late 1960s. The latter was intended to be transported under a helicopter. The Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Service (RAFMRS) teams were early users in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and their convoys of Land Rovers and larger military trucks are a sight often seen in the mountain areas of the United Kingdom. Originally RAFMRS Land Rovers had blue bodies and bright yellow tops, to be better seen from above. In 1981, the colour scheme was changed to green with yellow stripes. More recently, vehicles have been painted white, and are issued with fittings similar to civilian UK Mountain Rescue teams.
An adaptation of Land Rovers to military purposes is the "Pink Panther" models. Approximately 100 Series IIA models were adapted to reconnaissance use by British special operations forces the SAS. For desert use they were often painted pink, hence the name. The vehicles were fitted with among other gear a sun compass, machine guns, larger fuel tanks and smoke dischargers. Similar adaptations were later made to Series IIIs and 90/110/Defenders.
Series and Defender models have also been armoured. The most widespread of these is the Shorts Shorland, built by Shorts Brothers of Belfast. The first of these were delivered in 1965 to the Royal Ulster Constabulary, the Northern Ireland police force. They were originally 109-inch (2,800 mm) wheelbase models with an armoured body and a turret from the Ferret armoured car. By 1990, there had been more than 1,000 produced. In the 1970s, a more conventional armoured Land Rover was built for the Royal Ulster Constabulary in Wales called the Hotspur. The Land Rover Tangi was built by the Royal Ulster Constabulary's own vehicle engineering team during the 1990s. The British Army has used various armoured Land Rovers, first in Northern Ireland but also in more recent campaigns. They first added protective panels to Series General Service vehicles (the Vehicle Protection Kit (VPK)). Later they procured the Glover Webb APV and finally the Courtaulds (later NP Aerospace) Composite Armoured Vehicle, commonly known as Snatch. These were originally based on heavy-duty V8 110 chassis but some have recently been re-mounted on new chassis from Otokar of Turkey and fitted with diesel engines and air-conditioning for Iraq. Although these now have more in common with the 'Wolf' (Defender XD) Land Rovers that many mistakenly confuse them with, the Snatch and the Wolf are different vehicles.
The most radical conversion of a Land Rover for military purposes was the Centaur half-track. It was based on a Series III with a V8 engine and a shortened belt drive from the Alvis Scorpion light tank. A small number was manufactured, and they were used by Ghana, among others.
The Land Rover is used by military forces throughout the world. The current generation of Land Rover used by British Army, the Snatch 2, have upgraded and strengthened chassis and suspension compared to civilian-specification vehicles. There is also the Land Rover WMIK (weapon mounted installation kit) used by British Army. The WMIK consists of a driver, a raised gun, usually a Browning heavy machine gun or a grenade machine gun, this used for ground support, and a GPMG (general-purpose machine gunner) located next to the driver, this used for vehicle protection.
Highly modified Land Rovers have competed in the Dakar Rally and won the Macmillan 4x4 UK Challenge almost every year, as well as having been the vehicle used for the Camel Trophy. Now, Land Rover has its own G4 challenge.
Land Rover Experience was established in 1990, and consists of a network of centres throughout the world, set up to help customers get the most out of their vehicles' on and off-road capability. The flagship centres are Land Rover's bases at Solihull, Eastnor, Gaydon and Halewood. Courses offered include off-road driving, winching and trailer handling, along with a variety of corporate and individual 'Adventure Days'. The factory centres at Solihull and Halewood have manufacturing tours, while Gaydon has an engineering tour.
Model-by-model road accident statistics from the UK Department for Transport show that the Land Rover Defender is one of the safest cars on British roads as measured by chance of death in two-car injury accidents. The figures, which were based on data collected by police forces following accidents between 2000 and 2004 in Great Britain, showed that Defender drivers had a 1% chance of being killed or seriously injured and a 33% chance of sustaining any kind of injury. Other four-wheel-drive vehicles scored equally highly, and collectively these vehicles were much safer for their passengers than those in other classes such as passenger cars and MPVs. These figures reflect the fact that drivers of large mass vehicles are likely to be safer, often at the expense of other drivers if they collide with smaller cars.
The original Land Rover Owners Club was set up by the Rover Company in 1954. The company published the Land Rover Owners Club Review magazine for members from 1957 to 1968 when the club became the Rover Owners Association. This original association fell away when the company merged with British Leyland.
There are many Land Rover clubs throughout the UK and internationally. Land Rover clubs break down into a number of groups of varying interests.
Single Marque Clubs – Bring together owners of a specific model or series of vehicle such as the Land Rover Series One Club, or the Discovery Owners Club. Single marque clubs have a global membership.
Special Vehicle Clubs – At various times Land Rover have produced vehicles for specific events or on a specific theme, most notable are the Camel Trophy and G4 Challenge vehicles which have been sold on to the general public, and a range of Defenders that were loosely based on the custom vehicles produced for the Tomb Raider motion picture.
Regional Clubs in the UK break down into two groups, competitive and non-competitive. The non-competitive clubs activities generally relate to social events, off-road driving or green laning on un-surfaced public highways or 'pay and play' days at off-road centres. Competitive clubs are a phenomenon almost exclusively found within the UK, who as well as the non-competitive activities detailed above run competitive events such as Tyro, Road Taxed Vehicle (RTV) and Cross Country Vehicle (CCV) trials, winch and recovery challenges or speed events such as Competitive Safaries. All UK competitive events are run within the framework of rules created by the Motor Sports Association (MSA) with further vehicle specific rules applied by the host club or association. Outside of the UK regional clubs are independent and mostly non-competitive.
A number of clubs are affiliated to the Association of Land Rover Clubs (ALRC), formerly known as the Association of Rover Clubs (ARC) the association applies its own vehicle regulations to all of its member clubs who have the opportunity to compete together at regional events and an annual national event with vehicles approved to the same standard. In recent years some non-competitive clubs have dropped their affiliation fifth ALRC. Few clubs outside of the UK are affiliated with ALRC. Other than ALRC and the short lived Association of North American Rover Clubs (ANARC), which was created 1998 to celebrate Land Rover's 50th anniversary and disbanded in 2001, other groups of Land Rover clubs have affiliated with each other.
Land Rover owners were also early adopters of virtual clubs that are entirely based online. Bill Caloccia  created the original Land Rover Owner email list (LRO) as single marque offshoot of the British Cars email list in May 1990. Bill later created email lists in the mid 1990s for Range Rovers (RRO) and various regions (e.g., UK-LRO, AU-LRO, ZA-LRO, EU-LRO, IT-LRO, NL-LRO). In California members of the LRO list created mendo_recce in 1995.
In 2005, under Ford ownership, Land Rover became more interested in the club environment. An internal club was formed, The Land Rover Club, exclusive to employees of Ford's Premier Automotive Group (Now exclusive to the new 'Jaguar – Land Rover' group since the brand moved away from the Ford stable). Also, an agreement was generated to allow other clubs to use the Land Rover green oval logo under licence. In 2006, the Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire club were the pilot licensees for the new agreement, who now benefit from a reciprocal arrangement where their own logo is trade marked and owned by Land Rover and they can refer to themselves as a 'Land Rover Approved Club'.
In 1995, Land Rover endorsed the production of a hand-made bicycle using its logo. The bicycle, called the Land Rover APB and manufactured by Pashley Cycles of Stratford-upon-Avon, was the collapsible version of Pashley Cycles' Moulton APB (All Purpose Bicycle) model, with leading link front suspension and adjustable damping and stroke. Two more models immediately followed: the Land Rover XCB V-20, aimed primarily at younger riders (children); and the Land Rover XCB D-26, also available as the M26 with hydraulic rim brakes, front suspension and suspension seat pillar.
In June 2004, Land Rover released a comprehensive 25 model range of bicycles. The three main ranges are the "Defender", the "Discovery", and the "Freelander", each with different attributes. The "Discovery" is an all-rounder bicycle suited to a variety of terrains, "Defender" is most suited to rugged terrain and off-road pursuits, whereas the "Freelander" is designed for an urban lifestyle. All bikes are made from lightweight aluminium.
In 2010 the range was relaunched in conjunction with British manufacturer 2x2.
Land Rover has had its name associated with coffee since 2005, when the Land Rover Coffee company was established.
Land Rover gave UK pram company Pegasus a licence to produce a three-wheeler range of Land Rover ATP pushchairs. The design reflected the heritage of the marque, with a light metal frame with canvas seating, held together with push-studs and tough simple parts like brakes and hinges. They could be collapsed completely flat, with wheels removed in seconds. The basic frame could be adapted with modules to allow a baby to lie flat or a bubble windscreen to completely enclose the child. The frame also came in long or short-handled versions, and could be repaired with home tools. The design was simple, light, and rugged and able to travel in all terrains (hence the ATP for all-terrain pushchair.) It came in three military looking colours: a light blue, a sand colour and olive drab. Production was discontinued in 2002.
- "Trade mark number EU000026625". Intellectual Property Office. Crown (UK Government). Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Robson, Graham (1981). The Rover company (2 ed.). Patrick Stephens. ISBN 0-85059-543-6.
- Parment, Anders (2014). Auto Brand. London: Kogan Page. p. 190. ISBN 9780749469306. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
Since 2008, Jaguar and Land Rover is a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Motors of India, a subsidiary of the large Tata Group.
- "Joint Venture, Subsidiary and Associate Companies: Jaguar Land Rover". Tata Motors. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Queen's Birthday Party Speech by H.E. Vicki Treadell". Gov.uk. 5 October 2016.
- "Star role for Jaguar Land Rover at the coronation festival, celebrating the 60th anniversary of the coronation of HM the Queen". Jaguarlandrover.com. 5 October 2016.
- "No. 56182". The London Gazette (Supplement). April 2001. p. 1.
- Hackett, Kevin (28 March 2008). "Land Rover: The sands of time". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- Robson, Graham (1981). The Rover Story. Stephens. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-85059-543-7.
The first Land-Rover owed a lot to the Jeep. Designer Gordon Bashford, who laid out the basic concept, makes no secret of that. It was also his job to go off to an ex-WD surplus vehicle dump in the Cotswolds, buy a couple of roadworthy Jeeps...
- Chapman, Giles (2009). Illustrated Encyclopedia of Extraordinary Automobiles. DK Publishing. p. 111. ISBN 9780756649807. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "India's Tata confirms interest in Land Rover, Jaguar". forbes.com. AFX News Limited. 24 August 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Clark, Nick (4 January 2008). "Tata in pole position to buy Jaguar and Land Rover marques from Ford". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Krisher, Tom (3 January 2008). "Indian Company Top Bidder for Jaguar". Time. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Ford Motor Company Announces Agreement to Sell Jaguar Land Rover to Tata Motors" (Press release). Ford Motor Company. 26 March 2008. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Tata Motors completes acquisition of Jag, Land Rover". Thomson Reuters. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- "On U.S. tour, Mr. Tata gives Jaguar and Rover dealers a hug: AutoWeek Magazine". Autoweek.com. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
- "Jobs warning at Jaguar Land Rover". BBC News. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
- "2010/2011 Annual Report" (PDF). Jaguar Land Rover PLC. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "5 for 2 special: Tata acquires 3 other British marques in Jaguar, Land Rover deal". Leftlane News. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2008.
- "Annual Report 2012/2013" (PDF). Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC. p. 91. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Robson, Graham (1986). The Range Rover/Land-Rover. David & Charles. p. 210. ISBN 9780715387863. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Bargo, Michael (1988). Off-road High-performance Handbook: How to Build, Modify and Play with Your Offroad Truck. Motorbooks International. p. 15. ISBN 9780879383091. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "Sixty Years and Four Million Vehicles: Milestones of Land Rover's History" (Press release). Land Rover. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "The History of Land Rover". iFixit. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "1978 Range Rover 2-Door". bringatrailer.com. 29 December 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "BMW, Ford seal Land Rover deal". BBC News. 24 May 2000. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- "India's Tata confirms interest in Land Rover, Jaguar". Forbes.com. 24 August 2007. Archived from the original on 31 May 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- "New York Motor Show 2014 preview". Auto Car India. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- Hudson, Paul. "Range Rover Velar revealed ahead of Geneva motor show debut". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Land Rover Wants to Take Self-Driving Cars Off-Roading" Wired, June 9, 2018
- "Corporate News: Our new plant in Pune". Land Rover. 6 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
On 27th May, 2011 Land Rover officially opened its first assembly plant in India. Situated in Pune in the state of Maharashtra, the plant will assemble Land Rover Freelander 2 (LR2) vehicles...Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Jaguar Land Rover to Increase Production in India". Business Standard India. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "geocites.com query result". www.webcitation.org. 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Rothwell, Steven; Nair, Vipin V. (28 May 2010). "Tata Motors Plans to Build Jaguar, Land Rover Models in China". Business Week. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- "Tata Motors - Investors - JLR Volumes". tatamotors.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Bajaj, Vikas (30 August 2012). "Tata Motors Finds Success in Jaguar Land Rover". The New York Times. Photo credit:Prashanth Vishwanathan for The New York Times. New York: NYTC. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Nair, Vipin V.; Philip, Siddharth (11 August 2010). "Tata's Jaguar Land Rover Asks Ford for More Engines". Bloomberg News. New York, NY: Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (22 July 2008). "Land Rover Announces Diesel ERAD Hybrid & e_Terrain Technologies". Worldcarfans. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- "Factory News". Roversnorth.com. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Land Rover presents ERAD diesel-hybrid prototypes". MotorAuthority. 22 July 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Land Rover Working on Diesel Erad Hybrid And E_Terrain Technologies". cubi[CC]apacity. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Land Rover unveils eco-car". Energy Saving Trust. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Land Rover Unveils Electric Defender Research Vehicle". Land Rover Australia. 28 February 2013. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Land Rover Defender 110 SW SE". Geneva Motor Show 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Bob Morrison: Land Rovers in military service, Brooklands Books 1993, ISBN 1-85520-205-0
- "The Shorland Site". Clive Elliott. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Land Rover International – Latest News – Corporate News". Landroverg4challenge.com. 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 18 February 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Cars: make and model: the risk of driver injury in GB: 2000–2004". Department for Transport. 12 October 2006. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
- "Land Rover Series One Club website". lrsoc.com. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Discovery Owners' Club website". Discoveryownersclub.org. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- "Association of Land Rover Clubs website". Alrc.co.uk. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- "Association of Land Rover Clubs Member Clubs". Alrc.co.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Obituary for William Caloccia". Philbin-Comeau Funeral Home. 8 October 2014. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "www.land-rover.team.net Mailing Lists". www.land-rover.team.net. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "www.fourfold.org/RoverWeb/lro/Year-1990/9005.03". www.fourfold.org. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Mendo_Recce Email list aka the Lazy Buggers". www.fourfold.org. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Land Rover Club website". Landroversclub.org. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "IPO UK". Ipo.gov.uk. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- "Landrover Bikes". Formbycycles. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "First look: Land Rover 2010 mountain bikes". Bike Radar. 24 December 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "Land Rover Coffee – the journey". Land Rover Coffee. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Land Rover Pushchairs Online". Landroverpushchairs.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter