Tata Group

  (Redirected from Tata Elxsi)

The Tata Group (/ˈtɑːtɑː/) is an Indian multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Founded in 1868 by Jamsetji Tata, the company gained international recognition after purchasing several global companies. It is one of the biggest and oldest industrial groups in India. Each Tata company operates independently under the guidance and supervision of its own board of directors and shareholders.

Tata Group
Private
IndustryConglomerate
Founded1868; 152 years ago (1868)
FounderJamsetji Tata
HeadquartersBombay House, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Natarajan Chandrasekaran[1]
Products
RevenueIncrease US$113 billion[2] (2019)
Number of employees
722,281 (2019)[2]
SubsidiariesList of entities associated with Tata Group
Websitewww.tata.com

Significant Tata affiliates include Tata Chemicals, Tata Communications, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Consumer Products, Tata Elxsi, Tata Motors, Tata Power, Tata Steel, Sonata, Tata Salt, Tanishq, Voltas, Tata Cliq, Tata Projects Limited, Tata Capital, Titan, Trent, Indian Hotels Company Limited, TajAir, Vistara, Cromā and Tata Starbucks.

HistoryEdit

1868–1904Edit

At the age of 29, Jamsetji Tata worked in his father's company. In 1870 with Rs.21,000 capital, he founded a trading company. Further he bought a bankrupt oil mill at Chinchpokli and converted it into a cotton mill, under the name Alexandra Mill which he sold for a profit after 2 years. In 1874, he set up another cotton mill at Nagpur named Empress Mill. He dreamed of achieving 4 goals, setting up an iron and steel company, a unique hotel, a world-class learning institution and a hydro-electric plant. During his lifetime, in 1903, the Taj Mahal Hotel at Colaba waterfront was opened making it the first hotel with electricity in India.

1904–1938Edit

After Jamsetji's death, his older son Dorabji Tata became the chairman in 1904. Sir Dorabji established the Tata Iron and Steel company (TISCO), now known as Tata Steel in 1907. Marking the group's global ambitions, Tata Limited opened its first overseas office in London. Following the founder's goals, Western India's first hydro plant was brought to life, giving birth to Tata Power. Yet another dream, Indian Institute of Science was established with the first batch admitted in 1911.

1938–1991Edit

JRD Tata was made chairman of the Tata Group in 1938. Under his chairmanship, the assets of the Tata Group grew from US$101 million to over US$5 billion. Starting with 14 enterprises, upon his departure half a century later in 1988, Tata Sons had grown to a conglomerate of 95 enterprises. These enterprises consisted of ventures that the company had either started or in which they held controlling interest. New sectors such as chemicals, technology, cosmetics, marketing, engineering, and manufacturing, tea, and software services earned them recognition.[3]

In 1952, JRD founded an airline, known as Tata Air Services (later renamed Tata Airlines). In 1953, the Government of India passed the Air Corporations Act and purchased a majority stake in the carrier from Tata Sons, though JRD Tata would continue as chairman till 1977.

In 1945, Tata Motors was founded, first focused on locomotives. In 1954, it entered the commercial vehicle market after forming a joint venture with Daimler-Benz. In 1968, Tata Consultancy Services was founded.

1991–presentEdit

In 1991, Ratan Tata became chairman of Tata Group.[4] This was also the year of economic liberalization in India, opening up the market to foreign competitors.[5] During this time, Tata Group began to acquire a number of companies, including Tetley (2000), Corus Group (2007), and Jaguar and Land Rover (2008). In 2017, Natarajan Chandrasekaran was appointed chairman.

ChairmanEdit

The chairman of Tata Sons is usually the chairman of the Tata Group. As of 2020, there have been seven chairmen of Tata Group.

SubsidiariesEdit

Bombay House, the head office of Tata Group
Packets of Tata Tea
Himalayan—Tata mineral water
Tata bus in Madrid, Spain
Thai-assembled Tata Xenon pickup truck
The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel, owned by a Tata subsidiary

Tata Group of Companies has many affiliates. These affiliates function in almost all sectors. This section lists the Tata companies and details their business:

ChemicalsEdit

FMCGEdit

Retail and E-commerceEdit

EnergyEdit

  • Hooghly Met Coke and Power Company
  • Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company
  • Powerlinks Transmission
  • Tata Petrodyne
  • Tata Power, one of the largest private sector power companies and known for its name in Indian industries
  • Tata Power Delhi Distribution Ltd (formerly known as North Delhi Power Ltd)
  • Tata Power Solar, started as a joint venture between Tata Power and BP Solar, now a wholly owned company
  • Tata Power Trading

EngineeringEdit

Information systems and communicationsEdit

ServicesEdit

  • Drive India Enterprise Solutions
  • Mjunction Services Limited
  • Tata NYK

AirlinesEdit

CateringEdit

HotelsEdit

Financial servicesEdit

  • Indicash ATM (India's first and largest white-label ATM network)
  • e-Nxt Financials Ltd.
  • TATA AIA Life Insurance
  • TATA AIG General Insurance
  • Tata Asset Management
  • Tata Capital
  • Tata Communications Payment Solutions (banking and financial services)
  • Tata Financial Services

Holding companiesEdit

RealtyEdit

Organisational servicesEdit

  • Tata Industrial Services
  • Tata Quality Management Services
  • Tata Services
  • Tata Strategic Management Group

LogisticsEdit

  • TKM Global, Logistics and Supply Chain

Iron and steelEdit

AcquisitionsEdit

Former companiesEdit

PhilanthropyEdit

Tata Group has helped establish and finance numerous research, educational and cultural institutes in India,[10][11] and received the Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy.[12] Some of the institutes established by the Tata Group are:

In 2008, Tata Group donated US$50 million to Cornell University for "agricultural and nutrition programs in India and for the education of Indian students at Cornell."[16]

In 2010, Tata Group donated 2.20 billion (US$50 million) to the Harvard Business School to build an academic and a residential building for executive education programmes on the institute's campus in Boston, Massachusetts.[17] The building, now known as Tata Hall,[18] is the largest endowment received by Harvard Business School from an international donor.[17]

In 2017, Tata Trusts gifted US$70 million to University of California, San Diego and also partnered with them in setting up Tata Institute for Genetics and Society(TIGS) to address some of the world's most pressing issues, ranging from public health to agriculture. In recognition of the donation, the building which houses TIGS has been named Tata Hall[19]. It is also the largest international donation made to University of California, San Diego.[20][21]

In 2017, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) donated an unprecedented $35 million grant to Carnegie Mellon University, the largest ever industry donation to the university, to collaborate on promoting next-generation technologies that will drive the Fourth Industrial Revolution, including cognitive systems and autonomous vehicles.[22]

 
Ratan Tata, the former chairman of Tata Group[23]

In 2017, the Tata Football Academy won the bid to form the Jamshedpur FC, a football club based on Jamshedpur of Jharkhand in the 4th edition of the Indian Super League.[24]

In 2020, Tata Group has donated 1500 crores to PM Cares Fund to fight against COVID-19 pandemic in India.[25]

Controversies and criticismsEdit

The Tata Group has also attracted some controversy during its more than 150 years in operation, notably:

Munnar, KeralaEdit

The Kerala Government filed an affidavit in the high court alleging that Tata Tea had "grabbed" forest land of 3,000 acres (12 km2) at Munnar. The Tatas provided that they possessed 58,741.82 acres (237.7197 km2) of land, which they are allowed to retain under the Kannan Devan Hill (Resumption of Lands) Act, 1971, and there was a shortage of 278.23 hectares (2.7823 km2) in that. The Chief Minister of Kerala V.S. Achuthanandan, who vowed to evict all on government land in Munnar, formed a special squad for the Munnar land takeover mission and started acquiring back properties. However, the mission was aborted due to both influential land-holders and opposition from Achuthanandan's own party.[26]

Kalinganagar, OrissaEdit

On 2 January 2006, Kalinganagar, Tribal Orissa villagers protested the construction of a new steel plant for Tata Steel on land historically owned by them. Some of the villagers had been evicted without adequate relocation. Police retribution was brutal: 37 protesters were injured and 13 killed, including 3 women and a 13-year-old boy. One policeman was hacked to death by a mob, after police had opened fire on protestors with tear gas and rubber bullets. Family members of the deceased villagers later claimed that the bodies had been mutilated during post-mortem examination.[27]

Supplies to Burma's military regimeEdit

In December 2006, Myanmar's chief of general staff, General Thura Shwe Mann, visited the Tata Motors plant in Pune.[28] In 2009, TATA Motors announced that it would manufacture trucks in Myanmar. Tata Motors reported that these contracts to supply hardware and automobiles to Burma's military were subsequently criticised by human rights activists.[29][30]

Singur land acquisitionEdit

The Singur controversy[31] in West Bengal was a series of protests by locals and political parties over the forced acquisition, eviction, and inadequate compensation to those farmers displaced for the Tata Nano plant, during which Mamata Banerjee's party was widely criticised as acting for political gain. Despite the support of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) state government, Tata eventually pulled the project out of West Bengal, citing safety concerns. Narendra Modi, then Chief Minister of Gujarat, made land available for the Nano project.[32]

On Aug 31, 2016, in a historic judgement, the Honorable Supreme Court of India set aside the land acquisition by the West Bengal Government in 2006 that had facilitated Tata Motors' Nano plant, stating that the West Bengal government had not taken possession of the land legally, and were now required to repossess and return it to local farmers within 12 weeks without compensation.[33]

Dhamra Port, OdishaEdit

The Port of Dhamara has received significant coverage, sparking controversy in India, and in Tata's emerging global markets.[34] The Dhamra port, an equal joint venture between Tata Steel and Larsen & Toubro, has been criticised for its proximity to the Gahirmatha Sanctuary and Bhitarkanika National Park by Indian and international organisations, including Greenpeace; Gahirmatha Beach is one of the world's largest mass nesting sites for the olive ridley turtle, and India's second largest mangrove forest, Bhitarkanika, is a designated Ramsar site, and critics claimed that the port could disrupt mass nesting at Gahirmtha beaches as well as the ecology of the Bitharkanika mangrove forest.[35][36] TATA Steel employed mitigation measures set by the project's official advisor, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the company pledging to "adopt all its recommendations without exception" when conservation organisations asserted that a thorough environmental impact analysis had not been done for the project, which had undergone changes in size and specifications since it was first proposed.[37]

Proposed soda extraction plant in TanzaniaEdit

In 2007, Tata Group joined forces with a Tanzanian company to build a soda ash extraction plant in Tanzania.[38] Environmental activists oppose the plant because it would be near Lake Natron, and it has a very high chance of affecting the lake's ecosystem and its neighbouring dwellers,[39] jeopardising endangered lesser flamingo birds. Lake Natron is where two-thirds of lesser flamingos reproduce.[40] Producing soda ash involves drawing out salt water from the lake, and then disposing the water back to the lake. This process could interrupt the chemical makeup of the lake.[38] 22 African nations signed a petition to stop its construction.[38]

Epic Systems trade-secret case judgementEdit

In April 2016, a U.S. Federal Grand Jury awarded Epic Systems a $940 million judgement against Tata Consultancy Services and Tata America International Corp. Filed 31 October 2014; the suit charged that "6,477 unauthorized downloads could be used to enhance Tata's competing product, Med Mantra."[41][42][43] In 2017, U.S. District Court Judge William Conley reduced the Award to $420 million; the company states that the judgement is also being appealed, as "not supported by evidence presented during the trial and a strong appeal can be made to superior court to fully set aside the jury verdict.”[44]

2018 NCLT verdictEdit

In July 2018, the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), which "adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies,"[45] issued a verdict in the company's favor on charges of mismanagement leveled in 2016 by ousted chairman, Cyrus Mistry.[46]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Supreme Court stays NCLAT order restoring Cyrus Mistry as Tata Sons Executive Chairman". ET News. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Tata Group Business Overview". Tata Group.
  3. ^ "Tata Group | History, Companies, Subsidiaries, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Here's a brief history of the Tata Group's six chairmen". www.businesstoday.in. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  5. ^ "One more push". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  6. ^ {{cite web|url=https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/company/corporate-trends/tata-vs-mistry-supreme-court-stays-nclat-order-favouring-cyrus-mistry/articleshow/73184138.cms%7Ctitle=Supreme Court Stays NCLAT order restoring Cyrus Mistry as Chairman|date=11 January 2020|publisher=|via=The Economic Times}
  7. ^ "Tatas' shopping spree: 27 in 6 years!". Rediff. 24 August 2006. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  8. ^ "Tata Steel gives India a pound of UK". timesofindia-economictimes. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  9. ^ Timmons, Heather (4 January 2008). "Tata Pulls Ford Units into Its Orbit". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  10. ^ "The rainbow effect". 4 May 2008.
  11. ^ "India's Tata Group: Empowering marginalized communities". 4 May 2008.
  12. ^ "U.S. and Indian philanthropists recognized for conviction, courage and sustained efforts". 4 May 2008. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008.
  13. ^ "MIT Tata Center: MIT Tata Center". tatacenter.mit.edu.
  14. ^ "Tata Centre for Technology & Design at IIT Bombay".
  15. ^ "Tata Medical Center". Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  16. ^ "$50 million endowment from Tata trust bolsters Cornell ties to India, and to eminent alumnus". Cornell. USA. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  17. ^ a b Singh, D. K. (9 April 2018). "Tata Trusts accused of favouring Harvard over 'under-privileged' Indian universities". ThePrint. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  18. ^ "Tatas gift Rs220 crore to Harvard Business School – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 16 October 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  19. ^ "Tata Hall". blink.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  20. ^ "UC San Diego names new science center after Indian philanthropists". San Diego Union-Tribune. 11 September 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  21. ^ "Tata Institute for Genetics and Society Advances with Building Naming, Inaugural Chair Holders". ucsdnews.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  22. ^ "Carnegie Mellon and Tata Consultancy Services Break Ground on Global Research Facility in the U.S." Carnegie Mellon University.
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  27. ^ Nityanand Jayaraman (24 May 2006). "CorpWatch : Stolen for Steel: Tata Takes Tribal Lands in India". Corpwatch.org. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
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  29. ^ "India's Independent Weekly News Magazine". Tehelka. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  30. ^ "Ansari visits Myanmar tomorrow, 3 MoUs to be signed". Zeenews.com. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  31. ^ "Singur farmers: Why they oppose Tata plant". Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  32. ^ "Singur's loss". Hinduonnet.com. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  33. ^ "Singur verdict announced, SC says return land to farmers: Here's a timeline of the case – Firstpost". Firstpost. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  34. ^ "India – Tata in troubled waters – Ethical Corporation". Ethicalcorp.com. November 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  35. ^ "Documents And Reports | Save the turtles". Greenpeace.in. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  36. ^ "Sea dredging affecting Olive Ridley turtles, says green body". Thaindian.com. 5 April 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  37. ^ Tata Steel "Corporate Citizenship Report 2010/2011", TataSteel.com, 2011, page 20. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  38. ^ a b c "Dar annoys neighbours over $400m soda ash project". The East African. Nation Media Group. 5 November 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  39. ^ Magubira, Patty (16 May 2008). "Tanzania: UK Activists Pile Pressure Against Soda Ash Project". The Citizen. Dar es Salaam: AllAfrica.com. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  40. ^ Pathak, Maulik (31 October 2007). "Tata Chemicals' African safari hits green hurdle". The Economic Times. India. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  41. ^ "US jury slaps $940 million fine on Tata group in trade secret case". The Times of India. 16 April 2016. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  42. ^ Judy Newman (5 April 2016). "Jury trial begins in Epic Systems Corp. lawsuit against India's Tata Consultancy". Wisconsin State Journal. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  43. ^ Kyle Murphy, PhD (11 April 2016). "Epic Systems Taking TCS to Court over Theft of Trade Secrets". EHR Intelligence. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
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  46. ^ "Ratan Tata welcomes NCLT verdict". The Economic Times. 9 July 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.

External linksEdit