National Democratic Alliance (India)
The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and had thirteen constituent parties. Its chairman was former Prime Minister Late. Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former Deputy Prime Minister, who is the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister and Leader of the House in Lok Sabha; and Arun Jaitley, Leader of the House in Rajya Sabha and Finance minister. The coalition was in power from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the 2014 General election with a combined vote share of 38.5%. Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014.
|Lok Sabha leader||Narendra Modi|
|Rajya Sabha leader||Arun Jaitley|
|Former Prime Minister(s)||Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1998, 1999–2004)|
|Founder||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|Political position||Majority: Centre-right to Right-wing|
|No. of members||46 Parties|
|Seats in Lok Sabha||
313 / 545(currently 532 members + 1 Speaker)
|Seats in Rajya Sabha||
89 / 245Present Members 244
|Number of states and union territories in government||
19 / 31
The National Democratic Alliance was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. It was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party, and included several regional parties, including the Samta Party and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP. With outside support provided by the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), the NDA was able to muster a slim majority in the elections of 1998, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee returned as prime minister. The government collapsed within a year because the (AIADMK) withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for a third time, this time for a full five-year term.
The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA suffered a defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh succeeding Vajpayee as prime minister. Some commentators have stated that the NDA's failure to reach out to the rural masses was the explanation for its defeat; others have pointed to its "divisive" policy agenda as the reason.
The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure in place, such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies. Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility and replaced by Sharad Yadav, the then national president of the Janata Dal (United) political party. On 16 June 2013, the JD(U) left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener. Then the CM of Andhra Pradesh Chandrababu Naidu was made the NDA convener. On 27 July 2017 JD(U) with the help of BJP formed the government in Bihar. Later, on 19 Aug 2017 JD(U) formally joined the NDA after 4 years.
Present Members and Seats in ParliamentEdit
NDA Governments in various statesEdit
As of August 2018, the BJP holds a majority of Legislative Assembly in 13 states - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. In 2 states - Goa and Maharashtra BJP shares power as Senior Partner (Chief Ministers of BJP) with other political parties of NDA coalition.
The BJP has previously been the sole party in power in National Capital Territory of Delhi and Karnataka. It has also ruled Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Odisha, Punjab and Puducherry as part of coalition governments.
List of Current NDA Chief MinistersEdit
|No||State/UT||Govt Since||Chief Minister||CM's Party||CM Since||Alliance Partner||Seats in Assembly||Percentage of Seats|
|01||Arunachal Pradesh||16 September 2016||Pema Khandu||BJP||16 September 2016||NPP, Independents||57/60||95|
|02||Assam||19 May 2016||Sarbananda Sonowal||BJP||19 May 2016||AGP, BPF||87/126||68|
|03||Bihar||27 July 2017||Nitish Kumar||JD(U)||27 July 2017||BJP, LJP, RLSP, Independents||131/243||54|
|04||Chhattisgarh||4 December 2003||Raman Singh||BJP||7 December 2003||None||49/90||54|
|05||Goa||9 March 2012||Manohar Parrikar||BJP||14 March 2017||MGP, GFP, Independents||23/40||60|
|06||Gujarat||28 February 1998||Vijay Rupani||BJP||7 August 2016||1 Independent||100/182||54|
|07||Haryana||19 October 2014||Manohar Lal Khattar||BJP||26 October 2014||None||47/90||52|
|08||Jharkhand||23 December 2014||Raghubar Das||BJP||28 December 2014||AJSU||47/81||57|
|09||Madhya Pradesh||4 December 2003||Shivraj Singh Chouhan||BJP||29 November 2005||None||166/230||72|
|10||Maharashtra||19 October 2014||Devendra Fadnavis||BJP||31 October 2014||Shiv Sena||186/288||65|
|11||Manipur||11 March 2017||Nongthombam Biren Singh||BJP||15 March 2017||NPF, NPP, LJP||41/60||68|
|12||Nagaland||8 March 2018||Neiphiu Rio||NDPP||8 March 2018||BJP, NPP, JD(U), Independent||34/60||56|
|13||Rajasthan||8 December 2013||Vasundhara Raje||BJP||13 December 2013||None||160/200||80|
|14||Sikkim||12 December 1994||Pawan Kumar Chamling||SDF||12 December 1994||BJP||22/32||65|
|15||Tripura||9 March 2018||Biplab Kumar Deb||BJP||9 March 2018||IPFT||44/60||73|
|16||Uttar Pradesh||11 March 2017||Yogi Adityanath||BJP||19 March 2017||AD(S), SBSP||325/403||84|
|17||Uttarakhand||11 March 2017||Trivendra Singh Rawat||BJP||18 March 2017||None||57/70||83|
|18||Himachal Pradesh||18 December 2017||Jai Ram Thakur||BJP||27 December 2017||None||44/68||68|
|19||Meghalaya||6 March 2018||Conrad Sangma||NPP||6 March 2018||BJP, UDP, PDF, HSPDP, Independents||39/60||56|
BJP Strength in State Legislatives Vidhan SabhaEdit
List of Prime MinistersEdit
|1||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||1996, 1998–04||6 years||Lucknow|
List of NDA Candidates for 2014Edit
Alliance Election wiseEdit
For Lok Sabha Election 2014Edit
^ BJP had fielded 427 candidates on 427 seats out of 543 but nomination of BJP candidate S. Gurumoorthy was rejected from Niligiris for failing to submit mandatory forms during his nomination.
(#) NPP, NPF and MNF are contesting in each Seats & Other 8 Members supporting NDA Candidates
For Lok Sabha Election 2009Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 2004Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 1999Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 1998Edit
|No||Party||Base State||Withdrawal Date||Reason for Withdrawal|
|1||Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||1999||Aligned with Indian National Congress during 1999 elections|
|2||Lok Shakti||Bihar||1999||Merged with Janata Dal (United) for 1999 Elections|
|3||J & K National Conference||J & K||2002||Blaming the BJP for its loss in the Jammu and Kashmir state elections.|
|4||Samta Party||Bihar||2003||Merged with Janata Dal (United) in 2003|
|5||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||2004||Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections|
|6||Haryana Vikas Party||Haryana||2004||Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections|
|7||Indian Federal Democratic Party||Kerala||2004||Following the 2004 election, Merged with Kerala Congress|
|8||All India Trinamool Congress||West Bengal||2007||Aligned with the Congress party before the 2009 elections.|
|9||Indian National Lok Dal||Haryana||2009||Left due to seat sharing disagreements during assembly elections 2009.|
|10||Biju Janata Dal||Odisha||2009||Left the alliance just over a month before the 2009 elections.|
|11||Telangana Rashtra Samithi||Telangana||2009||Left the alliance post defeat in 2009 election.|
|12||Janata Dal (Secular)||Karnataka||2010||Left the alliance in 2010|
|13||Ladakh Union Territory Front||J & K||2010||Merged with BJP.|
|14||Kamtapur Progressive Party||West Bengal||2010||Withdrew Support due to Merger with Kamtapur People's Party.|
|15||Uttarakhand Kranti Dal||Uttarakhand||2012||Withdrew Support before State Elections|
|16||Rashtriya Lok Dal||UP||2012||Has allied with Congress for 2012 Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election|
|17||Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||Jharkhand||2012||Withdrew from alliance in 2012|
|18||Janata Party||Tamil Nadu||2013||Merged with BJP|
|19||Haryana Janhit Congress (BL)||Haryana||2014||Withdrew from alliance before Haryana Legislative Assembly election, 2014|
|20||Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||2014||Withdrew alliance in a view to Tamil Nadu Elections 2016|
|21||Kerala Congress (Nationalist) (Noble Mathew)||Kerala||2016||Merged with BJP|
|22||Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||2016||Withdrew alliance in a view to Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election, 2016|
|23||Kerala Janapaksham||Kerala||2016||Merged with BJP|
|24||Revolutionary Socialist Party of Kerala (Bolshevik)||Kerala||2016||Withdrew alliance in a view to Kerala Legislative Assembly election, 2016|
|25||Maraland Democratic Front||Mizoram||2017||Merged with BJP|
|26||Swabhimani Paksha||Maharashtra||2017||Broke the alliance|
|27||Telugu Desam Party||Andhra Pradesh||2018||Withdrawn Support from NDA on 16 March 2018 over the demand of Special Category status to Andhra Pradesh and failure to Implement the corresponding Bifurcation Act.|
|28||Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||Jammu and Kashmir||2018||BJP withdrawn support from JKPDP-led government on 19 June 2018.|
Year by year changesEdit
2012 Presidential electionEdit
- Vice-Presidential election
On 11 August 2013, after a discussion with BJP President Rajnath Singh, Janata Party Chairman Dr.Subramanian Swamy officially joined Bharatiya Janata Party and merged his Janata Party with the Bharatiya Janata Party in presence of BJP president Rajnath Singh.The announcement was made by Mr Swamy and BJP president Rajnath Singh after they met at the latter's residence in Delhi. Former BJP chief Nitin Gadkari and senior party leader Arun Jaitley were also present at the meet.
On 1 January 2014, Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam leader Vaiko has announced that MDMK formally joined back to NDA. Vaiko also announced Modi will be the best candidate for Prime Minister. The two small parties viz Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam and Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi have also joined NDA Alliance. The BJP would like Two more southern parties such as Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam, Pattali Makkal Katchi to also join the alliance.
In Maharashtra, two regional political outfits, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha, joined NDA in January.  The coalition of Five parties is termed as Mahayuti. So in Maharashtra now NDA alliance consist of 5 Parties viz BJP, Shiv Sena, Republican Party of India, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha.
On 23 February 2014, Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha joined NDA and will be contesting at 3 Lok Sabha seats in Bihar. On 27 February 2014 Lok Janshakti Party led by Ramvilas Paswan joined NDA It would contest at 7 Lok Sabha Seats in Bihar during 2014 Elections.
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena : Its President, Raj Thackeray announced external support to NDA on 9 March 2014 which is marked as Party's formation day, supporting Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate.
Lok Satta Party : President Shri J P Narayan announced external support to NDA, supporting Sh. Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate
In March 2016, after a meeting with AGP President Atul Bora and Former Chief minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta, BJP formed an alliance with Asom Gana Parishad for upcoming Assam legislative assembly election 2016. BJP also aligned with Rabha and Tiwa Tribe outfit Rabha Jatiya Aikya Manch and Tiwa Jatiya Aikya Manch.
Following BJP's victory in the Assam Legislative Assembly Elections 2016, the party formed an alliance of like-minded non-Congress parties in the Northeast, called the North-East Democratic Alliance, consisting of 11 regional parties of Northeast India. Himanta Biswa Sarma, BJP leader from Assam has been appointed Convener of the regional alliance.
On December 21, 2016, Khandu was suspended from the party by the party president and Takam Pario was named as the next likely Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh replacing Khandu after People's Party of Arunachal suspended Khandu along with 6 other MLAs.
In December 2016, Khandu proved majority on the floor with 33 of the People's Party of Arunachal’s 43 legislators joining the Bharatiya Janata Party as the BJP party increased its strength to 45 and it has the support of two independents. He became second Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh of Bharatiya Janata Party in Arunachal Pradesh after the 44 days lead Gegong Apang government in 2003.
In January 2017, Bharatiya Janata Party's alliance partner Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party in Goa and Shiv Sena in Maharashtra came together to contest Goa Legislative Assembly election in 2017 against the BJP with another Sangh Pariwar group called Goa Suraksha Manch.
The results of the 2017 Goa Assembly election gave rise to a hung assembly since no political party could achieve a complete majority of 21 in the 40 member Goa Legislative Assembly. The Indian National Congress emerged the largest party with 17 seats but ultimately, the Bharatiya Janata Party which emerged victorious in 13 constituencies formed the government with the support of the Goa Forward Party, Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party and independents. The Goa Forward Party expressed its support to the Bharatiya Janata Party on the condition that the then Union Defence Minister of India Manohar Parrikar would return to Goa as the Chief Minister of Goa.
On 15 March 2017, N. Biren Singh was sworn as the Chief Minister by having coalition with NPP, NPF, LJP and others, the first time that BJP formed a government in Manipur, though the INC emerged as the single largest party.
On 27 July 2017, Janata Dal (United) rejoined NDA and formed a coalition government with Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in Bihar with Nitish Kumar as the Chief Minister and Sushil Kumar Modi as the Deputy Chief Minister, and with that BJP completed its domination in Hindi belt.
Telugu Desam Party (TDP) had withdrawn from NDA on 16 March 2018.
- "Members: Lok Sabha". loksabha.nic.in. Lok Sabha Secretariat. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Simta Prakash (17 June 2013). "NDA implodes". Mid-day.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "BJP's 31% lowest vote share of any party to win majority".
- Keith Jones (9 October 1999). "Hindu chauvinist-led coalition to form India's next government". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Penguin. p. 254.
- "Rediff on the NeT: TDP helps Vajpayee wins confidence vote". Rediff.com. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Penguin.
- Ramesh, Randeep (14 May 2004). "News World news Shock defeat for India's Hindu nationalists". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Editorial (14 May 2004). "The Meaning of Verdict 2004". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- "Live: It was time to remove Cong from Centre, not to break ties, says Rajnath". IBN Live. 16 June 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Nitish Kumar-led JD(U) passes resolution to join NDA". The Economy Times. 19 August 2017.
- Small parties, independents in great demand. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
- "NDA hopeful of more pre-poll and post-poll friends". Business Standard. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- Tiwari, Ravish (5 March 2014). "Partners & possibles in BJP's target 272 | Page 2". The Indian Express. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- Dutta, Debjani (13 March 2014). "Rangasamy in NDA, Names Ex-Speaker as LS Candidate". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "BJP Forms State Chapter of NDA with 4 Parties". The New Indian Express. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "MPP to back BJP in Manipur LS polls". The Telegraph. Kolkota. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Apna Dal allies with NDA". The Hindu. 24 March 2014.
- "Northeast parties stitch alliance with NDA". Daily News and Analysis. Indo-Asian News Service. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- R Guhambika (2 April 2014). "Homilies apart, TN NDA Tally Zilch on Women Candidates". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- "BJP Projects Grand Alliance of 28 Parties". The New Indian Express. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Goa Vikas party pledges support for BJP in Lok Sabha election". The Times of India. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- Varma, Gyan (13 June 2015). "Manjhi joins NDA ahead of Bihar polls". livemint.com. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Kerala Cong P C Thomas Faction Joins NDA". New Indian Express. 19 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Ehsan, Mir. "J&K govt formation: PDP against inducting Lone in cabinet". Srinagar: Indian Express. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Mukane, Pratik (21 October 2014). "Maharashtra assembly polls: 36 of 58 candidates who defected to BJP failed to woo voters". Mumbai: Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
Three other candidates who lost the election include alliance partner and Shiv Sangram's leader Vinayak Mete
- Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Assam Legislative Assembly
- Bihar Legislative Assembly
- Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
- Goa Legislative Assembly
- Gujarat Legislative Assembly
- Haryana Legislative Assembly
- Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
- Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
- Karnataka Legislative Assembly
- Kerala Legislature
- Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
- Manipur Legislative Assembly
- Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
- Mizoram Legislative Assembly
- Nagaland Legislative Assembly
- Odisha Legislative Assembly
- Punjab Legislative Assembly
- Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
- Sikkim Legislative Assembly
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
- Telangana Legislative Assembly
- Tripura Legislative Assembly election, 2018
- Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
- West Bengal Legislative Assembly
- Delhi Legislative Assembly
- Puducherry Legislative Assembly
- BJP suspends Nilgiris (SC) LS seat candidate S Gurumurthy. Daily News and Analysis. (5 May 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- BJP suspends Nilgiris ‘candidate’ for nomination goof. The Times of India. (6 May 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Rejected candidate accuses RO of bias towards BJP. Zeenews.india.com. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Will NDA support AIADMK in Nilgiris?. Business Standard (11 April 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Bhushan Casts Doubts Over BJP Nilgiris Goof-up. The New Indian Express (13 April 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- BJP members angry over Nilgiris nomination fiasco. Indiatvnews.com (15 April 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Nitish shares stage with Modi in Ludhiana; TRS joins NDA". The Hindu.
- "Third Front is born, asks for nation's trust". Retrieved 12 March 2009.
- "Haryana Janhit Congress snaps ties with BJP". 28 August 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "KC (Nationalist) to merge with BJP". The Hindu: Mobile Edition.
- "RSP(B) offers support to UDF". The Hindu: Mobile Edition.
- "Raju Shetti leaves NDA". The Hindu. New Delhi, India. 30 August 2017.
- "NDA names Jaswant Singh as its vice-presidential candidate". 16 July 2012.
- "Modi will become PM, says Vaiko". 1 January 2014.
- "Can Modi's magic help win BJP allies? Three southern parties to decide soon". Hindustan Times. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Setback to AAP plans as Swabhimani Shetkari Sanghatana joins Sena-BJP led combine". The Economic Times. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "SSS joins NDA, threat to NCP". The Indian Express. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "LS polls: BJP joins hands with Upendra Kushwaha's Rashtriya Lok Samata Party – IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Ram Vilas Paswan's LJP returns lo to NDA, to contest from 7 seats in Bihar". Zeenews.india.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "LJP rejoins NDA, would contest 7 seats in Bihar in 2014 Elections". news.biharprabha.com. Indo-Asian News Service. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- Panwar, Preeti (26 February 2014). "Confirmed: DMDK-BJP form alliance in Tamil Nadu for LS polls – News Oneindia". News.oneindia.in. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "TDP back to NDA". The New Indian Express. 6 April 2014.
- "Shiv Sena to stay in NDA: Shiv Sena". THE CITY NEWS.
- "BJP clinches deal with AJSU in Jharkhand". Archived from the original on 4 November 2014.
- "JK govt formation: PM Modi to attend swearing in of PDP-BJP govt led by Mufti Sayeed". The Indian Express. 27 February 2015.
- "BJP forms alliance with Bodoland Peoples' Front for Assam elections". The Times of India.
- Alok Pandey; Ketki Angre; Sandeep Phukan (4 March 2016). "BJP Teams Up With Asom Gana Parishad For Assam Polls". NDTV.com.
- Radhakrishnan Kuttoor. "Kerala BJP to ride the Dharma Jana Sena". The Hindu.
- After Pema Khandu's suspension, Takam Pario to be new Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh, PPA Chairman says
- Takam Pario likely to be Arunachal CM in 2017 after PPA suspendsKhandu
- Takam Pario, the richest Arunachal MLA, may replace Pema Khandu as CM
- Khandu wins musical chairs game for BJP
- Shifting to BJP, Pema Khandu drops 3 ministers, 2 advisors, 5 parliamentary secretaries
- MGP-Sena-GSM form grand alliance to contest Goa polls
- "Goa Election 2017: Manohar Parrikar resigns as defence minister, to be sworn-in as CM at 5 pm Tuesday". 13 March 2017.
- "Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar Likely To Return To Goa As Chief Minister".
- "With Bihar in their pocket, Narendra Modi and Amit Shah have conquered the Hindi heartland".