The caracal (Caracal caracal) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and India. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The caracal is threatened by habitat loss due to expansion of farms and human settlements as well as advancing deserts, and is often killed by humans in conflicts over livestock. Its natural habitat includes semi-deserts, open savannas, shrublands, moist woodlands and montane forests. The caracal is characterised by a robust build, long legs, a short face, long tufted ears and long canine teeth. Its coat is uniformly reddish tan or sandy, while the ventral parts are lighter with small reddish markings. It reaches 40–50 cm (16–20 in) at the shoulder and weighs 8–18 kg (18–40 lb). It was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1777. Eight subspecies are recognised.
Typically nocturnal, the caracal is highly secretive and difficult to observe. It is territorial, and lives mainly alone or in pairs. The caracal is a carnivore that typically preys upon small mammals, birds and rodents. It can leap higher than 3 m (9.8 ft) and catch birds in mid-air. It stalks its prey until it is within 5 m (16 ft) of it, after which it runs it down, the prey being killed by a bite to the throat or to the back of the neck. Breeding takes place throughout the year with both sexes becoming sexually mature by the time they are a year old. Gestation lasts between two and three months, resulting in a litter of one to six kittens. Juveniles leave their mothers at nine to ten months, though a few females stay back with their mothers. The average lifespan of the caracal in captivity is nearly 16 years.
Caracals have been tamed and used for hunting in ancient Egypt until the 20th century.
Taxonomy and etymologyEdit
The caracal is placed in the family Felidae and subfamily Felinae. The species was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber as Felis caracal in the journal Die Säugetiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen in 1776. In 1843, British zoologist John Edward Gray placed the animal in the genus Caracal. The name "caracal" is composed of two Turkish words: kara, meaning black, and kulak, meaning ear. The first recorded use of this name dates back to 1760. Alternative names for the caracal include gazelle cat, red cat, rooikat, and red or Persian lynx. The "lynx" of the Greeks and Romans was most probably the caracal and the name "lynx" is sometimes still applied to it, but the present-day lynx proper is a separate species.
Earlier, the caracal was classified under the genera Felis or Lynx. However, a 2006 phylogenetic study showed that the caracal evolved nearly a million years before the lynx appeared. The caracal is most closely related to the African golden cat (Profelis aurata, often considered a species of Caracal). These two species, together with the serval (Leptailurus serval), form one of the eight lineages of Felidae. The Caracal lineage came into existence 8.5 mya, and the ancestor of this lineage arrived in Africa 8.5–5.6 mya. It diverged from the serval probably within the last five million years, around the boundary between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene.
- North African caracal (C. c. algira) (Wagner, 1841) – Occurs in northern Africa (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia)
- Common caracal (C. c. caracal) (Schreber, 1776) – Occurs in central and southern Africa (South Africa)
- Namibian caracal (C. c. damarensis) (Roberts, 1926) – Occurs in Namibia
- Transvaal caracal (C. c. limpopoensis) (Roberts, 1926) – Occurs in Botswana and northern South Africa
- Gabon caracal (C. c. lucani) (Rochebrune, 1885) – Occurs in northern Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon and Republic of the Congo
- Nubian caracal (C. c. nubica) (J. B. Fischer, 1829) – Occurs in central Africa (Cameroon, Ethiopia, South Sudan and Sudan)
- West African caracal (C. c. poecilotis) (Thomas and Hinton, 1921) – Occurs in western and central Africa (Senegal, Nigeria, Niger and western Sudan)
- Asiatic caracal (C. c. schmitzi) (Matschie, 1912) – Occurs in Asia (Afghanistan, western India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, southwestern Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, Syria, southern Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, southwestern Uzbekistan)
The caracal is a slender, moderately sized cat characterised by a robust build, a short face, long canine teeth, tufted ears, and long legs. It reaches nearly 40–50 centimetres (16–20 in) at the shoulder; the head-and-body length is typically 78 centimetres (31 in) for males and 73 centimetres (29 in) for females. While males weigh 12–18 kilograms (26–40 lb), females weigh 8–13 kilograms (18–29 lb). The tan, bushy tail measures 26–34 centimetres (10–13 in), and extends to the hocks. The caracal is sexually dimorphic; the females are smaller than the males in most bodily parameters.
The prominent facial features include the 4.5 centimetres (1.8 in) long black tufts on the ears, two black stripes from the forehead to the nose, the black outline of the mouth, the distinctive black facial markings, and the white patches surrounding the eyes and the mouth. The eyes appear to be narrowly open due to the lowered upper eyelid, probably an adaptation to shield the eyes from the sun's glare. The ear tufts may start drooping as the animal ages. The coat is uniformly reddish tan or sandy, though black caracals are also known. The underbelly and the insides of the legs are lighter, often with small reddish markings. The fur, soft, short and dense, grows coarser in the summer. The ground hairs (the basal layer of hair covering the coat) are denser in winter than in summer. The length of the guard hairs (the hair extending above the ground hairs) can be up to 3 centimetres (1.2 in) long in winter, but shorten to 2 centimetres (0.8 in) in summer. These features indicate the onset of moulting in the hot season, typically in October and November. The hindlegs are longer than the forelegs, so that the body appears to be sloping downward from the rump.
Caracals possess distinctive black markings on their faces, and some individuals may have pronounced 'eyebrow' markings.
The caracal is often confused with the lynx, as both cats have tufted ears. However, a notable point of difference between the two is that the lynx is spotted and blotched, while the caracal shows no such markings on the coat. The African golden cat has a similar build as the caracal's, but is darker and lacks the ear tufts. The sympatric serval can be told apart from the caracal by the former's lack of ear tufts, white spots behind the ears, spotted coat, longer legs, longer tail and smaller footprints.
The skull of the caracal is high and rounded, featuring large auditory bullae, a well-developed supraoccipital crest normal to the sagittal crest, and a strong lower jaw. The caracal has a total of 30 teeth; the dental formula is 188.8.131.52. The deciduous dentition is 3.1.2. The striking canines are up to 2 centimetres (0.8 in) long, heavy and sharp; these are used to give the killing bite to the prey. The caracal lacks the second upper premolars, and the upper molars are diminutive. The large paws, similar to those of the cheetah, consist of four digits in the hindlegs and five in the forelegs. The first digit of the foreleg remains above the ground and features the dewclaw. The claws, sharp and retractable (able to be drawn in), are larger but less curved in the hindlegs.
Ecology and behaviourEdit
The caracal is typically nocturnal (active at night), though some activity may be observed during the day as well. However, the cat is so secretive and difficult to observe that its activity at daytime might easily go unnoticed. A study in South Africa showed that caracals are most active when air temperature drops below 20 °C (68 °F); activity typically ceases at higher temperatures. A solitary cat, the caracal mainly occurs alone or in pairs; the only group seen is of mothers with their offspring. Females in oestrus will temporarily pair with males. A territorial animal, the caracal marks rocks and vegetation in its territory with urine and probably with dung, which is not covered with soil. Claw scratching is prominent, and dung middens are typically not formed. In Israel, males are found to have territories averaging 220 square kilometres (85 sq mi), while that of females averaged 57 square kilometres (22 sq mi). The male territories vary from 270–1,116 square kilometres (104–431 sq mi) in Saudi Arabia. In Mountain Zebra National Park (South Africa), the female territories vary between 4 and 6.5 square kilometres (1.5 and 2.5 sq mi). These territories overlap extensively. The conspicuous ear tufts and the facial markings often serve as a method of visual communication; caracals have been observed interacting with each other by moving the head from side to side so that the tufts flicker rapidly. Like other cats, the caracal meows, growls, hisses, spits and purrs.
Diet and huntingEdit
A carnivore, the caracal typically preys upon small mammals, birds and rodents. Studies in South Africa have reported that it preys on the Cape grysbok, the common duiker, sheep, goats, bush vlei rats, rock hyraxes, hare and birds. A study in western India showed that rodents comprise a significant portion of the diet. They will feed from a variety of sources, but tend to focus on the most abundant one. Grasses and grapes are taken occasionally to clear their immune system and stomach of any parasites. Larger antelopes such as young kudu, bushbuck, impala, mountain reedbuck and springbok may also be targeted. Mammals generally comprise at least 80 percent of the diet. Lizards, snakes and insects are infrequently eaten. They are notorious for attacking livestock, but rarely attack humans.
Its speed and agility make it an efficient hunter, able to take down prey two to three times its size. The powerful hind legs allow it to leap more than 3 metres (10 ft) in the air to catch birds on the wing. It can even twist and change its direction mid-air. It is an adroit climber. It stalks its prey until it is within 5 metres (16 ft), following which it can launch into a sprint. While large prey such as antelopes are killed by a throat bite, smaller prey are suffocated by a bite on the back of the neck. Kills are consumed immediately, and less commonly dragged to cover. It will return to large kills if undisturbed. It has been observed to begin feeding on antelope kills at the hind parts. It may scavenge at times, though this has not been frequently observed. It often has to compete with foxes, wolves, leopards and hyaena for prey.
Both sexes become sexually mature by the time they are a year old; production of gametes begins even earlier at seven to ten months. However, successful mating takes place only at 12 to 15 months. Breeding takes place throughout the year. Oestrus, one to three days long, recurs every two weeks unless the female is pregnant. Females in oestrus show a spike in urine-marking, and form temporary pairs with males. Mating has not been extensively studied; limited number of observations suggest that copulation, that lasts nearly four minutes on an average, begins with the male smelling the areas urine-marked by the female, who rolls on the ground. Following this he approaches and mounts the female. The pair separate after copulation.
Gestation lasts nearly two to three months, following which a litter consisting of one to six kittens is born. Births generally peak from October to February. Births take place in dense vegetation or deserted burrows of aardvark and porcupines. Kittens are born with their eyes and ears shut and the claws non-retractable (unable to be drawn inside); the coat resembles that of adults, but the abdomen is spotted. Eyes open by ten days, but it takes longer for the vision to become normal. The ears become erect and the claws become retractable by the third or the fourth week. Around the same time the kittens start roaming their birthplace, and start playing among themselves by the fifth or the sixth week. They begin taking solid food around the same time; they have to wait for nearly three months before they make their first kill. As the kittens start moving about by themselves, the mother starts shifting them everyday. All the milk teeth appear in 50 days, and permanent dentition is completed in 10 months. Juveniles begin dispersing at nine to ten months, though a few females stay back with their mothers. The average lifespan of the caracal in captivity is nearly 16 years.
Distribution and habitatEdit
The caracal inhabits forests, savannas, marshy lowlands, semi-deserts and scrub forests. Dry areas with low rainfall and availability of cover are preferred. In montane habitats such as the Ethiopian Highlands, they occur at altitudes as high as 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) above the sea level. The caracal is widespread across the African continent, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. Although the Sahara Desert and the equatorial forests do not figure in its distribution, the caracal occurs in the Saharan ranges of Atlas, Hoggar and Tassili to the northwest and the Aïr to the west. The range has diminished considerably in northern and western Africa.
Threats and conservationEdit
The caracal is categorised as Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN); African populations are listed under CITES Appendix II while Asian populations come under CITES Appendix I. In central, west, north and northeast Africa and Asia, the major threat to the survival of the caracal is habitat loss due to agricultural expansion and desertification. Caracal are often killed in retaliation for preying on small livestock. A 1989 survey revealed that the caracal was responsible for the elimination of nearly 5.3 livestock per 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) per year in the erstwhile Cape Province, South Africa. During 1931–52, the number of caracals killed averaged 2,219 per year in the Karoo. Some tribes kill it for its meat. As of 1996, hunting of caracals is prohibited in Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. However, Namibia and South Africa recognise it as a "problem animal" (vermin) and allow its hunting to protect livestock. Caracals occur in a number of protected areas across their range.
The caracal appears to have been religiously significant in the ancient Egyptian culture. It occurs in paintings and as bronze figurines; sculptures were believed to guard the tombs of pharaohs. Embalmed caracals have also been discovered. Caracal ear tufts have been elaborately depicted in some tombs, and referred to as umm risha't ("mother of feathers").
Chinese emperors used caracals as gifts. In the 13th and the 14th centuries, Yuan dynasty rulers bought numerous caracals, cheetahs and tigers from Muslim merchants in the western parts of the empire in return for gold, silver, cash and silk. According to the Ming Shilu, the subsequent Ming dynasty continued this practice. Until as recently as the 20th century, the caracal was used in hunts by Indian rulers to hunt small game, while the cheetah was used for larger game. In those times, caracals would be exposed to a flock of pigeons and people would bet on which caracal would kill the largest number of pigeons. This probably gave rise to the expression "to put the cat among the pigeons". The coat of the caracal is used in making fur coats, while its skin does not have much economic significance.
- Avgan, B.; Henschel, P.; Ghoddousi, A. (2016). "Caracal caracal". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
- Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 533. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- "Caracal". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- EB (1911), p. 297.
- EB (1878), p. 81.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. XXV, 1889, p. 81.
- EB (1878), p. 80.
- Johnson, W. E. (2006). "The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–7. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
- Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W.E.; O'Brien, S.J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)" (PDF). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: 59–82.
- Johnson, WE; O'Brien, SJ (1997). "Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44 Suppl. 1: S98–116. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018.
- Gittleman, J., ed. (1989). Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. New York: Cornell University Press.
- "Caracal caracal". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- Nowak, R.M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.). Baltimore, Maryland, US: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 810–1. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8.
- Estes, R.D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4th ed.). Berkeley, California, US: University of California Press. pp. 363–5. ISBN 978-0520-080-850.
- Sunquist, F.; Sunquist, M. (2002). Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 38–43. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.
- Kingdon, J. (1997). The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals (2nd ed.). London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 174–9. ISBN 978-1472-912-367.
- Skinner, J.D.; Chimimba, C.T. (2006). The Mammals of the Southern African Sub-region (3rd (revised) ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 397–400. ISBN 978-1107-394-056.
- Liebenberg, Louis (1990). A Field Guide to the Animal Tracks of Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: D. Philip. pp. 257–8. ISBN 978-0864-861-320.
- Heptner, V.G. (1992). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. pp. 499–524. ISBN 978-9004-088-764.
- Avenant, N.L.; Nel, J.A.J. (1998). "Home-range use, activity, and density of caracal in relation to prey density". African Journal of Ecology. 36 (4): 347–59. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2028.1998.00152.x.
- Stuart, C.T.; Hickman, G.C. (1991). "Prey of caracal (Felis caracal) in two areas of Cape Province, South Africa". Journal of African Zoology. 105 (5): 373–81.
- Palmer, R.; Fairall, N. (1988). "Caracal and African wild cat diet in the Karoo National Park and the implications thereof for hyrax" (PDF). S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res./S.-Afr. Tydskr. Natuurnav. 18 (1): 30–4.
- Grobler, J.H. (1981). "Feeding behaviour of the caracal Felis caracal (Schreber 1776) in the Mountain Zebra National Park". South African Journal of Zoology. 16 (4): 259–62. doi:10.1080/02541858.1981.11447764.
- Mukherjee, S.; Goyal, S.P.; Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Pitman, M.R.P.L. (2004). "The importance of rodents in the diet of jungle cat (Felis chaus), caracal (Caracal caracal) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 262 (4): 405–11. doi:10.1017/S0952836903004783.
- Avenant, N.L.; Nel, J.A.J. (2002). "Among habitat variation in prey availability and use by caracal Felis caracal". Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 67 (1): 18–33. doi:10.1078/1616-5047-00002.
- Bothma, J.D.P. (1965). "Random observations on the food habits of certain Carnivora (Mammalia) in southern Africa". Fauna and Flora. 16: 16–22.
- Kohn, T.A.; Burroughs, R.; Hartman, M.J.; Noakes, T.D. (2011). "Fiber type and metabolic characteristics of lion (Panthera leo), caracal (Caracal caracal) and human skeletal muscle". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 159 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.02.006. PMID 21320626.
- Sunquist, F.; Sunquist, M. (2014). The Wild Cat Book: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Cats. Chicago, US: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 87–91. ISBN 978-0226-780-269.
- Bernard, R.T.F.; Stuart, C.T. (1986). "Reproduction of the caracal Felis caracal from the Cape Province of South Africa" (PDF). South African Journal of Zoology. 22 (3): 177–82. doi:10.1080/02541858.1987.11448043.
- Heptner, V.G., ed. (1992). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands: Brill. p. 526. ISBN 978-9004-088-764.
- Mair, V.H. (2006). Contact and exchange in the ancient world. Hawai'i, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 116–23. ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4.