Chhattisgarhi (Devanagari: छत्तीसगढ़ी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 18 million people in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is an Eastern Hindi language and is closely related to Awadhi and Bagheli.
|Region||Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh|
|18 million, partial count, including Surgujia (2011 census)|
(additional speakers counted under Hindi)
|Devanagari (formerly Odia alphabet)|
Chhattisgarhi has been known by the name Khaltahi to surrounding hill-people and by the name Loriya to speakers in neighboring regions of Odisha to Chhattisgarh. The speakers are concentrated in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh and in adjacent areas of Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Jharkhand. Some linguists also treat this language and Nagpuri/Sadri languages as dialects of Odia. Chhattisgarhi cultural and political movements, with origins from the 1920s, affirmed Chhattisgarhi linguistic and cultural identity and sought greater autonomy within India. It was 1 November, 2000 when 16 districts in the state of Madhya Pradesh became the new state of Chhattisgarh.
Chhattisgarhi is most closely related to other Eastern Hindi languages such as Bagheli and Awadhi, forming part of the East Central Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages , the Indian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Its precise relationship to Hindi is complex, and as with other members of the Hindustani dialect continuum, its status as a dialect or separate language is to some degree a judgment call. According to the Indian Government, Chhattisgarhi is an eastern dialect of Hindi, but it is classified as a separate language in Ethnologue.
Eastern Hindi dialects consist of Chhattisgarhi, Awadhi, and Bagheli. All three dialects are closely related to each other. Chhattisgarhi, due to its heavy indigenous vocabulary and grammar, has always been treated as a distinct language. Awadhi and Bagheli are very closely associated with each other. Bagheli has been treated as separate from Awadhi due to its regional association with Baghelkhand; otherwise, it is considered a southern form of Awadhi.
Chhattisgarhi has five different main dialects on the basis of geographical division:
- Kedri (Central) Chhattisgarhi
- This is purest form Chhattisgarhi, which is spoken in most of the Mahanadi Basin. Kedri Chhattisgarhi is uninfluenced by any other languages except Hindi. It is mostly spoken in the Bilaspur, Durg, Bemetara, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, and Kanker Districts of Chhattisgarh.
- Utti (Eastern) Chhattisgarhi
- Utti Chhattisgarhi, also known as Laria, is mostly spoken in the Raigarh, Mahasamund, Gariaband, and Raipur Districts of Chhattisgarh.
- Budati / Khaltahi (Western) Chhattisgarhi
- Marathi-language influence can be seen in Khaltahi Chhattisgarhi. It is mostly spoken in the Balaghat District of Madhya Pradesh and in the Kabirdham and Bemetara Districts of Chhattisgarh.
- Bhandar (Northern) Chhattisgarhi
- Also known as Sargujia Chhattisgarhi, it is mostly spoken in the Koria, Surajpur, Sarguja, Jashpur, and Balrampur Districts of Chhattisgarh.
- Rakshahun (Southern) Chhattisgarhi
- Mostly spoken in Dandkaranya region (Bastar) of Chhattisgarh. Godi and Halbi are other dialects which are widely spoken here.
In addition to Chhattisgarhi Proper, other dialects of Chhattisgarhi are Baighani, Bhulia, Binjhwari, Kalanga, Kavardi, Khairagarhi, Sadri Korwa, and Surgujia. Surgujia is considered by some to be a distinct language.
Chhattisgarhi Language DayEdit
Chhattisgarhi Language Day (Chhattisgarhi Diwas) is celebrated every year on November 28 across the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. This day is regulated by the state government.
After the formation of the new state, films in the Chhattisgarhi language attracted artists everywhere around India. World-renowned vocalist Lata Mangeshkar and many others have sung songs in Chhattisgari. As the film industry is growing at a fast pace, Chhattisgarhi-language cinema it is now popularly known as Chhollywood.
- G. A. Zograph: Languages of South Asia, 1960 (translated by G.L. Campbell, 1982), Routledge, London.
- 16.3 million for Chhattisgarhi and 1.74 million for Surgujia.
Chhattisgarhi at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
Surgujia at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chhattisgarhi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Nava Kishor Das (2012). Odisha. Seagull. p. 111. ISBN 978-81-7046-293-4.
An Odia dialect.
- Surgujia at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh"
- C. K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
- C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
- Chhattisgarh Rajbhasha Aayog, "Prashashnik Shabdkosh Vol. I & II"
Web magazine in Chhattisgarhi language गुरतुर गोठ