Hazaribagh is a city and a municipal corporation in Hazaribagh district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It is the divisional headquarters of North Chotanagpur division. It is considered as a health resort[2] and is also popular for Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary (17 kilometres [11 mi] from city). It is represented in the Indian Lok Sabha by its Member of Parliament Manish Jaiswal.[3]

Hazaribagh Jheel Lake, City at Night, St. Xaviers School, Railway Station, D. A. V SCHOOL, Hazaribagh Town and Rainbow in Hazaribagh
City of a Thousand Gardens
Hazaribagh is located in Jharkhand
Location in Jharkhand, India
Hazaribagh is located in India
Hazaribagh (India)
Coordinates: 23°59′N 85°21′E / 23.98°N 85.35°E / 23.98; 85.35
 • Total190.93 km2 (73.72 sq mi)
 • Rank4th
610 m (2,000 ft)
 • Total142,489
 • Rank5th
 • Density750/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationJH-02



The name of the town 'Hazaribagh' (हज़ारीबाग़) is derived from two Persian words: Hazar (هزار) meaning 'one thousand' and bagh (باغ) meaning 'garden'. Hence the meaning of Hazaribagh is 'city of a thousand gardens'. According to Sir John Houlton, however, the town takes its name from the small villages of Okni and Hazari – shown on old maps as Ocunhazry.

The last syllable in its name probably originated from a mango grove which formed a camping ground for troops and travelers marching along a military road from Kolkata to Varanasi, constructed in 1783 and the following years. The Grand Trunk Road subsequently replaced this military road in the mid-19th century, but the layout differed at places, particularly around Hazaribagh.[4] A dilapidated watch tower meant to guard the military road is still visible on Tower Hill, near Silwar.[5] In common literature, native English author Kajol Aikat has also mentioned Hazaribagh as the Land of Thousand Gardens in his debut novel Unsocial Amigos.



Faruq Sir is real time hero of Hazari Baugh In ancient times the district was covered with inaccessible forests inhabited by tribes who remained independent. The entire territory of Chhotanagpur, now known as Jharkhand (meaning forest territory) was presumably beyond the pale of outside influence in ancient India. Throughout the Turko-Afghan period (up to 1526), the area remained virtually free from external influence. It was only with the accession of Akbar to the throne of Delhi in 1557 that Muslim influence penetrated Jharkhand, then known to the Mughals as Kokrah. In 1585, Akbar sent a force under the command of Shahbaj Khan to reduce the Raja of Chotanagpur to the position of a tributary.

After the death of Akbar in 1605, the area presumably regained its independence. This necessitated an expedition in 1616 by Ibrahim Khan Fateh Jang, the Governor of Bihar and brother of Queen Noorjehan. Ibrahim Khan defeated and captured Durjan Sal, the 46th Raja of Chotanagpur. He was imprisoned for 12 years but was later released and reinstated on the throne after he had shown his ability in distinguishing a real diamond from a fake one.[6]

In 1632, Chotanagpur was given as Jagir (endowment) to the Governor at Patna for an annual payment of Rs.136,000. This was raised to Rs.161,000 in 1636. During the reign of Muhammad Shah (1719–1748), Sarballand Khan, the Governor of then Bihar, marched against the Raja of Chotanagpur and obtained his submission. Another expedition was led by Fakhruddoula, the Governor of Bihar in 1731. He came to terms with the Raja of Chotanagpur. In 1735 Alivardi Khan had some difficulty in enforcing the payment of the annual tribute of Rs.12,000 from the Raja of Ramgarh, as agreed to by the latter according to the terms settled with Fakhruddoula.

This situation continued until the occupation of the country by the British. During the Muslim period, the main estates in the district were Ramgarh, Kunda, Chai and Kharagdiha. Subsequent to the Kol uprising in 1831 that, however, did not seriously affect Hazaribagh, the administrative structure of the territory was changed. The parganas of Ramgarh, Kharagdiha, Kendi and Kunda became parts of the South-West Frontier Agency and were formed into a division named Hazaribagh as the administrative headquarters. In 1854 the designation of South-West Frontier Agency was changed to Chota Nagpur Division, composed of five districts - Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Palamau, Manbhum, and Singhbhum. The division was administered as a Non-regulation province under a Commissioner reporting to the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal.[7] In 1855-56 there was the great uprising of the Santhals against the British but was brutally suppressed. During British rule, one had to go by train to Giridih and then travel in a vehicle called push-push to Hazaribagh. It was pushed and pulled by human force over hilly tracts. It was an exciting journey across rivers and through dense forests infested with bandits and wild animals. Rabindranath Tagore travelled in a push-push along the route in 1885. He recorded the experience in an essay, "Chotanagpur families".

When the Grand Chord railway line was opened in 1906, Hazaribagh Road railway station became the link with the town. For many years, Lal Motor Company operated the rail-cum-bus service between Hazaribagh town and Hazaribagh Road railway station. In 1912, a new province of Bihar and Orissa was split from Bengal Province. In 1936, the province was split into separate provinces of Bihar and Orissa, with the Chota Nagpur Division being a part of Bihar. Bihar's boundaries remained mostly unchanged after Indian Independence in 1947. Giridih district was created in 1972 by carving some parts of Hazaribagh district. After the 1991 census, the district of Hazaribagh was divided into three separate districts, Hazaribagh, Chatra and Koderma.[8] The two sub-divisions Chatra and Koderma were upgraded to the status of independent districts. In 2000, Jharkhand was separated from Bihar to become India's 28th state. In 2007, Ramgarh was separated and made into the 24th district of Jharkhand.

Hazaribagh town


The Town became a cantonment in 1790, the Ramgarh battalion having been raised ten years earlier. It was then part of Ramgarh district. It became a district headquarters in 1834. Hazaribagh was constituted as a municipality in 1869. The military cantonment, south-east of the town, flourished until 1874, when, after an outbreak of enteric fever in 1874, the troops were mostly withdrawn, except for a small detachment to mind the penitentiary. This resulted in a planned city. This part of the town is known as Boddam Bazar, after the officer who laid it out. Many Englishmen settled in Hazaribagh during the British period. They built large bungalow-type houses, often with sloping roofs. They were great hunters and hunting stories abounded in the town by word of mouth. Most of them left after India became independent. Tutu Imam topped the list of hunting legends in the town along with Rajendra Pandey. A century ago it was common for tigers and leopards to prey upon livestock in the outskirts of the town. The town had a population of 15,799 in the 1901 census. It was described in as "little more than a cluster of hamlets, with intervening cultivation, which sprang up around the former military bazar." Hazaribagh Central Jail housed many leaders of the Indian freedom movement, including Dr. Rajendra Prasad, later the first President of India. After Jayaprakash Narayan was put under arrest in this jail during the Quit India Movement of 1942, he escaped with the help of 53 dhotis (sheets) to cross the wall of the jail. The support he received from the local people is one of the legends of the Indian Independence movement.[citation needed] During the early years of World War II, an internment camp ("parole camp") for German civilians was established in the town. In June 1942 it housed 36 women, 5 men and 16 children, of whom 21 females with 13 children were transferred on 25 February 1942 from Diyatalawa. In autumn they were transferred to the family camps at Purandhar or Satara.[9]

Early settlers


A small but effective Bengali community including, Mukherjee, Ghosh, Mallick and Aikats settled at Hazaribagh in the 19th century when the area was in Bengal Presidency and the British administration was looking for people with English education. These families made significant contributions to keep the local education system going. Rai Bahadur Jadunath Mukherjee was amongst the most talked about early Bengali settlers. He was the first Government Pleader of Hazaribagh so appointed in 1864. He established the Hazaribagh Brahmo Samaj in 1867 by donating his own land. He established the Jadunath Girls School in 1873 donating his own land (later upgraded Jadunath Girls High School in 1956 and around 1920, a new school building was built with the initiative of Bengali families such as Braja Kumar Niyogi and Chanchala Niyogi with funds from various sources such as the estate of Raja of Ramgarh). Rai Bhadur Jadunath Mukherjee was foremost in establishing the Keshav Hal and Library in the Town and was its first President. He was prominent amongst those who established the Hazaribagh Bongiya Durga Bari in 1889 in his compound. He provided food for work programme during the 1873-1874 Bihar Famine. His house hosted a galaxy of great Indians such as Ramananda Chattopadhaya, Sanjib Chandra Chattopadhaya (of "Palamau" fame), Rabindranath Tagore and Indira Debi.

Later, scholars such as Mahesh Chandra Ghosh and Dhirendranath Choudhury made the town their home. The poet Kamini Roy lived in the town for some years. Manmathanath Dasgupta, a Brahmo missionary spent many years in Hazaribagh working amongst the downtrodden. Surat Kumar Gupta contributed towards the development of the town in many ways. Doctors such as Mandindra Bhushan Banerjee (Panna Babu), Bikash Kumar Sen, Sambhu Nath Roy and Benoy Chandra Chatterjee were prominent personalities. The noted Bengali author and writer for many Hindi films like Sujata, Subodh Ghosh, was born and brought up in Hazaribagh. Many of his stories are set in the region. Keshub Chunder Sen, the great Brahmo Leader, accompanied by Trailokyanath Sanyal, visited Hazaribagh in 1874 to recoup his health. He wrote many pieces during his short stay and participated in Bhadrotsav celebrations. After his death in 1884, a public hall on the Main Road was named Kesab Hall in his memory. Amongst the Brahmo missionaries who visited Hazaribagh regularly was Pramathalal Sen.


Hazaribagh Court
Sadar Police Station
Canary Hill
Sadar Hospital
Hazaribagh Town
railway station
SSB Medical College
Vinoba Bhave University
Marai Kalan
Hazaribagh City
CT: census town, R: rural/ urban centre, T: tourist centre, C: educational centre, F: facility
Owing to space constraints in the small map, the actual locations in a larger map may vary slightly


Historical population
1901 15,799—    
1911 17,009+7.7%
1921 17,060+0.3%
1931 20,947+22.8%
1941 24,918+19.0%
1951 33,812+35.7%
1961 40,958+21.1%
1971 54,818+33.8%
1981 80,155+46.2%
1991 97,824+22.0%
2001 127,269+30.1%
2011 142,489+12.0%
2021 185,000+29.8%
2022 190,000+2.7%
Source: [10]

As per the 2011 Census of India, Hazaribagh Urban Agglomeration had a total population of 153,599, of which males were 80,095 and females 73,504.[11] Hazaribagh Urban Agglomeration is composed of Hazaribagh (Nagar Nigam) and Okni (Census Town).[12] As per the 2011 Census of India, Hazaribagh Nagar Parishad had a total population of 142,489, of which 74,132 were males and 68,357 females. Scheduled Castes numbered 7,987 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 2,708.[13] As of 2001 India census,[14] Hazaribagh had a population of 127,243. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Hazaribagh has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 64.83%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 70%. In Hazaribagh, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. The population of the town and the area is overwhelmingly Khortha speaking, However, due to migration of people from other state people Hindi is also spoken but mainly in town areas. There is a sprinkling of the Santhali-speaking population mainly in the rural areas.

The Hindus form the majority of population, with a sizable Muslim population. Punjabis form small minorities. Hazaribagh was upgraded to a municipal corporation in June 2015 by adding the area and population of 19 adjoining villages. As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Hazaribagh UA was 122,881 (90.14 percent of the total population) out of whom 66,602 (93.82 percent of males) were males and 56,279 (86.14 percent of females) were females.[11] As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Hazaribagh Nagar Parishad was 112,533, out of whom 60,840 were males and 51,693 were females.[13]



According to the District Census Handbook 2011, Hazaribagh, Hazaribagh (nagar parishad) covered an area of 26.35 km2. Among the civic amenities, it had 269 km roads with both open and closed drains, the protected water supply involved tap water from treated sources, uncovered wells, overhead tank. It had 23,825 domestic electric connections, 1,405 road lighting points. Among the educational facilities it had 28 primary schools, 22 middle schools, 15 secondary schools, 4 senior secondary schools, 5 general degree colleges. It had 1 medical college, 1 engineering college, 1 management institute/ college, 1 polytechnic, 2 recognised shorthand, typewriting, and vocational training institutions, 1 non-formal education centre (Sarva Siksha Abhiyan). Among the social, recreational and cultural facilities, it had 1 special school for disabled, 1 orphanage home, 3 working women's hostels, 1 old age home, 2 stadiums, 5 cinema theatres, 3 auditorium/ community halls, 3 public library and reading rooms. Three important commodities it manufactured were sattu, agarbatti, rice mill products, furniture. It had branches of 14 nationalised banks, 8 private commercial banks, 1 co-operative bank, 1 agricultural credit society, 19 non-agricultural credit societies.[15]


Climate data for Hazaribagh (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.6
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 21.8
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 8.3
Record low °C (°F) 0.9
Average rainfall mm (inches) 19.1
Average rainy days 1.5 2.0 1.9 1.4 3.3 10.7 17.0 15.7 11.9 4.2 0.5 0.9 71.1
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 58 54 43 35 38 58 77 78 75 66 58 60 59
Source: India Meteorological Department[16][17]

Konar River, a tributary of Damodar River, flows past the town. Hazaribagh has been a thick forest earlier and is still surrounded by forests.





Hazaribagh has the second highest coal reserve in Jharkhand (Dhanbad region has the first), and it is still largely intact. Recently there has been a spurt in the coal mining activities in the region by Central Coalfields Ltd., a subsidiary of Coal India Limited. Work is currently going on for the development of NTPC's 3000 MW. Reliance Power's 3600 MW Super Thermal Power Projects was also proposed but was later pulled out due to the failure of the negotiations between government and company on land distributions. Demotand and Chaano are industrial areas. It has largest coal reserve after Dhanbad.



Hazaribagh has Vinoba Bhave University within the city limits, named after Saint Vinoba Bhave. It is the second largest university of Jharkhand. It also hosts private university AISECT University, Jharkhand. St. Columba's College,Annada College,Medical College of Dhanbad and many engineering and local colleges are affiliated to this university.

After independence, Roman Catholics established a girls' school, Mount Carmel school Hazaribagh, in 1949.[citation needed] Parallel to this Reverend Father John Moore, an Australian Jesuit missionary, set up St. Xavier's School in 1952. National Public School, Hazaribagh, started in 1977, is now affiliated to CBSE, it is managed by L.K.C. Memorial Education Society.

Hazaribagh has the police training centre for the whole of Jharkhand.[citation needed] The Border Security Force (BSF) also has a large presence.[citation needed] East India's largest training centre is here in the forest with hilly terrain.[citation needed] The Central Reserved Police Force is also present in the town near the lake.[citation needed]









Krishna Ballabh Sahay (born in Sheikhpura but had land in Khadhaiya, a village in Tandwa Block), the renowned freedom fighter and subsequently chief minister of Bihar, belonged to Hazaribagh. As revenue minister, he was instrumental in the abolition of zemindaries in Bihar. In 1952 that was the first such legislation in the country. The political rivalry between the Kamakhya Narain Singh, the Raja of Ramgarh, and K.B. Sahay was the talk of the town in the 1950s.

In the elections for the first Lok Sabha held in 1951, Nageshwar Prasad Sinha of Congress won the Hazaribagh East seat, and Baboo Ram Narayan Singh, an Independent candidate, won the Hazaribagh West seat. In 1957, Lalita Rajya Lakshmi, of the Ramgarh Raj family, won the seat. Basant Narayan Singh, the younger brother of Kamakhya Narayan Singh, won the seat four times, in 1962, 1967, 1977, and 1980. Damodar Pandey of Congress won it in 1984. Yadunath Pandey of BJP won it in 1989. Bhubneshwar Prasad Mehta of CPI won the seat in 1991 and in 2004. Mahabir Lal Viswakarma of BJP won the seat in 1996.

Yashwant Sinha of BJP won the seat in 1998 and went on to become Finance Minister and later Foreign Minister in the NDA government.[18] He also won the seat in the 2009 Lok Sabha Elections. Bhubneshwar Prasad Mehta of the Communist Party of India won the seat in 2004 with the help of seat-sharing of the UPA.

Jayant Sinha, a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party and the son of former Foreign Minister Yashwant Sinha, won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014, defeating the closest rival Saurabh Narayan Singh of the Indian National Congress by a huge margin of 1,59,128 votes.

A scion of the erstwhile kingdom of Ramgarh Raj; Rajkumar Udaybhan Narain Singh is the director of J.I.A.D.A. and is a senior member of Bhartiya Janta Party, he has a stronghold over this area.


Hazaribagh Town railway station

The nearest airport is Birsa Munda Airport in Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand, at a distance of 102 km (63 mi). Ranchi is connected with Bengaluru, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata and Patna by regular flights. A new 80 km (50 mi) long railway line has been constructed from Koderma-Hazaribagh-Barkakana line and became operational in February 2015. Two trains run between Koderma and Hazaribagh Town railway station (not to be confused with Hazaribagh Road railway station).

The railway line from Hazaribagh to Barkakana Junction has been completed and the trains are running from Hazaribagh to Barkakana. Hazaribagh is situated on NH 20 and the road distances to major cities are — Ranchi: 99 km (62 mi), Dhanbad: 128 km (80 mi) (via GT road), Bokaro: 116 km (72 mi) (via Ramgarh), Gaya: 130 km (81 mi), Patna: 235 km (146 mi), Daltonganj: 198 km (123 mi), and Kolkata (via Dhanbad, Asansol, Govindapur, Bardhaman): 434 km (270 mi). Regular bus service connects Hazaribagh to these places.

Notable people


Nearby places

  • Koderma produces 60%-65% of the world's mica; it is 60 km (37 mi) away from the city.
  • Konar Dam, 51 km (32 mi) from Hazaribagh
  • Surajkund hot spring is 72 km (45 mi) from Hazaribagh. The water is boiling and is beneficial for the treatment of skin diseases and rheumatism. It is 2 km (1.2 mi) from Belkappi, near Barakattha, located halfway between Barhi and Bagodar on the Grand Trunk Road.
  • Tilaiya Dam across the Barakar River has hillocks all around and there also nestles one Sainik School nearby.
  • Ranchi the state capital of Jharkhand, 98 km (61 mi) from the township limit via NH33 (nearest Tropic of Cancer falls on the same highway)

See also



  1. ^ a b "Hazaribagh City". Archived from the original on 5 June 2022. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  2. ^ "Incredible India, Hazaribagh". Incredible India. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  3. ^ "Constituencywise-All Candidates". Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  4. ^ "Coal Buyers in Hazaribagh". CoalShastra - B2B Marketplace for Coal Buying & Selling in India. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  5. ^ Houlton, Sir John, Bihar, the Heart of India, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  6. ^ "History | Hazaribag District, Government of Jharkhand | India". Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  7. ^ "Chota Nagpur Division" in The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Vol. 10, Page 328.
  8. ^ "HISTORY/District Court in India | Official Website of District Court of India". districts.ecourts.gov.in. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  9. ^ Auswärtiges Amt; 6. Merkblatt über die Lage der Deutschen in Britisch-Indien; die Internierungslager auf Ceylon und Jamaica; Berlin 1941; (Dez. 1942)
  10. ^ "District Census Handbook Hazaribagh, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Section II Town Directory, Statement I: Status and Growth History, Pages 652-654. Directorate of Census Operations, Jharkhand. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  11. ^ a b "Provisional population totals, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Urban Agglomeration – Cities having population 1 lakh and above. Government of India. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  12. ^ "Provisional population totals, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Constituents of Urban Agglomerations having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011. Government of India. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  13. ^ a b "2011 Census – Primary Census Abstract Data Tables". Jharkhand – District-wise. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  14. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  15. ^ "District Census Handbook Hazaribagh, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 651-662. Directorate of census Operations, Jharkhand. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  16. ^ "Station: Hazaribagh Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 321–322. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  17. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M82. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  18. ^ Things to know about Yashwant Sinha | Business Standard (business-standard.com)
  19. ^ "AEJ Collins, 13, compiles highest score in all forms of cricket". Cricket Country. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  20. ^ "Arthur Collins profile and biography, stats, records, averages, photos and videos". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  21. ^ "Book Excerptise: Love stories from the Mahabharata by Subodh Ghosh and Pradip Bhattacharya (tr.)". www.cse.iitk.ac.in. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  22. ^ "Our boy's dream Bolly run - Director of Jessica and Aamir values his Hazaribagh roots". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  23. ^ "Noted environmentalist Bulu Imam felicitated | Ranchi News - Times of India". The Times of India. TNN. 6 July 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  24. ^ "Support hope for Jharkhand tribal artists". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  25. ^ Justice Tapen Sen
  26. ^ "JharkhandHighCourt". Archived from the original on 4 December 2011.
  27. ^ "Members : Lok Sabha". loksabhaph.nic.in. Retrieved 12 September 2021.