Mau district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and Mau town is the district headquarters which is also one of the few remaining areas of handloom saree production in eastern Uttar Pradesh, specializing in Sadiya silk sarees. Mau was carved out as a separate district from Azamgarh on 19 November 1988. It is situated in the south-eastern part of the state with headquarters in Maunath Bhanjan. The district is surrounded by Ghazipur district on the south, Ballia district in the east, Azamgarh district in the west, and by Gorakhpur and Deoria districts on the north.
Location of Mau district in Uttar Pradesh
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Ghosi|
|• Vidhan Sabha constituencies||Ghosi , Madhuban, Maunath Bhanjan (Sadar), Mohammadabad Gohana|
|• Total||1,713 km2 (661 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)|
|• Literacy||75.16 per cent|
|• Sex ratio||90|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
From historical and archaeological point of views, Mau is one of the oldest place in the region. Ancient cultural and archaeological remains have been found at multiple places in the area giving enough evidence of long history of human habitat in the area. The known archaeological history of Mau is about 1500 years old, when the entire area was covered under thick dense forest. The nuts who used to live along Tamsa river, are considered to be the oldest inhabitants and the ruler of the area.
As per the records on official webpage of the district, in 1028 A.D. King Syed Shalar Masood Ghazi came with a huge army to conquer the area but he went back to Afghanistan, living few of his people in the area. A sufi saint Baba Malik Tahir and his brother Malik Qasim were part of the remaining group. There are places like Malik Tahir Pura and Qasim Pura in the name of these two saints in Mau city. The tomb of Malik Tahir is also present in Malik Tahir Pura and locally known as Mazaar Malik Tahir Baba.
Around 1540–1545, Sher Shah Suri, the emperor who defeated Humayun, during his reign visited Kolhuvavan (Madhuban) to meet the great Sufi saint Syed Ahmad Wadva. Mahvani, one of the daughters of Sher Shah had settled permanently near the dargah of Syed Wadva. The area also finds place in the historical book of Ziyaudeen Barni with a description that the great Mughal emperor Akbar passed through Mau on his way to Allahabad. At that time, labourer and artisans originally belonging to Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey, who had come with Mughal army settled here permanently. These artisans integrated into the society over a period of time but they kept their art alive and despite a gradual demise of the handloom industry in the eastern Uttar Pradesh, the saree industry of Mau still remains the last bastion of handicraft in the area otherwise an industrially thriving region till the end of last century. It is also believed that one of Akbar's daughters, Jahan Aara had also settled in that area where she built a mosque. The original structure of the mosque is not surviving anymore but place is known as Shahi Qatra and there is a Shahi Mosque in that locality reminding of its past glory.
During the Indian freedom struggle, the people of Mau had given full support to the movement, and Mahatma Gandhi had also made a visit to Doharighat region of the district in 1939.
In 1932, Azamgarh was made independent district, Mau region was a part of it until 1988 when the current area of Mau district was carved out of Azamgarh to make a separate district and on 19 November 1988, Mau became a separate district in which the then Union Minister of State of India (Power) Kalpnath Rai played a pivotal role. He is also credited to start an array of developmental activities in the city including new Railway Station and a stadium.
In popular cultureEdit
A Passage to India is a 1924 novel by English author E. M. Forster set against the backdrop of the British Raj and the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. The novel was adapted in a film with same title in 1984. One of the protagonists, Aziz moved to Mau where he met a school master Cyril Fielding.
According to the 2011 census Mau Nath Bhanjan district has a population of 2,205,968, in which male and female were 1,114,888 and 1,090,782 respectively. In 2001 census, Mau had a population of 1,853,997, in which males were 933,523 and remaining 920,474 were females. roughly equal to the nation of Latvia or the US state of New Mexico. This gives it a ranking of 206th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 1,287 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,330/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 80.94%. Mau has a sex ratio of 978 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 75.16%.
Jharkande Rai and Kalpnath Rai were well-known faces of politics in Mau. Notable Politician Sunil Singh Chauhan is also from Mau. Municipal Corporation Chairman Mohammad Tayyab Palki is also from Mau District. Mau sadar is the Legislative seat of politician Mukhtar Ansari.
- Brigadier Mohammad Usman Masoodi (1912-1948), born in Bibipur of Mau district, was the highest ranking officer of the Indian Army killed in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 and was awarded Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) posthumously.
- Ali Jawad Zaidi (1916–2004), born in Karhan, Mau, was a prolific author and scholar who wrote 80 books. He was awarded a Padma Shri for his literary achievements.
- Laxmi Narayan Mishra (1903–1987), born in the village Basti, district Mau. He was a popular play writer of HINDI. He was a theatre personality of Uttar Pradesh. His works became very popular between 1930 and 1950. They were frequently staged by schools, colleges, and amateur groups. Laxmi Narayan Mishra is considered the founder of the problem play in Hindi theatre.
- Fiza Ibn-e-Faizi (1923–2009) was a modern Urdu and Persian poet. He was a native of Mau district of Uttar Pradesh and was considered a 'qadir-ul-kalaam' poet and had received numerous awards within the Urdu world. At least, six poetry collections of Faizi had been published and acclaimed. In 2009, a memorial named as Faizi Gate was constructed by the then municipal head near his house.
- Maulana Habibur Rahman Azmi (1900–1992) was a well-known Islamic Scholar, belonged to this city. He wrote under pen name of Abul Ma'sir. His works on Islamic Jurisprudence is well acclaimed. He remains a well-known figure in major Islamic seminaries like Medina University, Al-Azhar and Darul-uloom Deoband. His works are cited by Muslims across the world.
- Kanhaiya Lal Misra (1903–1975) was Advocate General of Uttar Pradesh, India from 1952 to 1969.
- Shyam Narayan Pandey (1907–1991) was a Hindi poet famous for his epic poem Haldighati, which is based on the Battle of Haldighati between Akbar and Maharana Pratap.
- Dr. Krishna N. Sharma is a prolific writer and researcher, working as the Vice Chancellor at Victoria University, Kampala, Uganda.
- Kamran Khan, cricketer
- Sadiya Silk Saree  
- Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
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- "Census 2011". Retrieved 22 August 2019.
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- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011.
Latvia 2,204,708 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
New Mexico – 2,059,179
- 2011 Census of India, Population By Mother Tongue