Open main menu
Schoolgirls in Abbotabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in shalwars with cuffed hems, and kameez with western-style collars.
Boys in Badakshan, Afghanistan, in kameez with high splits.[1]
Women in the kitchen at Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar, India, displaying the wide-ranging colors and designs of shalwar-kameez

Shalwar kameez,[2][3] (sometimes spelled salwar kameez[4] or shalwar qameez)[5][6] also known as the shalwar kurta (whose alternate spellings include salwar kurta[7] and salvar kurta),[8][9][10] is a traditional dress worn by women, and also by men, in South Asia,[4][11] as well as Central Asia.[12][13]

Shalwars are loose pajama-like trousers. The legs are wide at the top, and narrower at the bottom. They are pleated at the waist and held up by a drawstring or an elastic belt.[4] The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be cut quite narrow, on the bias. In the latter case, they are known as churidar. The kameez and kurta are long shirts or tunics.[14][15] The kameez usually has a collar, while the kurta normally does not.[16][14][17] The side seams (known as the chaak) are left open below the waist-line, which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. The kameez is usually cut straight and flat; older kameez use traditional cuts; modern kameez are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves.

When women wear the shalwar-kameez, they usually wear a long scarf or shawl called a dupatta around the head or neck.[18][19] The dupatta is used to display modesty: for Muslim women, the dupatta is a less stringent alternative to the chador or burqa (see hijab and purdah); for Sikh and Hindu women, the dupatta is useful when the head must be covered, as in a temple or the presence of elders.[20] Everywhere in South Asia, modern versions of the attire have evolved, the shalwars are worn lower down on the waist, the kameez have shorter length, with higher splits, lower necklines and backlines, and with cropped sleeves or without sleeves.[21]

The shalwar and kameez were introduced into South Asia after the Muslim conquests of the 13th century: at first worn by Muslim women, their use gradually spread, making them a regional style of northern India,[22][23] especially the Punjab.[24] The salwar-kameez is a widely-worn-,[25][26] and national dress, [27] of Pakistan. It is also widely worn by men in Afghanistan,[28] and by women, and some men, in the Punjab region of India, from which it has been adopted by women throughout India,[29] and more generally in South Asia.[14]

Contents

Etymology and historyEdit

The kameez or kurta are traditionally worn with the shalwar.[10]

Originally qamis (Arabic: قميص‎, translit. qamīṣ, possibly from Latin, see chemise),[30] the kameez (Persian: قمیض‎, Urdu: قمیض‎, Hindi: कमीज़), known in Bengali as kamij (Bengali: কামিজ) and in Sylheti as kamiz is a tunic of varying length. Garments cut like the kameez can be found in many cultures. According to Dorothy K. Burnham, of the Royal Ontario Museum, the "seamless shirt," woven in one piece on warp-weighted looms, was superseded in early Roman times by cloth woven on vertical looms and carefully pieced so as not to waste any cloth. 10th-century cotton shirts recovered from the Egyptian desert are cut much like the kameez or the contemporary Egyptian djellaba or jellabiya.[31]

Men often wear a vest over their qameez known as a sadri (also called a waskat or bandi).[32][33]

DescriptionEdit

The shalwar are loose pajama-like trousers. The legs are wide at the top, and narrow at the ankle. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic, often seen with a Western-style collar; however, for female apparel, the term is now loosely applied to collarless or mandarin-collared kurtas. The kameez might be worn with pajamas as well, either for fashion or comfort. Some kameez styles have side seams (known as the chaak), left open below the waist-line, giving the wearer greater freedom of movement.[34]

StylesEdit

The kameez can be sewn straight and flat, in an "A" shape design[35] or flowing like a dress; there are a variety of styles. Modern kameez styles are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves. If the tailor's taste or skill is displayed, this will be seen in the shape of the neckline and the decoration of the kameez. The kameez may be cut with a deep neckline, sewn in diaphanous fabrics, or styled in cap-sleeve or sleeveless designs.

There are many styles of shalwar: the Peshawari shalwar, Balochi shalwar, Sindhi choreno and Punjabi shalwar.

Although various regions of the Indian subcontinent wear the outfit in its various forms, the outfit was originally only popular on a wide scale in Afghanistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan[36] and the Punjab region of Indian subcontinent.[37][38][39] However, the shalwar kameez has now become popular across the Indian subcontinent.[40]

Different formsEdit

The following are some of the styles of shalwar kameez.

Anarkali suitEdit

The shalwar kameez known as the Anarkali suit is named after the court dancer from Lahore.[41] This suit has a timeless style which has become very popular. It is made up of a long, frock-style top and features a slim fitted bottom. This style of suit links the Indian subcontinent with the women's firaq partug (frock and shalwar) of northwestern Pakistan and Afghanistan and to the traditional women's clothing of parts of Central Asia.[42] It also links to the Punjab region, where the Anarkali suit is similar to the anga[43][44] and the Peshwaz worn in Jammu.[45]

Afghanistan suitsEdit

The styles of shalwar kameez worn in Afghanistan include the khet partug,[46] perahan tunban and Firaq partug.[47] The shalwar tends to be loose and rests above the ankles.[48]

Pashtun suitsEdit

As a chiefly rural and nomadic population, the Pashtun dress is typically made from light linens, and the garments are loose fitting for ease of movement. The Pashtun dress includes local forms of the shalwar kameez, which are differently made for males and females.

The traditional male dress includes the khet partug and perahan wa tunban. Males usually wear a kufi, Peshawari cap, turban, sindhi cap or pakul as traditional headgear.

The traditional female dress is the firaq partūg. Women typically wear solid-coloured trousers, a long kamīs shirt with a belt. Sometimes they wear an encompassing burqa over this outfit or a tsādar on their head.[49]

Peshawari shalwar suitEdit

The traditional dress of Peshawar and other parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, is the khalqa (gown) which opens at the front,[50] or shirt which does not open at the front,[51] and the Peshawari shalwar which is very loose down to the ankles.[52] The Peshawari shalwar can be used with a number of upper garments and is part of the clothing of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[53]

Balochi suitsEdit

Men's Balochi suitEdit

The clothing of Balochistan, Pakistan includes the shalwar kameez which when worn by males consists of a very baggy shalwar[54] using large lengths of cloth.[55] The kameez is also loose,[56] and traditionally is long, with long sleeves.[57] The Balochi shalwar kameez is similar to the styles worn in Afghanistan. The present Balochi shalwar kameez replaced the earlier version which consisted of a robe to the ankles and a shalwar using cloth of up to 40 yards.

Women's Balochi suitEdit

The female Balochi suit consists of the head scarf, long dress and a shalwar.

Phiran, poots and shalwarEdit

In Kashmir, the outfit consists of the phiran, poots and shalwar.[58]

Punjabi suitsEdit

The traditional shalwar kameez worn in the Punjab region is cut differently to the styles worn in Balochistan and Afghanistan and is known as a "Punjabi suit"[59][60] with the kameez being cut straight and flat with side slits[61] (which is a local development as earlier forms of kameez did not have side slits).[62] The shalwar is wide at the top but fits closely to the legs and is gathered at the ankles.[63] The Punjabi shalwar is also cut straight and gathered at the ankles with a loose band reinforced with coarse material. In rural Punjab, the shalwar is still called the suthan, which is a different garment that was popular in previous centuries,[64] alongside the churidar and kameez combination (which is still popular).[65] In Britain,[66][67] British Asian women from the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent have brought the dress to the mainstream, and even high-fashion,[68] appeal.[69] The Punjabi suit is popular in other regions of the Indian subcontinent,[70][71][72] such as Mumbai and Sindh.[73] The popularity of Punjabi suits in India was extentuated during the 1960s through Hindi cinema.[74] Punjabi suits are also popular among young women in Bangladesh[75] and are especially popular amongst school girls in India.[76] The outfit is also popular in Afghanistan,[77] where it is called the Punjabi.[78][79][80]

Patiala salwarEdit

The modern Punjabi shalwar kameez is the Patiala salwar which has many folds and originates in the city of Patiala.

Pothohari suitEdit

Another style of the Punjabi suit is the use of the shalwar which hails from the Pothohar region of Punjab, Pakistan and is known as the Pothohari shalwar.[65] The Pothohari shalwar retains the wideness of the older Punjabi suthan and also has some folds. The kameez is also wide. The head scarf is traditionally large,[81] similar to the chador or phulkari that was used throughout the plains of the Punjab region.[65]

Saraiki shalwar suitsEdit

Saraiki shalwar suits are Punjabi outfits which include the Bahawalpuri shalwar suit and the Multani shalwar suit.

Bahawalpuri shalwar suitEdit

The Bahawalpuri shalwar[82] originates from the Bahawalpur region of Punjab, Pakistan. The Bahawalpuri shalwar is very wide and baggy[83] with many voluminous folds.[84] The material traditionally used for the Bahawalpuri shalwar and suthan is known as Sufi which is a mixture of cotton warp mixed with silk weft and gold threads running down the material.[85] The other name for these types of mixed cloth is shuja khani.[86] The Bahawalpuri shalwar is worn with the Bahawalpur style kameez, the Punjabi kurta or chola.[87]

Multani shalwar suitEdit

The Multani shalwar, also known as the 'ghaire wali' or 'Saraiki ghaire wali' shalwar as it is very wide around the waist, originates from the Multan area of the Punjab region. The style is similar to the Sindhi kancha shalwar as both are derivatives of the pantaloon shalwar worn in Iraq[89] and adopted in these locations during the 7th century A.D.[90][91][92] The Multani shalwar is very wide, baggy,[93] and full, and has folds like the Punjabi suthan.[94] The upper garments include the Punjabi kameez and the chola of the Punjab region.[95]

Suthan and kurta suitEdit

An older variety of shalwar kameez of the Punjab region is the Punjabi suthan[96] and kurta suit. The Punjabi suthan is a local variation of the ancient svasthana tight fitting trousers which have been used in the Punjab region since the ancient period[97][98] and were worn with the tunic called varbana[99] which was tight fitting.

The Punjabi suthan is arranged in plaits and uses large amounts of material (traditionally coloured cotton with vertical silk lines, called sussi)[100] of up to 20 yards hanging in many folds.[101] The suthan ends at the ankles with a tight band[102][103] which distinguishes the suthan from a shalwar.[65] The modern equivalent of the loose Punjabi suthan are the cowl pants and dhoti shalwars which have many folds.

Some versions of the Punjabi suthan tighten from the knees down to the ankles (a remnant of the svasthana). If a tight band is not used, the ends of the suthan fit closely around the ankles. The Jodhpuri breeches devised during the 1870s by Sir Pratap Singh of Jodhpur[104] offer a striking slim line resemblance to the centuries-old tight Punjabi suthan, although the churidar is cited as its source.[105][106] The tight pantaloon style suthan was popular with the Indian Cavalry during the 19th and early 20th centurie; they were dyed in Multani mutti or mitti (clay/fuller's earth), which gave the garments a yellow colour.[107]

The kurta is a remnant of the 11th century female kurtaka which was a shirt extending to the middle of the body with side slits[108] worn in parts of north India[109] which has remained a traditional garment for women in Punjab,[110] albeit longer than the kurtaka. The suthan was traditionally worn with a long kurta but can also be worn with a short kurti or frocks. Modern versions of the kurta can be knee length. The head scarf is also traditionally long but again, modern versions are shorter.

Dogri kurta and suthanEdit

The outfit in Jammu is the Dogri kurta and suthan.[111] When the tight part of the suthan, up to the knees, has multiple close fitting folds, the suthan is referred to as Dogri pants[112] or suthan, in Jammu, and churidar suthan in the Punjab region[113] and Himachal Pradesh.

Sindhi suitsEdit

Sindhi kancha shalwar suitEdit

The traditional Sindhi shalwar,[115] also called kancha,[116] are wide pantaloons[117] which are wide down the legs and are also wide at the ankles.[116] The Sindhi shalwar is plaited at the waist.[118] The kancha shalwar is traditionally worn with either the Sindhi cholo (blouse) by women, or a knee length robe which flares out, by men.

Sindhi suthan suitsEdit

The other styles of shalwar kameez are female Sindhi suthan and cholo and male Sindhi suthan and angelo.[119]

Related outfits from the Indian subcontinentEdit

Gujarati kediyu and chorno suitEdit

The men in the rural coastal parts of western Gujarat, including Junagadh district, wear the kediyu and chorno outfit.[120] The kediyu is a long sleeved upper garment, pleated at the chest, which reaches to the waist.[121][122] The prints on the kediyu include bandhani designs which are local to Gujarat and Rajasthan.[123] The chorno, also called kafni, refers to the pantaloons which are wide[117] and tied loosely at the ankles, and is based on the styles worn in Iraq which were introduced to the coastal region during the 7th century[124] by traders.[125] The chorno/surwal can also be worn with a jama.

Nepali daura suruwal suitEdit

In Nepal, the traditional male dress, which is also the national dress, is the Nepali shirt called daura[126] and suruwal (Nepali: दौरा सुरूवाल)[127] or daura-suruwal suit. The upper garment is the long Nepali shirt, which is similar to the Guajarati kediyu, but does not have the pleats going across the chest, but has cross-tied flaps.[128] The daura is a modification of the upper garments worn in Rajasthan.[129]

The Nepali suruwa/suruwal is a combination of the churidar[130][131] and the lower garment worn in the coastal regions of Gujarat, especially Saurashtra and Kutch where the garment is also called suruwal[37] (and chorno/kafni). It is tight along the legs but wide at the hips.[132] However, the suruwa fits comfortably around the legs so that it can be tapered tightly around the ankles.[133]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Derailing Democracy in Afghanistan: Elections in an Unstable Political Landscape, Columbia University Press, 2013, p. 178, ISBN 978-0-231-53574-8 Quote: "For example, many politicians will wear suits while in Kabul, but change into shalwar kemeez, a traditional costume of loose pants and a tunic, when returning to their home provinces to emphasize their local connections."
  2. ^ "shalwar (n)", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, retrieved 15 April 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "(Etymology: < Urdu šalwār, Hindi salvār, < Persian šalwār) Loose trousers worn by both sexes in some South Asian countries, esp. those worn by women together with a kameez. Examples: 1955 R. P. Jhabvala To whom she Will xv. 102 She was very fine now in a pink silk kamiz with blue roses on it and a pink salwar. 1957 Geogr. Mag. Aug. 198/1 A sophisticated taste will prefer the fashions of Paris and Bombay to the unbecoming qamis and shalwar of the North. 1972 H. R. F. Keating Inspector Ghote trusts Heart iii. 34 She was wearing not a sari but a bright, cherry-red kameez and salwar ".
  3. ^ "kameez (n)", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, retrieved 15 April 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "(kameez(n): In S. Asian countries, a long shirt or blouse. Examples: 1955 R. P. Jhabvala To whom she Will xv. 102 She was very fine now in a pink silk kamiz with blue roses on it and a pink salwar. 1972 ‘E. Peters’ Death to Landlords! i. 21 She had taken to the shalwar and kameez of the Punjabi women. ".
  4. ^ a b c Stevenson, Angus; Waite, Maurice (2011), Concise Oxford English Dictionary: Book & CD-ROM Set, Oxford University Press, pp. 1272–, ISBN 978-0-19-960110-3 Quote: "Salwar/Shalwar: A pair of light, loose, pleated trousers, usually tapering to a tight fit around the ankles, worn by women from South Asia typically with a kameez (the two together being a salwar kameez). Origin From Persian and Urdu šalwār."
  5. ^ Donnan, Hastings (1991), Economy and Culture in Pakistan: Migrants and Cities in a Muslim Society, Palgrave Macmillan UK, p. 149, ISBN 978-1-349-11401-6 Quote: "... wearing shalwar qameez, Pakistan's national dress of baggy trousers and loose knee-length shirt."
  6. ^ Lewis-Beck, Michael; Bryman, Alan E; Liao, Tim Futing (2003), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, SAGE Publications, p. 188, ISBN 978-1-4522-6145-4 Quote: "Shalwar qameez (Pakistani clothes)"
  7. ^ Monisha Kumar; Amita Walia (2017). "Persian and Indian women's costume- A comparative study" (PDF). International Journal of Applied Home Science. 4: 221. ISSN 2394-1413. In the pursuit of being modern, the Arab countries have lost their traditional costumes whereas in India these costumes – Salwar Kurta/Kameez has become an integral part of their traditional costume. The costumes which once belonged to them now belong to the Indian subcontinent.
  8. ^ Neve, Geert de; Donner, Henrike (2007). The Meaning of the Local: Politics of Place in Urban India. CRC Press. ISBN 9781135392161. Those from more affluent homes did their best to keep up with the ever-changing salvar-kurta fashions, and clothes that had gone out of fashion were first downgraded to 'inside' clothes and thereafter handed down to servants.
  9. ^ Kabir, Nahid Afrose (1 December 2008). "To be or not to be an Australian: Focus on Muslim youth". National Identities. 10 (4): 399–419. doi:10.1080/14608940802518997. ISSN 1460-8944. Muslims in their Islamic attire, such as women who wear hijabs (headscarves), chador or abaya (loose clothing), and bearded men in their traditional shalwar-kurta (trouser-shirt), jilbab (loose clothing) and topi (cap), have often been verbally and physically abused and called ‘terrorists’.
  10. ^ a b Abbas, Saleem (2018). "Conventional Female Images, Islamization and its Outcomes: A study of Pakistani TV Dramas" (PDF). Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies. 8 (2): 26. This sub-category shows if a character appears in a lose fit Pakistani dress like Shalwar qamiz or Shalwar kurta with full sleeves and scarf /shawl or head covering.
  11. ^ "shalwar-kameez", Longman's Dictionary of Contemporary English Quote: "loose trousers which are narrow at the bottom and a long loose shirt, worn by some South Asian women and, in some countries, men."
  12. ^ Anesa, Patrizia (2018), Lexical Innovation in World Englishes: Cross-fertilization and Evolving Paradigms, Taylor & Francis, p. 178, ISBN 978-1-351-10933-8 Quote: "Other compounds are, for instance, ... salwar-kameez. ... It may also be described as an internationalism given its origin (Urdu). This word-formation process is based on the combination of two elements which are two garments (baggy pants and a tunic or shirt) and constitute an outfit typical of South and Central Asia."
  13. ^ Farrar, Max; Valli, Yasmin (2012), Islam in the West: Key Issues in Multiculturalism, Palgrave Macmillan UK, p. 101, ISBN 978-1-137-02506-7 Quote: "A 'Shalwar Kameez' is a form of dress worn by both men and women in South and Central Asia, combining a long shirt worn over loose fitting tapered trousers."
  14. ^ a b c Condra, Jill (2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing around the World. ABC-CLIO. p. 570. ISBN 9780313376375. Today, throughout India and especially in the northern regions and in larger cities such as Delhi, the shalwar kameez is worn frequently by Muslims and non-Muslims alike; the style for women has been widely adopted as an alernative to the sari and to Western clothing, particularly by college-age and unmarried young women. ... The kurta for men is similar in form and style to the shalwar kameez. The kurta, or tunic-length shirt, is collarless or has a mandarin- or Nehru style collar.
  15. ^ Stevenson, Angus; Waite, Maurice (2011), Concise Oxford English Dictionary: Book & CD-ROM Set, Oxford University Press, p. 774, ISBN 978-0-19-960110-3 Quote: "Kameez: A long tunic worn by many people from South Asia, typically with a salwar or churidars. Origin: From Arabic qamīṣ, perhaps from late Latin camisia (see chemise)".
  16. ^ Michael, Magali Cornier (2018). Twenty-First-Century British Fiction and the City. Springer. p. 57. ISBN 9783319897288. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic, often with a western-style collar” (“Shalwar kameez”).
  17. ^ Stevenson, Angus; Waite, Maurice (2011), Concise Oxford English Dictionary: Book & CD-ROM Set, Oxford University Press, p. 792, ISBN 978-0-19-960110-3 Quote: "A loose collarless shirt worn by people from South Asia. Origin: From Urdu and Persian kurtah."
  18. ^ Farrar, Max; Valli, Yasmin (2012), Islam in the West: Key Issues in Multiculturalism, Palgrave Macmillan UK, p. 101, ISBN 978-1-137-02506-7 Quote: "The women's form of Shalwar Kameez is usually accompanied by a scarf or `dupatta' which can be worn around the neck, covering the chest area for 'modesty' or over the hair as a head covering."
  19. ^ Ozyegin, Gul (2016), Gender and Sexuality in Muslim Cultures, Routledge, pp. 222–, ISBN 978-1-317-13051-2 Quote: "a dupatta is a long, wide piece of cloth measuring approximately 2-2.5 meters long and 1 meter wide."
  20. ^ Shukla, Pravina (2015). The Grace of Four Moons: Dress, Adornment, and the Art of the Body in Modern India. Indiana University Press. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-253-02121-2. Quote: "Muslim and Punjabi women—whether Muslim, Sikh, or Hindu—often wear the dupatta over the head to create a modest look while framing the face with color. When entering a temple, Hindu women might comparably use their dupattas to cover their heads. Though the dupatta is often made of flimsy cloth and does not actually cover the body, its presence implies modesty, like many of the outer garments worn by Muslim women that do not cover much but do provide a symbolic extra layer, ..."
  21. ^ Koerner, Stephanie (2016), Unquiet Pasts: Risk Society, Lived Cultural Heritage, Re-designing Reflexivity, Taylor & Francis, pp. 405–, ISBN 978-1-351-87667-4 Quote: "The Pakistani National dress worn by women is Shalwar Kameez. This consists of a long tunic (Kameez) teamed with a wide legged trouser (Shalwar) that skims in at the bottom accompanied by a duppata, which is a less stringent alternative to the burqa. Modern versions of this National dress have evolved into less modest versions. Shalwar have become more low cut so that the hips are visible and are worn with a shorter length of Kameez which has high splits and may have a lowcut neckline and backline as well as being sleeveless or having cropped sleeves. "
  22. ^ Tarlo, Emma (1996), Clothing Matters: Dress and Identity in India, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, p. 28, ISBN 978-0-226-78976-7 Quote: "The comparatively limited range of stitched clothes available in pre-medieval India was, however, greatly expanded during the Sultanate and Moghul periods when various types of trousers, robes and tunics gained in popularity (Chaudhuri 1976: 51). ... Muslim women generally wore a veil (dupata), a long tunic (kamiz) with trousers (shalwar) or the wide flared skirt-like trouser (gharara). Following the Muslim conquest of northern India, many Hindu women gradually adopted such dress, eventually making it the regional style for parts of Northern India. (page 28)"
  23. ^ Tarlo, Emma (1996), Clothing Matters: Dress and Identity in India, University of Chicago Press, p. 133, ISBN 978-0-226-78976-7 Quote: "The shalwar kamiz, though introduced to India by Muslims, has been worn for centuries by both Hindus and Muslims in parts of northern India (see chapter 2). It has recently become the acceptable garb of female college students of all religions throughout the subcontinent. However, once married, Hindu women often revert to saris unless they either live in the far northern states or belong to a cosmopolitan urban elite. In most rural areas, the shalwar kamiz has retained its Islamic associations more strongly than in cities and is worn only by the educated few."
  24. ^ Fraile, Sandra Santos (11 July 2013), "Sikhs in Barcelona", in Blanes, Ruy; Mapril, José, Sites and Politics of Religious Diversity in Southern Europe: The Best of All Gods, BRILL, pp. 263–, ISBN 978-90-04-25524-1 Quote: "The shalwar kamiz was worn traditionally by Muslim women and gradually adopted by many Hindu women following the Muslim conquest of northern India. Eventually, it became the regional style for parts of northern India, as in Punjab where it has been worn for centuries. (page 263)"
  25. ^ Marsden, Magnus (2005), Living Islam: Muslim Religious Experience in Pakistan's North-West Frontier, Cambridge University Press, pp. 37–, ISBN 978-1-139-44837-6 Quote: "The village's men and boys largely dress in sombre colours in the loose trousers and long shirt (shalwar kameez) worn across Pakistan. Older men often wear woollen Chitrali caps (pakol), waistcoats and long coats (chugha), made by Chitrali tailors (darzi) who skills are renowned across Pakistan."
  26. ^ Haines, Chad (2013), Nation, Territory, and Globalization in Pakistan: Traversing the Margins, Routledge, pp. 162–, ISBN 978-1-136-44997-0 Quote: "the shalwar kameez happens to be worn by just about everyone in Pakistan, including in all of Gilgit-Baltistan."
  27. ^ Ozyegin, Gul (2016), Gender and Sexuality in Muslim Cultures, Routledge, pp. 222–, ISBN 978-1-317-13051-2 Quote: "What is common in all the cases is the wearing of shalwar, kameez, and dupatta, the national dress of Pakistan."
  28. ^ Johnson, Thomas H. (2018). Taliban Narratives: The Use and Power of Stories in the Afghanistan Conflict. Oxford University Press. pp. 249–. ISBN 978-0-19-091167-6. Quote: "The leaflet shows an Afghan maile dressed in usual attire—a shalwar kameez and woolen hat, or pakol."
  29. ^ Khandelwal, Madhulika Shankar (2002), Becoming American, Being Indian: An Immigrant Community in New York City, Cornell University Press, pp. 43–, ISBN 0-8014-8807-9 Quote: "Even highly educated women pursuing careers continue to wear traditional dress in urban India, although men of similar status long ago adopted Western attire. The forms of dress most popular with urban Indian women are the sari, the long wrapped and draped dress-like garment, worn throughout India, and the salwar-kameez or kurta-pyjama, a two-piece suit garment, sometimes also called Punjabi because of its region of origin. Whereas the sari can be considered the national dress of Indian women, the salwar-kameez, though originally from the north, has been adopted all over India as more comfortable attire than the sari.
  30. ^ "kameez". Oxford Dictionary. Origin: From Arabic qamīṣ, perhaps from late Latin camisia (see chemise)
  31. ^ Burnham, Dorothy 1973. Cut My Cote, Royal Ontario Museum. p. 10.
  32. ^ Illustrated Weekly of Pakistan, Volume 19, Issues 12-25. Pakistan Herald Publications. 1967. p. 17. Picture shows the ruler in a 'sadri' — a half- sleeved vest worn in winter.
  33. ^ Condra, Jill (9 April 2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World. ABC-CLIO. p. 347. ISBN 9780313376375. Most Baluch men wear the kameez or long shirt, worn with simple drawstring trousers (shalwar). In addition, during colder weather other garments are added including a waistcoat (sadri) and an overcoat (kaba).
  34. ^ Unquiet Pasts: Risk Society, Lived Cultural Heritage, Re-Designing Reflexivity - Stephanie Koerner, Ian Russell - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
  35. ^ Padmavati, B (2009) Techniques Of Drafting And Pattern Making Garments For Kids And Adolescents [1]
  36. ^ Jānmahmad (1 January 1982). "The Baloch cultural heritage". Royal Book Co. – via Google Books.
  37. ^ a b Condra, Jill (2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World. [2]
  38. ^ "Social Science a Textbook in History for Class IX as per New Syllabus". FK Publications – via Google Books.
  39. ^ Sumathi, G. J. (1 January 2007). "Elements of Fashion and Apparel Design". New Age International – via Google Books.
  40. ^ Rutnagur, Sorabji. M (1996) The Indian Textile Journal, Volume 106, Issues 9-12 [3]
  41. ^ Condra, Jill (2013) Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World [4]
  42. ^ Condra, Jill (2013) Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World [5]
  43. ^ B. N. Goswamy, Kalyan Krishna, Tarla P. Dundh (1993) Indian Costumes in the Collection of the Calico Museum of Textiles, Volume 5 [6]
  44. ^ Punjab District Gazetteers - District Attock Year Published 1930 BK-000211-0160 [7]
  45. ^ Kumar, Raj (2006) Paintings and Lifestyles of Jammu Region: From 17th to 19th Century A.D.[8]
  46. ^ R. T. I. (Richard Thomas Incledon) Ridgway (1997) Pashtoons: History, Culture & Traditions [9]
  47. ^ University, Brigham Young; Learning, ProQuest Information and; Company, ProQuest Information and Learning (1 August 2004). "CultureGrams". ProQuest Information and Learning Co. – via Google Books.
  48. ^ Ganda Singh . Afghanistan Da Safar [10]
  49. ^ "Pashtun - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage".
  50. ^ North-West Frontier Province (Pakistan). Information Dept Yearbook (1955) [11]
  51. ^ Peshawar, University of (1 January 1952). "Journal of the University of Peshawar" – via Google Books.
  52. ^ Captain Hastings, E. G. G. (1878) Report of the regular settlement of the peshawar district of the punjab [12]
  53. ^ Masood, Haya (7 August 2009). "Salwar Kameez". Haya Creations. History and Variations. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  54. ^ Postans, Thomas (1843) Personal Observations on Sindh: The Manners and Customs of Its Inhabitants; and Its Productive Capabilities [13]
  55. ^ "Balochi dress – Male". 12 March 2013.
  56. ^ Nadiem, Ihsan. H. (2007) Balochistan: land, history, people
  57. ^ DostPakistan.pk [14] but now can also be knee length.
  58. ^ Malik, S. And Sahgal. "Gettingahead In Social Studies:". Orient Blackswan – via Google Books.
  59. ^ Irani, Tannaaz (10 December 2014). "THE ARMCHAIR CRITIC: Chafes and Chuckles". Cresco Books – via Google Books.
  60. ^ Marwaha, Pritpal (2012) Shakahaari: The Vegetarian Gourmet Fine, Authentic Indian Vegetarian Cuisine [15]
  61. ^ Cooke, David Coxe (1 January 1967). "Dera, a village in India". W.W. Norton – via Google Books.
  62. ^ Madani, Mohsen Saeidi (1 January 1993). "Impact of Hindu Culture on Muslims". M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. – via Google Books.
  63. ^ Kumar, Raj (2006) Paintings and Lifestyles of Jammu Region: From 17th to 19th Century A.D [16]
  64. ^ Panjab University Research Bulletin: Arts, Volume 13, Issue 1 - Volume 14, Issue (1982) [17]
  65. ^ a b c d Mohinder Singh Randhawa. (1960) Punjab: Itihas, Kala, Sahit, te Sabiachar aad.Bhasha Vibhag, Punjab, Patiala.
  66. ^ Breidenbach, Pál & Zcaronupanov 2004 Quote: "And in Bubby Mahil’s fashion store in London, white socialites and young British Asians shop for the Punjabi suits".
  67. ^ Walton-Roberts & Pratt 2005. Quote: "Meena owns a successful textile design and fashion business in the Punjab, designing and selling high-end salwar kameez (Punjabi suits) ..."[context?]
  68. ^ Sheikh, Ibriz (27.05.2015) 'Dress over pants': Rest of the world finally catches on to Shalwar kameez trend [18]
  69. ^ Bachu 2004
  70. ^ Sorabji M. Rutnagur (1996) The Indian Textile Journal, Volume 106, Issues 9-12 [19]
  71. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008)Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka [20]
  72. ^ Saikia, Yasmin (2011) Women, War, and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971 [21]
  73. ^ Bakshi, SHri Ram (1992) Struggle for Independence: Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit [22]
  74. ^ Ṿai, Shalṿah (2002) India's Jewish heritage: ritual, art & life-cycle. Marg Publications [23]
  75. ^ Alex Newton, Betsy Wagenhauser, Jon Murray (1996) Bangladesh: A Lonely Planet Travel Survival Kit [24]
  76. ^ (India), Madhya Pradesh (1 January 1965). "Madhya Pradesh district gazetteers". Govt. Central Press – via Google Books.
  77. ^ Emadi, Hafizullah (1 January 2005). "Culture and Customs of Afghanistan". Greenwood Publishing Group – via Google Books.
  78. ^ "Afghanistan Clothing, Afghan or Afghani Traditional Clothes".
  79. ^ Staples, Suzanne Fisher (2008) Under the Persimmon Tre. Farrar, Straus and Giroux (BYR [25]
  80. ^ Pia Karlsson, Amir Mansory (2007) An Afghan dilemma: education, gender and globalisation in an Islamic context. Institute of International Education, Department of Education, Stockholm University[26]
  81. ^ "Culture and Traditions of Kashmir".
  82. ^ (Firm), Cosmo Publications (1 January 2000). "The Pakistan gazetteer". Cosmo Publications – via Google Books.
  83. ^ "Current Opinion". Current Literature Publishing Company. 1 January 1899 – via Google Books.
  84. ^ Prior, Katherine; Admson, John (1 January 2001). "Maharajas' Jewels". Mapin Pub. – via Google Books.
  85. ^ Extracts from the District & States Gazetteers of the Punjab, Pakistan, Volume 2 (1976) [27]
  86. ^ (Firm), Cosmo Publications (1 January 2000). "The Pakistan gazetteer". Cosmo Publications – via Google Books.
  87. ^ 1998 District Census Report of [name of District].: Lodhran (1999) [28]
  88. ^ "The All-Pakistan Legal Decisions". All-Pakistan Legal Decisions. 1 January 1984 – via Google Books.
  89. ^ "Islamic Culture: The Hyderabad Quarterly Review". Deccan. 1 January 1979 – via Google Books.
  90. ^ Kumar, Raj (2008) Encyclopaedia of Untouchables Ancient, Medieval and Modern [29]
  91. ^ [30] Sawindara Siṅgha Uppala (1966) Panjabi short story: its origin and development
  92. ^ Chandra, Moti (1973) Costumes, Textiles, Cosmetics & Coiffure in Ancient and Mediaeval India [31]
  93. ^ Chaudhry, Nazir Ahmad (2002) Multan Glimpses: With an Account of Siege and Surrender [32]
  94. ^ "Glossary of the Multani Language, Or, Southwestern Panjabi". Printed at the Punjab Government Press. 1 January 1903 – via Google Books.
  95. ^ O'Brien, Edward (1881) Glossary of the Multani Language Compared with Punjábi and Sindhi [33]
  96. ^ (India), Haryana (1 January 1988). "Haryana District Gazetteers: Sirsa". Haryana Gazetteers Organization – via Google Books.
  97. ^ Aniruddha Ray, Kuzhippalli Skaria Mathew (2002) Studies in history of the Deccan: medieval and modern : Professor A.R. Kulkarni felicitation volume [34]
  98. ^ A. V. Narasimha Murthy, K. V. Ramesh (1987) Giridharaśrī: essays on Indology : Dr. G.S. Dikshit felicitation volume [35]
  99. ^ "Mārg̲". J. J. Bhabha for Marg Publications. 1 January 1969 – via Google Books.
  100. ^ Punjab District Gazetteer: Reprint of Ludhiana District and Malerkotla State Gazetteer, 1904 [36]
  101. ^ Punjab District Gazetteers (1932)Punjab District Gazetteers (1932)
  102. ^ dept, Punjab revenue (1 January 1876). "Land revenue settlement reports" – via Google Books.
  103. ^ General, India Office of the Registrar (1 January 1961). "Census of India, 1961". Manager of Publications – via Google Books.
  104. ^ Singh, Jaisal (1 January 2007). "Polo in India". New Holland Publishers – via Google Books.
  105. ^ Biswas, Arabinda; Division, India Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Publications (1 January 1985). "Indian Costumes". Publ. Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting – via Google Books.
  106. ^ "Country Life". Country Life, Limited. 1 January 2001 – via Google Books.
  107. ^ Carman, W. Y. (1961) Indian Army Uniforms Under the British: From the 18th Century to 1947 [37]
  108. ^ Ghurye, Govind Sadashiv (1 January 1966). "Indian Costume". Popular Prakashan – via Google Books.
  109. ^ Yadava, Ganga Prasad (1982) Dhanapāla and His Times: A Socio-cultural Study Based Upon His Works [38]
  110. ^ Sharma, Brij Narain (1966) Social life in Northern India, A.D. 600-1000 [39]
  111. ^ D. N. Saraf (1987) Arts and Crafts, Jammu and Kashmir: Land, People, Culture [40]
  112. ^ Umran, Khan (14 February 2010). "Indian Ethnic Wear". ethniccode.com. India: Ethnic Code. pp. 9–10. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  113. ^ Baden Henry Baden-Powell (1872) Hand-book of the Manufactures & Arts of the Punjab: With a Combined Glossary & Index of Vernacular Trades & Technical Terms ... Forming Vol. Ii to the "Hand-book of the Economic Products of the Punjab" Prepared Under the Orders of Government [41]
  114. ^ Kumar, Ritu (14 July 2006). "Costumes and textiles of royal India". Antique Collectors' Club – via Google Books.
  115. ^ Pathan, Mumtaz Husain (1 January 1974). "Arab kingdom of al-Mansurah in Sind". Institute of Sindhology, University of Sind – via Google Books.
  116. ^ a b Burton, Richard (1996) Sindh and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus: With Notices of the Topography and History of [the] Province [42]
  117. ^ a b Kumar, Raj (1 January 2008). "Encyclopaedia of Untouchables Ancient, Medieval and Modern". Gyan Publishing House – via Google Books.
  118. ^ Reginald Edward Enthoven, Stephen Meredyth Edwardes (1909) Provincial series: Bombay presidency ... [43]
  119. ^ (Pakistan), Population Census Organisation (1 January 2000). "1998 provincial census report of [name of province]". Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Govt. of Pakistan – via Google Books.
  120. ^ (India), Gujarat (1 January 1975). "Gujarat State Gazetteers: Junagadh District". Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications, Gujarat State – via Google Books.
  121. ^ "Vachanamrut". ShreeSwaminarayanTemple Bhuj – via Google Books.
  122. ^ Ahuja, Simran. "Nine Nights: Navratri". Notion Press – via Google Books.
  123. ^ Murphy, Veronica and Crill, Rosemary (1991) Tie-dyed Textiles of India: Tradition and Trad [44]
  124. ^ Gokhale. Surat In The Seventeenth Century. Popular Prakashan. p. 28. Retrieved 23 February 2015. Islam was introduced into Gujarat in the 7th century A.D. The first Arab raid came in 635 when the Governor of Bahrain sent an expedition against Broach. Then through the centuries colonies of Arab and Persian merchants began sprouting in the port cities of Gujarat, such as Cambay, Broach and Surat.
  125. ^ Satish Saberwal, Mushirul Hasan (2006) Assertive Religious Identities: India and Europe [45]
  126. ^ Bindloss, Joseph (15 September 2010). "Nepal 8". Lonely Planet – via Google Books.
  127. ^ Nepali, Gopal Singh (1965). The Newars: an ethni-sociological study of a Himalayan community. [46]
  128. ^ Croos, J.P (1996). The Call of Nepal: a personal Nepalese odyssey in a different dimension. [47]
  129. ^ Tulasī Rāma Vaidya, Triratna Mānandhara, Shankar Lal Joshi (1993) Social history of Nepal [48]
  130. ^ "The Muslim World League Journal". Press and Publications Department, Muslim World League. 1 March 2003 – via Google Books.
  131. ^ Acharya, Madhu Raman (2002) Nepal culture shift!: reinventing culture in the Himalayan kingdom [49]
  132. ^ West Bengal District Gazetteers: Darjiling, by Amiya Kumar Banerji ... [et al (1980) [50]
  133. ^ Tetley, Brian (1 January 1991). "The insider's guide to Nepal". Gregory's – via Google Books.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit