National Democratic Alliance
The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition of right-leaning political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the BJP and had 13 constituent parties. Its chairman was late Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former Deputy Prime Minister, who is the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister and the Leader of the House in Lok Sabha; and Thawar Chand Gehlot, Leader of the House in Rajya Sabha and Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment. The coalition ruled from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the 2014 General Elections with a combined vote share of 38.5%. Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014. In the 2019 General Elections, the Alliance further increased its tally to 353 seats with combined vote share of 45.43%.
|Lok Sabha leader||Narendra Modi|
|Rajya Sabha leader||Thawar Chand Gehlot|
(Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment)
|Former Prime Minister(s)||Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1998–2004)|
|Founder||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|Political position||Majority centre-right to right-wing|
|No. of members||16 Parties|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
358 / 545
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
112 / 245
|Number of states and union territories in government|
18 / 31
The NDA was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. It was led by the BJP, and included several regional parties, including the Samta Party and the AIADMK, as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP. With outside support provided by the TDP, the NDA was able to muster a slim majority in the elections of 1998, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee returned as prime minister. The government collapsed within a year because the (AIADMK) withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for a third time, this time for a full five-year term.
The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA suffered a defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh succeeding Vajpayee as prime minister. Commentators have stated that the NDA's failure to reach out to the rural masses was the explanation for its defeat.
The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure in place, such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies. Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility and replaced by Sharad Yadav, the then national president of the JD(U) political party. On 16 June 2013, the JD(U) left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener. Then the CM of Andhra Pradesh Chandrababu Naidu was made the NDA convener. On 27 July 2017 JD(U) with the help of BJP formed the government in Bihar. Later, on 19 August 2017 JD(U) formally rejoined the NDA after 4 years.
Present Members and Seats in ParliamentEdit
Currently, the parties in and supporting the NDA are:
|Party||MPs in Lok Sabha||MPs in Rajya Sabha||Base State|
|1||Bharatiya Janata Party||303||75||National Party|
|2||Janata Dal (United)||16||6||Bihar|
|4||All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||1||13||Tamil Nadu|
|5||Lok Janshakti Party||6||0||Bihar|
|6||Shiromani Akali Dal||2||3||Punjab|
|7||Apna Dal (Sonelal)||2||0||Uttar Pradesh|
|8||Naga People's Front||1||1||Manipur|
|9||Republican Party of India (A)||0||1||Maharashtra|
|10||All Jharkhand Students Union||1||0||Jharkhand|
|11||Rashtriya Loktantrik Party||1||0||Rajasthan|
|12||Asom Gana Parishad||0||1||Assam|
|13||Bodoland People's Front||0||1||Assam|
|14||Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party||1||0||Nagaland|
|15||National People's Party||1||0||Meghalaya|
|16||Sikkim Democratic Front||0||1||Sikkim|
|17||Mizo National Front||1||0||Mizoram|
|18||Sikkim Krantikari Morcha||1||0||Sikkim|
NDA Governments in various statesEdit
As of November 2018, the BJP holds a majority of Legislative Assembly in 10 states - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh. In 2 states - Goa and Maharashtra BJP shares power as Senior Partner (Chief Ministers of BJP) with other political parties of NDA coalition.
The BJP has previously been the sole party in power in Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka. It has also ruled Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Odisha, Punjab and Puducherry as part of coalition governments.
List of Current NDA Chief MinistersEdit
|State/UT||Govt Since||Chief Minister||CM's Party||CM Since||Alliance Partner||Seats in Assembly||Percentage of Seats|
|Arunachal Pradesh||16 September 2016||Pema Khandu||BJP||16 September 2016||JDU(7), NPP(5)||55/60||92|
|Assam||19 May 2016||Sarbananda Sonowal||BJP||19 May 2016||AGP(14), BPF(12)||88/126||70|
|Bihar||27 July 2017||Nitish Kumar||JD(U)||27 July 2017||BJP(54), LJP(2)||133/243||55|
|Gujarat||28 February 1998||Vijay Rupani||BJP||7 August 2016||None||105/182||58|
|Haryana||19 October 2014||Manohar Lal Khattar||BJP||26 October 2014||None||49/90||54|
|Jharkhand||23 December 2014||Raghubar Das||BJP||28 December 2014||AJSU(4)||47/81||58|
|Maharashtra||19 October 2014||Devendra Fadnavis||BJP||31 October 2014||SS(66)||194/288||67|
|Manipur||11 March 2017||Nongthombam Biren Singh||BJP||15 March 2017||NPF(4), NPP(4)||41/60||68|
|Nagaland||8 March 2018||Neiphiu Rio||NDPP||8 March 2018||BJP(12)||34/60||57|
|Tripura||9 March 2018||Biplab Kumar Deb||BJP||9 March 2018||IPFT(8)||43/60||72|
|Uttar Pradesh||11 March 2017||Yogi Adityanath||BJP||19 March 2017||AD(9)||321/403||80|
|Uttarakhand||11 March 2017||Trivendra Singh Rawat||BJP||18 March 2017||None||57/70||81|
|Himachal Pradesh||18 December 2017||Jai Ram Thakur||BJP||27 December 2017||None||44/68||65|
|Tamil Nadu||16 May 2011||Edappadi K. Palaniswami||AIADMK||16 February 2017||None||123/234||53|
|Goa||8 November 2014||Pramod Sawant||BJP||19 March 2019||GFP(3)||23/40||58|
|Meghalaya||6 March 2018||Conrad Sangma||NPP||6 March 2018||UDP(8), PDF(4)||38/60||63|
|Mizoram||15 December 2018||Zoramthanga||MNF||15 December 2018||None||27/40||68|
|Sikkim||27 May 2019||Prem Singh Tamang||SKM||27 May 2019||None||17/32||53|
BJP Strength in State Legislatives Vidhan SabhaEdit
List of Prime MinistersEdit
|1||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||1996(16 May-1 June), 1998-1999, 1999–2004||6 years||Lucknow|
|2||Narendra Modi||2014-Present||5 years||Varanasi|
List of NDA Candidates Election wiseEdit
Alliance Election wiseEdit
For Lok Sabha Election 2019Edit
|Party||Alliance in states||Seats sharing||References|
|Bharatiya Janata Party||All States and UT||437
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||20
|Janata Dal (United)||Bihar||17
|Shiromani Akali Dal||Punjab||10
|Pattali Makkal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||7
|Lok Janshakti Party||Bihar||6
|Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||4
|Bharath Dharma Jana Sena||Kerala||4
|Asom Gana Parishad||Assam||3
|Apna Dal (Sonelal)||Uttar Pradesh||2
|All Jharkhand Students Union||Jharkhand||1
|Puthiya Tamilagam||Tamil Nadu||1
|Tamil Maanila Congress||Tamil Nadu||1
|Puthiya Needhi Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1
|All India N.R. Congress||Pudhucherry||1
|Bodoland People's Front||Assam||1
|Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party||Nagaland||1
|Kerala Congress (Thomas)||Kerala||1
|Rashtriya Loktantrik Party||Rajasthan||1
For Lok Sabha Election 2014Edit
^ BJP had fielded 427 candidates on 427 seats out of 543 but nomination of BJP candidate S. Gurumoorthy was rejected from Niligiris for failing to submit mandatory forms during his nomination.
(#) NPP, NPF and MNF are contesting in each Seats & Other 8 Members supporting NDA Candidates
For Lok Sabha Election 2009Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 2004Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 1999Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 1998Edit
|Party||Base State||Withdrawal Date||Reason for Withdrawal|
|Lok Shakti||Bihar||1999||Merged with Janata Dal (United) for 1999 Elections|
|J & K National Conference||Jammu and Kashmir||2002||Blaming the BJP for its loss in the Jammu and Kashmir state elections.|
|Samta Party||Bihar||2003||Merged with Janata Dal (United) in 2003|
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||2004||Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections|
|Haryana Vikas Party||Haryana||2004||Merged with Congress|
|Indian Federal Democratic Party||Kerala||2004||Following the 2004 election, Merged with Kerala Congress|
|All India Trinamool Congress||West Bengal||2007||Aligned with the Congress party before the 2009 elections.|
|Indian National Lok Dal||Haryana||2009||Left due to seat sharing disagreements during assembly elections 2009.|
|Biju Janata Dal||Odisha||2009||Left the alliance just over a month before the 2009 elections.|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||Telangana||2009||Left the alliance post defeat in 2009 election.|
|Janata Dal (Secular)||Karnataka||2010||Left the alliance in 2010|
|Ladakh Union Territory Front||Jammu and Kashmir||2010||Merged with BJP.|
|Kamtapur Progressive Party||West Bengal||2010||Withdrew Support due to Merger with Kamtapur People's Party.|
|Uttarakhand Kranti Dal||Uttarakhand||2012||Withdrew Support before State Elections|
|Rashtriya Lok Dal||Uttar Pradesh||2012||Has allied with Congress for 2012 Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||Jharkhand||2012||Withdrew from alliance in 2012|
|Janata Party||Tamil Nadu||2013||Merged with BJP|
|Haryana Janhit Congress (BL)||Haryana||2014||Withdrew from alliance before Haryana Legislative Assembly election, 2014 Merged with Congress in 2016|
|Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||2014||Withdrew alliance in a view to Tamil Nadu Elections 2016|
|Kerala Congress (Nationalist) (Noble Mathew)||Kerala||2016||Merged with BJP|
|Kerala Janapaksham||Kerala||2016||Merged with BJP|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party of Kerala (Bolshevik)||Kerala||2016||Withdrew alliance in a view to Kerala Legislative Assembly election, 2016|
|Maraland Democratic Front||Mizoram||2017||Merged with BJP|
|Swabhimani Paksha||Maharashtra||2017||Broke the alliance|
|Telugu Desam Party||Andhra Pradesh||2018||Withdrawn Support from NDA on 16 March 2018 over the demand of Special Category status to Andhra Pradesh and failure to Implement the corresponding Bifurcation Act.|
|Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||Jammu and Kashmir||2018||BJP withdrawn support from JKPDP-led government on 19 June 2018.|
|Rashtriya Lok Samata Party||Bihar||2018||Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election.|
|Gorkha Janmukti Morcha||West Bengal||2019||Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election.|
|Janadhipathya Samrakshana Samithi (Rajan Babu)||Kerala||2019||Merged with Janadhipathya Samrakshana Samithi|
|Sikkim Democratic Front||Sikkim||2019||BJP broke alliance before 2019 Sikkim Assembly Elections and Indian general elections.|
|Pravasi Nivasi Party||Kerala||2019||Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election|
|Janadhipathya Rashtriya Sabha||Kerala||2019|
|Kerala Vikas Congress||Kerala||2019||One faction merged with Kerala Congress (B), one faction still in NDA.|
Year by year changesEdit
2012 Presidential electionEdit
- Vice-Presidential election
On 1 January 2014, Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam leader Vaiko has announced that MDMK formally joined back to NDA. Vaiko also announced Modi will be the best candidate for Prime Minister. The two small parties viz Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam and Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi have also joined NDA Alliance. The BJP would like Two more southern parties such as Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam, Pattali Makkal Katchi to also join the alliance.
In Maharashtra, two regional political outfits, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha, joined NDA in January.  The coalition of Five parties is termed as Mahayuti. So in Maharashtra now NDA alliance consist of 5 Parties viz BJP, Shiv Sena, Republican Party of India, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha.
On 23 February 2014, Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha joined NDA and will be contesting at 3 Lok Sabha seats in Bihar. On 27 February 2014 Lok Janshakti Party led by Ramvilas Paswan joined NDA It would contest at 7 Lok Sabha Seats in Bihar during 2014 Elections.
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena : Its President, Raj Thackeray announced external support to NDA on 9 March 2014 which is marked as Party's formation day, supporting Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate.
Lok Satta Party : President Shri J P Narayan announced external support to NDA, supporting Sh. Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate
In March 2016, after a meeting with AGP President Atul Bora and Former Chief minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta, BJP formed an alliance with Asom Gana Parishad for upcoming Assam legislative assembly election 2016. BJP also aligned with Rabha and Tiwa Tribe outfit Rabha Jatiya Aikya Manch and Tiwa Jatiya Aikya Manch.
Following BJP's victory in the Assam Legislative Assembly Elections 2016, the party formed an alliance of like-minded non-Congress parties in the Northeast, called the North-East Democratic Alliance, consisting of 11 regional parties of Northeast India. Himanta Biswa Sarma, BJP leader from Assam has been appointed Convener of the regional alliance.
On 21 December 2016, Khandu was suspended from the party by the party president and Takam Pario was named as the next likely Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh replacing Khandu after People's Party of Arunachal suspended Khandu along with 6 other MLAs.
In December 2016, Khandu proved majority on the floor with 33 of the People's Party of Arunachal’s 43 legislators joining the Bharatiya Janata Party as the BJP party increased its strength to 45 and it has the support of two independents. He became second Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh of Bharatiya Janata Party in Arunachal Pradesh after the 44 days lead Gegong Apang government in 2003.
In January 2017, Bharatiya Janata Party's alliance partner Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party in Goa and Shiv Sena in Maharashtra came together to contest Goa Legislative Assembly election in 2017 against the BJP with another Sangh Pariwar group called Goa Suraksha Manch.
The results of the 2017 Goa Assembly election gave rise to a hung assembly since no political party could achieve a complete majority of 21 in the 40 member Goa Legislative Assembly. The Indian National Congress emerged the largest party with 17 seats but ultimately, the Bharatiya Janata Party which emerged victorious in 13 constituencies formed the government with the support of the Goa Forward Party, Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party and independents. The Goa Forward Party expressed its support to the Bharatiya Janata Party on the condition that the then Union Defence Minister of India Manohar Parrikar would return to Goa as the Chief Minister of Goa.
On 15 March 2017, N. Biren Singh was sworn as the Chief Minister by having coalition with NPP, NPF, LJP and others, the first time that BJP formed a government in Manipur, though the INC emerged as the single largest party.
On 27 July 2017, Janata Dal (United) rejoined NDA and formed a coalition government with Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in Bihar with Nitish Kumar as the Chief Minister and Sushil Kumar Modi as the Deputy Chief Minister, and with that BJP completed its domination in Hindi belt.
In December 2018's state elections, the NDA lost elections in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Chhattisgarh to the INC. In Chhattisgarh, the NDA was defeated by the INC with 3/4th majority. It was also defeated by the TRS in Telangana and BJP managed to win only 1 seat out of the 119 constituencies in Telangana
On 7 January 2019, the AGP withdrew from the NDA and also from the Assam Government on the issue of citizenship amendment bill but later joined back. On 21 January 2019, the GJM withdrew from the NDA and extended the support to Mamata Banerjee .
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- Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Assam Legislative Assembly
- Bihar Legislative Assembly
- Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
- Goa Legislative Assembly
- Gujarat Legislative Assembly
- Haryana Legislative Assembly
- Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
- Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
- Karnataka Legislative Assembly
- Kerala Legislature
- Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
- Manipur Legislative Assembly
- Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
- Mizoram Legislative Assembly
- Nagaland Legislative Assembly
- Odisha Legislative Assembly
- Punjab Legislative Assembly
- Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
- Sikkim Legislative Assembly
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
- Telangana Legislative Assembly
- Tripura Legislative Assembly election, 2018
- Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
- West Bengal Legislative Assembly
- Delhi Legislative Assembly
- Puducherry Legislative Assembly
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