Berbice is a region along the Berbice River in Guyana, which was between 1627 and 1815 a colony of the Netherlands. After having been ceded to the United Kingdom in the latter year, it was merged with Essequibo and Demerara to form the colony of British Guiana in 1831. In 1966, British Guiana gained independence as Guyana.
Berbice around 1780.
|Capital||Fort Nassau (1627–1785)|
Fort Sint Andries (1785–1815)
|Common languages||Dutch, Berbice Creole Dutch|
|Van Peere family|
|Society of Berbice|
|Abraham van Peere|
|Abraham Jacob van Imbijze van Batenburg|
• Ceded to the United Kingdom
|20 November 1815|
|Currency||Spanish dollar, Dutch guilder|
|Today part of||Guyana|
After being a hereditary fief in the possession of the Van Peere family, the colony was governed by the Society of Berbice in the second half of the colonial period, akin to the neighbouring colony of Suriname, which was governed by the Society of Suriname. The capital of Berbice was at Fort Nassau until 1790. In that year, the town of New Amsterdam, which grew around Fort Sint Andries, was made the new capital of the colony.
Berbice was settled in 1627 by the businessman Abraham van Peere from Vlissingen, under the suzerainty of the Dutch West India Company. Until 1714, the colony remained the personal possession of Van Peere and his descendants. Little is known about the early years of the colony, other than that it succeeded in repelling an English attack in 1665 in the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
Apparently some disputes arose between the Second Dutch West India Company, which was founded to succeed the First Dutch West India Company that went bankrupt in 1674, and the Van Peere family. This was resolved when on 14 September 1678 a charter was signed which established Berbice as a hereditary fief of the Dutch West India Company, in the possession of the Van Peere family.
In November 1712, Berbice was briefly occupied by the French under Jacques Cassard, as part of the War of the Spanish Succession. The Van Peere family did not want to pay a ransom to the French to free the colony, and in order to not let the colony cede to the French, the brothers Nicolaas and Hendrik van Hoorn, Arnold Dix, Pieter Schuurmans, and Cornelis van Peere, paid the ransom on 24 October 1714, thereby acquiring the colony.
In 1720, the five owners of the colony founded a Society of Berbice, akin to the Society of Suriname which governed the neighbouring colony, to raise more capital for the colony. In the years following, Berbice's economic situation improved, consisting of 12 plantations owned by the society, 93 private plantation along the Berbice River, and 20 plantations along the Canje River.
In 1733, village which had sprung up around Fort Nassau was named New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam). The fort and the village were abandoned in 1785 in favour of Fort Sint Andries, situated more downstream, at the confluence of the Canje River. The new village was again named New Amsterdam, and is still known by that name in contemporary Guyana.
The relatively sound economic situation of the colony was dealt a severe blow when a slave uprising broke out under the leadership of Cuffy in February 1763. The uprising went on until well into 1764, with Cuffy naming himself governor of Berbice. Only with the use of brute force was governor Wolfert Simon van Hoogenheim able to finally suppress the uprising, and restore the colony to Dutch rule. On the 19 March 1768, Stephen Henrik de la Saboniere (10 September 1714 – 17 July 1773) took over from Johan Heijlinger as seventh Governor of the Berbice colony and remained governor until 17 July 1773 when he died at Fort Nassau on the Berbice River. A close friend and financier of Sabloniere's plantation ambitions was Jan Bantjes (wealthy privateer) and his wife Jacomina Leussen of Kampen. They were financing among other estates the early Demerara sugar plantations. In June 1770 Sabloniere received financing from Bantjes which was repaid in full 31.May 1776. Lending at a rate of 3,5% / annum. Jan Bantjes and Sabloniere were business associates developing new lands. Stephen H. Sabloniere's wife Beata Louisa Schultz also resided at Fort Nassau for a period in 1770 but could not tolerate the heat and returned to Kampen.
Capture by Britain and subsequent merging into British GuianaEdit
On 27 February 1781, British forces occupied Berbice and neighbouring Demerara and Essequibo as part of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, but in January 1782, the colonies were recaptured by the French, who were allied with the Dutch, and who subsequently restored the colonies to Dutch rule with the Treaty of Paris of 1783. The colony was on 22 April 1796 again captured by Britain, however who now remained in possession of the colony until 27 March 1802, when Berbice was restored to the Batavian Republic under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens. In September 1803 the British occupied the territory again, this time for good. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, the colony was formally ceded to the United Kingdom, and with the ratification of this treaty by the Netherlands on 20 November 1815, all Dutch legal claims to the colony were rescinded.
As part of the reforms of the newly acquired colonies on the South American mainland, the British merged Berbice with Demerara-Essequibo on 21 July 1831, forming the new crown colony of British Guiana, now Guyana.
Currently,[update] historical Berbice is part of several Guyanese administrative regions and the name is preserved in the regions of East Berbice-Corentyne, Mahaica-Berbice, and Upper Demerara-Berbice.
Commander of BerbiceEdit
- Matthijs Bergenaar (1666–1671)
- Cornelis Marinus (1671–1683)
- Gideon Bourse (1683–1684)
- Lucas Coudrie (1684–1687)
- Matthijs de Feer (1687–1712)
- Steven de Waterman (1712–1714)
- Anthony Tierens (1714–1733)
Governors of BerbiceEdit
- Bernhardt Waterman (1733–1740)
- Jan Andries Lossner (1740–1749)
- Jan Frederik Colier (1749–1755)
- Hendrik Jan van Rijswijck (1755–1759)
- Wolfert Simon van Hoogenheim (1760–1764)
- Johan Heijlinger (1764–1767)
- Stephen Hendrik de la Sabloniere (1768–1773)
- Johan Christoffel de Winter (1773–1774)
- Isaac Kaecks (1774–1777)
- Peter Hendrik Koppiers (first term) (1778–27 February 1781)
- Robert Kingston (27 February 1781 – 1782)
- Louis Antoine Dazemard de Lusignan (1782)
- Armand Guy Simon de Coëtnempren, Count of Kersaint (1782)
- Georges Manganon de la Perrière (1783–1784)
- Peter Hendrik Koppiers (second term) (1784–1789)
- Abraham Jacob van Imbijze van Batenburg (first term, acting until 1794) (1789–1796)
- J. C. W. Herlin and G. Kobus (acting) (27 March 1802–September 1803)
- Abraham Jacob van Imbijze van Batenburg (second term) (June 1804 – 1806)
Lieutenant Governor of BerbiceEdit
- Robert Nicholson (1803–1807)
- James Montgomery (1807–1809)
- William Woodly (1809–1810)
- Samuel Dalrymple (1810)
- Robert Gordon (1st time) (1810–1812)
- John Murry (1812–1813)
- Robert Gordon (2nd time) (1813)
- Grant (acting) (1813–1814)
- Henry William Bentinck (1814–1820)
- Major Alexander Thistlethwayte (acting) (1820)
- J. Cameron (acting) (1820-1821)
- Henry Beard (1821–21 July 1831)
- Hartsinck 1770, p. 293
- Beyerman 1934, p. 313
- Hartsinck 1770, pp. 294–298
- Hartsinck 1770, pp. 299–304
- Dutch National Archive - Inventaris van het archief van de Sociëteit van Berbice, (1681) 1720-1795 (1800)[permanent dead link]
- Beyerman 1934, p. 314
- Cofona.org - From a Glorious past to a Promising Future: A History of New Amsterdam Archived 2011-03-10 at the Wayback Machine
- Kars, pp. 39-69.
- Edler 2001, p. 185
- Regions of Guyana at Statoids.com. Updated 20 June 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Beyerman, J. J. (1934). "De Nederlandsche Kolonie Berbice in 1771". Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. 15 (1): 313–317.
- Edler, F. (2001) , The Dutch Republic and The American Revolution, Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific, ISBN 0-89875-269-8
- Hartsinck, J.J. (1770), Beschryving van Guiana, of de wilde kust in Zuid-America, Amsterdam: Gerrit Tielenburg
- Kars, Marjoleine (Feb 2016). "Dodging Rebellion: Politics and Gender in the Berbice Slave Uprising of 1763". American Historical Review. 121 (1): 39–69.