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The Montague–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu, the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of World War I and Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921. The reforms were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918 and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919. Indian nationalists considered that the reforms did not go far enough while British conservatives were critical of them.
Edwin Montagu became Secretary of State for India in June 1917 after Austen Chamberlain resigned after the capture of Kut by the Turks in 1916 and the capture of an Indian army staged there. He put before the British Cabinet a proposed statement containing a phrase that he intended to work towards "the gradual development of free institutions in India with a view to ultimate self-government." Lord Curzon thought that this phrase gave too much emphasis on working towards self-government and suggested an alternative phrase that the Government would work towards "increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire." The Cabinet approved the statement with Curzon's phrase incorporated in place of Montagu's original phrase.
In late 1917, Montagu went to India to meet Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy of India, and leaders of Indian community, to discuss the introduction of limited self-government to India, and the protection rights of minority communities. He drew up a report, with Bhupendra Nath Bose, Lord Donoghmore, William Duke and Charles Roberts.
The Report went before Cabinet on 24 May and 7 June 1918 and was embodied in the Government of India Act of 1919. These reforms represented the maximum concessions the British were prepared to make at that time. The franchise was extended, and increased authority was given to central and provincial legislative councils, but the viceroy remained responsible only to London.
The changes at the provincial level were very significant, as the provincial legislative councils contained a considerable majority of elected members. In a system called "diarchy," the nation-building departments of government were placed under ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature. The departments that made up the "steel frame" of British rule were retained by executive councilors who were nominated by the Governor. They were often, but not always, British and who were responsible to the governor. The Act of 1919 introduced Diarchy in the provinces. Accordingly, the Rights of the Central and Provincial Governments were divided in clear-cut terms. The central list included rights over defence, foreign affairs, telegraphs, railways, postal, foreign trade etc. The provincial list dealt with the affairs like health, sanitation, education, public work, irrigation, jail, police, justice etc. The powers which were not included in the state list vested in the hands of the Centre. In case of any conflict between the 'reserved' and 'unreserved' powers of the State (the former included finance, police, revenue, publication of books, etc. and the latter included health, sanitation, local-self government etc.), the Governor had its final say. In 1921, the "Diarchy" was installed in Bengal, Madras, Bombay, United Provinces, M.P., Punjab, Bihar, Orissa and Assam and in 1932, it was extended to the North-West Frontier Province.
In 1921 another change recommended by the report was carried out when elected local councils were set up in rural areas, and during the 1920s urban municipal corporations were made more democratic and "Indianized.
The main provisions were the following:
- The secretary of state would control affairs relating to Government of India
- The Central Legislature would comprise two chambers- The Council of State and the Indian Legislative Assembly
- The Central Legislature was empowered to enact laws on any matter for whole of India.
- The Governor General was given powers to summon, prorogue, dissolve the Chambers, and to promulgate Ordinances.
- The number of Indians in Viceroy's Executive Council would be three out of eight members.
- Establishment of bicameral Provincial Legislative councils.
- Dyarchy in the Provinces-
- Reserved subjects like Finance, Law and Order, Army, Police etc.
- Transferred subjects like Public Health, Education, Agriculture, Local Self-government etc.
- There would henceforth be direct election and an extension of Communal franchise. "
Reception in IndiaEdit
The 1919 reforms had satisfy political demands in India. The British repressed opposition, and restrictions on the press and on movement were re-enacted in the Rowlatt Acts introduced in 1919. These measures were rammed through the Legislative Council with the unanimous opposition of the Indian members. Several members of the council including Jinnah resigned in protest. These measures were widely seen throughout India of the betrayal of strong support given by the population for the British war effort.
Gandhi launched a nationwide protest against the Rowlatt Acts with the strongest level of protest in the Punjab. Though people in amritsar were protesting peacefully. Still, due to the ruthlessness and maladministration of General Dyer and Sir Michelle O Dwyer, a massacre at Jalianwala Bagh in Amritsar took place in April 1919. This tragedy took life of about 379 peaceful protesters due to the open firing on them under the order of Gen. Dyer .
Montagu ordered an inquiry into the events at Amritsar by Lord Hunter. The Hunter Inquiry recommended that General Dyer, who commanded the troops, be dismissed, leading to Dyer's sacking. Many British citizens supported Dyer, whom they considered had not received fair treatment from the Hunter Inquiry. The conservative Morning Post newspaper collected a subscription of £26,000 for General Dyer and Sir Edward Carson moved a censure motion in Montagu which was nearly successful. Although Montagu was saved largely due to a strong speech in his defence by Winston Churchill, Lloyd George's secretary reported that some of the Tories could have assaulted him (Montagu) physically they were so angry.
The Amritsar massacre further inflamed Indian nationalist sentiment ending the initial response of reluctant co-operation. At the grass roots level, many young Indians wanted faster progress towards Indian independence and were disappointed by lack of advancement as Britons returned to their former positions in the administration. At the Indian National Congress annual session in September 1920, delegates supported Gandhi's proposal of swaraj or self-rule – preferably within the British empire or outside it if necessary. The proposal was to be implemented through a policy of non-cooperation with British rule meaning that Congress did not stand candidates in the first elections held under the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms in 1921.
The Montagu-Chelmsford report stated that there should be a review after 10 years. Sir John Simon headed the committee (Simon Commission) responsible for the review which recommended further constitutional change. Three round table conferences were held in London in 1930, 1931 and 1932 with representation of the major interests. Gandhi attended the 1931 round table after negotiations with the British Government. The major disagreement between Congress and the British was separate electorates for each community which Congress opposed but which were retained in Ramsay MacDonald's Communal Award. A new Government of India Act 1935 was passed continuing the move towards self-government first made in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report.
- Paul Johnson, A History of the Modern World: from 1917 to the 1990s Revised Edition, Weidenfeld and Nicolson London 1991
- Merriam-Webster's Biographical Dictionary entry on Edwin Montagu, Merriam-Webster, 1995
- Dixon, William Macneile. "Summary of Constitutional Reforms for India : being proposals of Secretary of State Montagu and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford". Internet Archive. New York: G. G. Woodwark. p. 24. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- Hutchinson's Encyclopaedia article on Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
- Montagu Millennium entry on Montagu-Chelmsford Report
- Gandhian weilive[http://workmall.com/wfb2001/pakistan/pakistan_history_beginnings_of_self_government.html Pakistan beginnings of self-government page
- Sikh History on constitutional reforms
- Article on the British Raj on George Orwell page
- One Scholar’s Bibliography