United Democratic Front (Kerala)

The United Democratic Front (UDF) is an alliance of Centre[2] to centre-left[3] political parties in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the two major political alliances in Kerala, the other being CPI(M)-led LDF, each of which has been in power alternately for the last four decades.[4] UDF has won elections to the State Legislature of Kerala in the years 1982,[5] 1991,[6] 2001,[7] and 2011.[8] The alliance currently acts as the main opposition in the state legislature of Kerala post-May 2016 election. The alliance consists of Indian National Congress, Indian Union Muslim League, Kerala Congress, Revolutionary Socialist Party, Forward Bloc and a variety of other smaller parties. The front follows the principle of Social democracy.[1] It is a part of United Progressive Alliance at national level.

United Democratic Front
AbbreviationUDF
ChairpersonRamesh Chennithala
FounderK. Karunakaran
Founded1978; 43 years ago (1978)
HeadquartersIndira Bhavan, Vellayambalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
IdeologyBig tent
Factions
Social democracy[1]
Political positionCentre[2] to centre-left[3]
Seats in Lok Sabha
18 / 20
Seats in Rajya Sabha
3 / 9
Seats in Kerala Legislative Assembly
41 / 140

The front was created by the Indian National Congress (then known as Congress-Indira) party leader K. Karunakaran in 1978, as a successor to the erstwhile United Front.[9] In the last elections conducted to the state legislature in 2016, UDF managed to win 47 out of 140 seats to the assembly,[10] and Ramesh Chennithala was elected as the leader of opposition.[11] In 2019 Indian general election, UDF won 19 out of 20 seats in the state.

HistoryEdit

The coalition politics of Kerala began with second election held to the state legislative assembly in 1960.[12] In 1970's, the major political parties in the state were unified under two major coalitions, one of them led by Indian National Congress, and the other by CPI(M).[12] The front led by Indian National Congress was initially called United Front, which had ruled the state from 1970 to 1979.[13] The United Democratic Front (UDF) was formed as successor to the United Front just before 1980 state election.[14] UDF first came into power in Kerala in 1982 under K. Karunakaran.[5] It led the Government of Kerala in 1982–87 (K. Karunakaran), 1991–96 (K. Karunakaran and A. K. Antony), 2001–06 (A. K. Antony and Oommen Chandy), and 2011–16 (Oommen Chandy). The alliance currently serves as the opposition in the Kerala Assembly.

The parties in the alliance and their representation in Kerala Legislative Assembly are currently as follows:

No. Party Legislative

Assembly Seats

1 Indian National Congress 21
2 Indian Union Muslim League 18
3 Kerala Congress 2
4 Kerala Congress (Jacob) 1
5 Nationalist Congress Kerala 1
6 Revolutionary Socialist Party 0
7 Communist Marxist Party (John) 0
8 All India Forward Bloc 0
9 Bharatiya National Janata Dal 0

AlliesEdit

No. Party
1 Indian National Congress
2 Indian Union Muslim League
3 Kerala Congress
4 Revolutionary Socialist Party
5 Kerala Congress (Jacob)
6 Nationalist Congress Kerala
7 Communist Marxist Party (John)
8 All India Forward Bloc
9 Bharatiya National Janata Dal

Chief MinistersEdit

Elected membersEdit

State LegislatureEdit

 
Map of Kerala showing 2016 State Legislative Assembly Election Results

The United Democratic Front currently has 42 members in the Kerala Legislative Assembly, which consists of 140 elected seats in total. The alliance is the opposition in the Assembly.

Key

 INC    IUML    KC(J)  

No. Constituency Member Party
Kasaragod district
1 Manjeshwaram M. C. Kamaruddin IUML
2 Kasaragod N. A. Nellikkunnu IUML
Kannur district
3 Irikkur K. C. Joseph INC
4 Azhikode K.M. Shaji IUML
5 Peravoor Sunny Joseph INC
Wayanad district
6 Sulthan Bathery I. C. Balakrishnan INC
Kozhikode district
7 Kuttiady Parakkal Abdulla IUML
8 Kozhikode South M. K. Muneer IUML
Malappuram district
9 Kondotty T. V. Ibrahim IUML
10 Eranad P. K. Basheer IUML
11 Wandoor A. P. Anil Kumar INC
12 Manjeri M. Ummer IUML
13 Perinthalmanna Manjalamkuzhi Ali IUML
14 Mankada T. A. Ahmed Kabir IUML
15 Malappuram P. Ubaidulla IUML
16 Vengara K. N. A. Khader IUML
17 Vallikkunnu P. Abdul Hameed IUML
18 Tirurangadi P. K. Abdu Rabb IUML
19 Tirur C. Mammutty IUML
20 Kottakkal K. K. Abid Hussain Thangal IUML
Palakkad district
21 Thrithala V. T. Balram INC
22 Mannarkkad N. Samsudheen IUML
23 Palakkad Shafi Parambil INC
Thrissur district
24 Wadakkanchery Anil Akkara INC
Ernakulam district
25 Perumbavoor Eldhose Kunnappilly INC
26 Angamaly Roji M. John INC
27 Aluva Anwar Sadath INC
28 Kalamassery V. K. Ebrahimkunju IUML
29 Paravur V. D. Satheesan INC
30 Ernakulam T. J. Vinod INC
31 Thrikkakara P. T. Thomas INC
32 Kunnathunad V. P. Sajeendran INC
33 Piravom Anoop Jacob KC (J)
Kottayam district
34 Pala Mani C. Kappan NCK
35 Kottayam Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan INC
36 Puthuppally Oommen Chandy INC
Alappuzha district
37 Aroor Shanimol Usman INC
38 Haripad Ramesh Chennithala INC
Thiruvananthapuram district
39 Thiruvananthapuram V. S. Sivakumar INC
40 Aruvikkara K. S. Sabarinathan INC
41 Kovalam M. Vincent INC

Lok SabhaEdit

 
Map of Kerala showing 2019 Indian General Election Results

Out of the 20 Lok Sabha (House of the People) constituencies in Kerala, 19 were won by the United Democratic Front in 2019 Lok Sabha election. Later when the Kerala Congress (M) left UDF to join LDF in 2020, the number of seats of UDF fell into 18. The following is the list of United Democratic Front Parliament (Lok Sabha) members from the state of Kerala:

Key

 INC    IUML    RSP  

No. Parliamentary Constituency Member (MP) Party Affiliation
1 Kasaragod Rajmohan Unnithan INC
2 Kannur K. Sudhakaran INC
3 Vatakara K. Muraleedharan INC
4 Wayanad Rahul Gandhi INC
5 Kozhikode M. K. Raghavan INC
6 Malappuram P. K. Kunhalikutty IUML
7 Ponnani E. T. Muhammed Basheer IUML
8 Palakkad V. K. Sreekandan INC
9 Alathur Ramya Haridas INC
10 Thrissur T. N. Prathapan INC
11 Chalakudy Benny Behanan INC
12 Ernakulam Hibi Eden INC
13 Idukki Dean Kuriakose INC
14 Mavelikkara Kodikunnil Suresh INC
15 Pathanamthitta Anto Antony Punnathaniyil INC
16 Kollam N. K. Premachandran RSP
17 Attingal Adoor Prakash INC
18 Thiruvananthapuram Shashi Tharoor INC

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Heller, Patrick (18 April 2020). "A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  2. ^ a b "India's election results were more than a 'Modi wave'". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2019. The BJP's primary rival, the centrist Indian National Congress (Congress), won only 52 seats.
  3. ^ a b Saez, Lawrence; Sinha, Aseema (2010). "Political cycles, political institutions and public expenditure in India, 1980–2000". British Journal of Political Science. 40 (1): 91–113. doi:10.1017/s0007123409990226. S2CID 154767259.
  4. ^ "Election history of Kerala". CEO Kerala. Chief Election Officer, Kerala.
  5. ^ a b 9 October; June 15, 2013 ISSUE DATE; August 8, 1982UPDATED; Ist, 2014 17:49. "Congress(I) leader Karunakaran sworn in as Kerala CM". India Today. Retrieved 19 May 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Isaac, T. M. Thomas; Kumar, S. Mohana (1991). "Kerala Elections, 1991: Lessons and Non-Lessons". Economic and Political Weekly. 26 (47): 2691–2704. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4398338.
  7. ^ Menon, Girish (14 May 2001). "LDF swept out in Kerala". Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  8. ^ Anantha Krishnan (13 May 2011). "This story is from May 13, 2011 Kerala assembly elections 2011: UDF wins by narrow margin". Times of India. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  9. ^ PTI (23 December 2010). "Who was K Karunakaran?". NDTV. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  10. ^ "As it happened: TMC, AIADMK retain power; BJP takes Assam, Left Kerala". Hindustan Times. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  11. ^ PTI (30 May 2016). "Congress Elects Ramesh Chennithala As Leader Of Opposition In Kerala Assembly". NDTV. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  12. ^ a b "India". Australia: Refugee Review Tribunal. 19 March 2007. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2019 – via archive.is.
  13. ^ Luke Koshi, Saritha S. Balan (19 June 2017). "Kerala chronicles: When a coalition of 7 political parties came together only to fall apart". The News Minute. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Kerala: Tenuous existence". India Today. 30 September 1979. Retrieved 1 January 2018.