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Vrindavan (About this sound pronunciation ) is a town in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the site where according to Hinduism, Lord Krishna spent his childhood days. The town is about 11 km away from Mathura, Krishna's birthplace on the Agra-Delhi highway (NH 2).[2] The town hosts many temples dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna and is considered sacred by Vaishnavism.[3]

Vrindavan
city
Swiatyniamadanmohan.jpg
Vrindavan is located in Uttar Pradesh
Vrindavan
Vrindavan
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°E / 27.58; 77.7Coordinates: 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°E / 27.58; 77.7
Country  India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Mathura
Elevation 170 m (560 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 63,005
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 281121

Contents

EtymologyEdit

 
Kesi Ghat on the Yamuna river

The ancient Sanskrit name of the city, Vṛndāvana, comes from its groves of vṛndā Tulasi (tulsi, Holy Basil) Ocimum tenuiflorum with vana meaning a grove or a forest.[4]

HistoryEdit

Vrindavan has an ancient past, associated with Hindu history, and is an important Hindu pilgrimage site. One of its oldest surviving temples is the Govinda Deva temple, built in 1590, with the town founded earlier in the same century.[5][6] The essence of Vrindavan was lost over time until the 16th century, when it was rediscovered by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. In the year 1515, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu visited Vrindavana, with the purpose of locating the lost holy places associated with Lord Sri Krishna's transcendent pastimes. Chaitanya wandered through the different sacred forests of Vrindavana in a spiritual trance of divine love. It was believed that by His divine spiritual power, He was able to locate all the important places of Krishna's pastimes in and around Vrindavana.[7]

GeographyEdit

Vrindavan is located at 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°E / 27.58; 77.7.[8] It has an average elevation of 170 metres (557 feet).

DemographicsEdit

As of 2001 India census,[9] Vrindavan had a population of 56,618. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. Vrindavan has an average literacy rate of 65%, lower than the national average of 74.04%.[10] In Vrindavan, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. The number of females is 24,200 including 13% who are under 6 years of age.

Religious heritageEdit

 
Rangaji Temple, 1949

Vrindavan is considered to be a holy place for Vaisnavism tradition of Hinduism. It is a center of Krishna worship and the area includes places like Govardhana and Gokul that are associated with Krishna. Millions of devotees of Radha Krishna visit these places of pilgrimage every year and participate in a number of festivals.[11]

TemplesEdit

"City of Widows"Edit

Vrindavan is also known as the "city of widows"[27] due to the large number of widows who move into the town and surrounding area after losing their husbands. There are an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 widows[28][29] who spend time singing bhajan hymns for in bhajanashrams. An organization called Guild of Service was formed to assist these deprived women and children.[27][29] According to a survey report prepared by the government, several homes run by the government and different NGOs for widows.[30]

In India, equal inheritance rights are protected by law, but customs can override rights of widows.[31]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

  Vrindavan travel guide from Wikivoyage

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Census of India
  2. ^ Keene, Henry George (1899). "Bindrabun". A Handbook for Visitors to Agra and Its Neighbourhood. Thacker, Spink & Co. pp. 98–106. 
  3. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 176. 
  4. ^ "Brindaban". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. 
  5. ^   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Brindaban". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 571. 
  6. ^ "Vrindavan PinCode". citypincode.in. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  7. ^ "Discovery of Vrindavan by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu". 
  8. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Vrindavan". 
  9. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  10. ^ Jayant Pandurang Nayaka, Syed Nurullah (1974). A students' history of education in India (1800–1973) (6 ed.). Macmillan. 
  11. ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007). A Survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press; 3 edition. p. 204. ISBN 0-7914-7081-4. The center of Krishna-worship has been for a long time Brajbhumi, the district of Mathura that embraces also Vrindavana, Govardhana, and Gokula, associated with Krishna from the time immemorial. Many millions of Krishna bhaktas visit these places every year and participate in the numerous festivals that re-enact divine scenes from Krishna's life on Earth, of which were spent in those very places 
  12. ^ http://uptourism.gov.in/pages/top/explore/top-explore-mathura---vrindavan/govind-dev-temple
  13. ^ "Red Stone Temple". 
  14. ^ "The history of Sri Radha Raman Temple". 
  15. ^ "Radhavallabh Temple website". 
  16. ^ Usha Nilsson (1997), Mira bai, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-8126004119, pages 1-15
  17. ^ Usha Nilsson (1997), Mira bai, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-8126004119, pages 16-17
  18. ^ John S Hawley (2005), Three Bhakti Voices: Mirabai, Surdas and Kabir in Their Times and Ours, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195670851, pages 128-130
  19. ^ "Banke-Bihari Temple website". 
  20. ^ "Prem Mandir". 
  21. ^ "Kripaluji Maharaj's Prem Mandir will be inaugurated on 17 February". Aaj Ki Khabar. 
  22. ^ http://www.iskconvrindavan.com
  23. ^ (Translator), F. Max Muller (1 June 2004). The Upanishads, Vol I. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4191-8641-8. 
  24. ^ (Translator), F. Max Muller (26 July 2004). The Upanishads Part II: The Sacred Books of the East Part Fifteen. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4179-3016-0. 
  25. ^ http://www.brajdarshan.in/garud-gobind
  26. ^ "ISKCON to build world's tallest temple at Mathura from today". 
  27. ^ a b "India's widows live out sentence of shame, poverty". Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 25 March 2007. 
  28. ^ "Catalyst Magazine: Moksha: the widows of Vrindavan". Retrieved 25 March 2007. 
  29. ^ a b "Shunned from society, widows flock to city to die". CNN. 5 July 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007. 
  30. ^ "Sulabh dons mantle". 
  31. ^ Cynthia Gorney (February 2017). "Life after loss". National Geographic Society. Retrieved April 8, 2017.