Congee (/ˈkɒn/, derived from Tamil கஞ்சி [kaɲdʑi])[1][2][3] is a form of rice porridge made by boiling rice in a large amount of water until the rice softens. Depending on rice-water ratio, the thickness of congee varies from a Western oatmeal porridge to a gruel. Since the history of rice cultivation in Asia traces to the Baiyue-inhabited lower Yangtze circa 10000 BC,[4][5][6] congee is unlikely to appear before that date. Congee is typically served with side dishes, or it can be topped with meat, fish and pickled vegetables.

Congee
Chinese rice congee with rousong and zha cai (with coriander in side bowl)
TypePorridge
Main ingredientsRice

Vivid experiences of eating or delivering thin congee as wartime or famine food often feature in diaries and chronicles.[7] In some cultures, congee is eaten primarily as a breakfast food or late supper; some may also eat it as a substitute for rice at other meals. It is often considered suitable for the sick as a mild, easily digestible food.[8]

Etymology Edit

The original Chinese name for the congee is zhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: zhōu), with the first recorded reference traced back to 1000BC during Zhou dynasty. With rice cultivation spreading across Asia, various similar dishes and names appeared. The popular English name of the dish is drives from Tamil word kanji, meaning "to boil". The Portuguese adpoted the name as canje during colonization, with the first document mentioning the dish and the word in 1563. The English name was adopted from the Portuguese.[9]

Varieties Edit

East Asia Edit

China Edit

By porridge (粥 or 稀飯), Chinese languages across the south usually mean rice porridge, while in the north it may refer to cornmeal porridge, proso millet porridge, foxtail millet porridge, or sorghum porridge, reflecting the north-south divide of grain production.

In NW Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, fermented rice and millet porridge known as 酸粥 (Jin Chinese: [suɤ tʂɑo]) is popular. Rice and millet are soaked to allow fermentation, then water is emptied to obtain porridge. The emptied water is served as a drink called 酸米湯 (Jin Chinese: [suɤ mi tʰɤu]). The porridge is eaten alongside pickles, e.g. turnips, carrots, radish and celery. The porridge may be stirred-fried and is called 炒酸粥 ([tsʰo suɤ tʂɑo]). The porridge may also be steamed into solids known as 酸撈飯 ([suɤ lo fã]). While the traditional grain is proso millet, it is mixed with rice when available. Many folk idioms of sourness derive from this dish.[10][11][12][13][14][15]

In Shanghai, Suzhou and nearby, an iconic glutinous rice porridge topped by red bean paste, sweet olive syrup and brown sugar is called 赤豆糊糖粥 (Wu Chinese: [tsʰaʔ ɦu dɑ̃ tsoʔ]).[16][17] Street hawking of this porridge is featured in a well-known Wu Chinese nursery rhyme.[18][19][20]

Originated in Guangdong, the century egg congee peidaansaujuk zuk (Cantonese: 皮蛋瘦肉粥) has become a nationwide hit since the 2000s. It was first tested on the menu of KFC in Shanghai in 2002 and later rolled out to all KFCs in mainland China and Taiwan.[21][22] In 2020, the online food ordering company Ele.me revealed century egg porridge ranked top ten in breakfast orders in almost every Chinese major city as far north as Harbin.[23][24]

Common regional ingredients go into congee not mentioned above include salted duck eggs, rousong, zhacai, pickled tofu, mung beans and organ meats (especially pig liver). Youtiao is served as a side dish in some Chinese cultures. Congee with multiple ingredients tend to build hype as an expensive, festive congee, including Laba congee.

Taiwan Edit

In Taiwan, congee is known as 糜 (Hokkien: [muê]). Sweet potato, taro root, or century egg is often added for taste. A famous congee dish in Taiwan is the milkfish congee.

Japan Edit

 
Rice porridge breakfast in Kyoto
 
Nanakusa-gayu, seven-herb porridge

Kayu (), or often okayu (お粥) is the name for the type of congee eaten in Japan,[25] which typically uses water to rice ratios of 5:1 or 7:1 and is cooked for about 30 minutes.

Kayu may be made with just rice and water, and is often seasoned with salt. Eggs can be beaten into it to thicken it. Toppings may be added to enhance flavour; Welsh onion, salmon, roe, ginger, and umeboshi (pickled ume fruit) are among the most common. Miso or chicken stock may be used to flavor the broth. Most Japanese electric rice cookers have a specific setting for cooking congee.

In Japan kayu – because it is soft and easily digestible – is regarded as a food particularly suitable for serving to the sick and elderly.[26] For similar reasons kayu is commonly the first solid food served to Japanese infants; it is used to help with the transition from liquids to normally cooked rice, the latter being a major part of the Japanese diet.

A type of kayu referred to as nanakusa-gayu (七草粥, "seven herb porridge") is traditionally eaten on 7 January[27] with special herbs that some believe protect against evils and invite good luck and longevity in the new year. As a simple, light dish, nanakusa-gayu serves as a break from the many heavy dishes eaten over the Japanese New Year.

Kayu is also used in Shinto divination rituals.[28]

Zōsui (雑炊) is a similar dish, which uses already cooked rice, rather than cooking the rice in the soup.

Korea Edit

 
Jeonbok-juk (abalone porridge)
 
Heugimja-juk (black sesame porridge)

Juk (; ; [tɕuk̚]) is a Korean category for porridges made by boiling rice or other grains or legumes, such as beans, sesame, nuts, and pumpkin, with much more water than bap.[29] Juk is often eaten warm, especially as a morning meal, but is now eaten at any time of the day.[29]

Depending on the ingredients and consistency, juk can be considered as food for recuperation, a delicacy, or famine food.[30] It is known to have nutritional benefits, and is considered to be beneficial to digestion because of its soft texture. It is a staple "get well" dish; a dish to eat when one is sick or recovering from bad health.[31] Juk is also considered an ideal food for babies, the ill or elderly, as it is easily eaten and digested.[32] It is also sold commercially by many chain stores in South Korea, and is a common takeout dish.[33]

There are more than forty varieties of juk mentioned in old documents.[30] The most basic form of juk, made from plain rice, is called ssaljuk (쌀죽; 'rice porridge') or huinjuk (흰죽; 'white porridge'). Being largely unflavored, it is served with a number of more flavorful side dishes, such as jeotgal (salted seafood), various types of kimchi, and other side dishes.

Notable varieties include jatjuk made from finely ground pine nuts, jeonbok-juk made with abalones, yulmu-juk made from yulmu (Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen), and patjuk made from red beans.

The following list are examples of juk: Daechu-gom (대추곰) – jujube porridge, Dakjuk (닭죽) – chicken porridge, Euneo-juk (은어죽; 銀魚粥) – sweetfish porridge, Heugimja-juk (흑임자죽; 黑荏子粥) – black sesame porridge, Hobak-juk (호박죽) – pumpkin porridge, Jangguk-juk (장국죽) – beef porridge, Jatjuk (잣죽) – pine nut porridge, Jeonbok-juk (전복죽; 全鰒粥) – abalone rice porridge, Patjuk (팥죽) – red bean porridge, Tarak-juk (타락죽; 駝酪粥) – milk porridge.

Southeast Asia Edit

Myanmar Edit

In Myanmar, rice congee is called hsan byoke or hsan pyoke, literally "(uncooked) rice boiled". It is plain porridge, often made with just rice and water, but sometimes with chicken or pork stock and served with a simple garnish of chopped spring onions and crispy fried onions.[citation needed]

Cambodia Edit

 
Cambodian chicken congee

In Khmer, congee is called babor (បបរ). It is one of the options for breakfast along with kuyteav, another popular Cambodian breakfast dish.[34][35] Congee is eaten throughout Cambodia both in the countryside and in the cities.

Congee can be eaten plain or with a variety of side dishes and toppings such as soy sauce, added to enhance taste, as well as dried salted fish or fried breadsticks (ឆាខ្វៃ, cha kway).[36]

There are two main versions of congee: plain congee, and chicken congee (បបរមាន់, babor mŏən). It is usually eaten during the colder dry season or when someone is sick. After the congee is prepared a variety of toppings can be added to enhance the flavour such as bean sprouts, green onions, coriander, pepper, along with the dried fish and fried breadsticks on the side. The chicken congee is the same as plain congee but contains more herbs and chicken.[37][38]

Indonesia Edit

 
Bubur ayam, Indonesian chicken congee

In Indonesia, congee is called bubur, and it is a popular breakfast food.[39][40] Travelling bubur ayam vendors frequently pass through residential streets in the morning selling the dish.[39][41] A popular version is bubur ayam, which is rice congee with shredded chicken meat. It is also served with many condiments, such as green onion, crispy fried shallot, fried soybean, Chinese crullers (youtiao, known as cakwe in Indonesia), both salty and sweet soy sauce, and sometimes it is topped with yellow chicken broth and kerupuk (Indonesian style crackers). Unlike some of other Indonesian dishes, it is not spicy; sambal or chili paste is served separately.

Some food venders serve sate alongside it, made from quail egg or chicken intestine, liver, gizzard, or heart.

On the north coast of Bali, famously in a village called Bondalem, there is a local congee dish called mengguh, a popular local chicken and vegetable rice congee that is spicier than common bubur ayam and more similar to tinutuan, using a spice mix of onions, garlic, coriander seeds, pepper and chili.[42]

In another region of Indonesia — the city of Manado in North Sulawesi, there is a very popular type of congee called tinutuan, or also known as bubur Manado (Manadonese porridge). It is rice porridge served with ample amount of vegetables. A bit different from the one sold in Java, it is made from rice porridge, enriched with vegetables, including kangkung (water spinach), corn kernels, yam or sweet potato, dried salted fish, kemangi (lemon basil) leaves and melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) leaves.

On eastern parts of Indonesia, their kind of congee is called papeda, which is made from sago flour. It is a staple food of Maluku and Papuan people. Usually, it is eaten with yellow soup made from tuna or mubara fish spiced with turmeric and lime.

Laos Edit

In Laos, congee is called khao piak,[43] literally "wet rice" (Lao: ເຂົ້າປຽກ, IPA: [kʰaːo piːək]). It is cooked with rice and chicken broth or water. The congee is then garnished with fried garlic, scallions and pepper. The dish will sometimes be served with chicken, quail eggs, century eggs or youtiao. In Laos, congee is usually eaten as breakfast and during the cold season.

Malaysia Edit

In Malaysia, congee is known as porridge or bubur.

Philippines Edit

 
Bulacan Lugaw na tokwa't baboy, rice gruel with tokwa at baboy (tofu and pork, commonly referred to as "LTB")
 
Arroz caldo, chicken rice gruel with ginger, scallions, toasted garlic, and safflower

Lugaw (pronounced Tagalog pronunciation: [ˈluɡaw]) is the Filipino generic term for rice gruel.[note 1][45] It encompasses a wide variety of dishes, ranging from savory dishes very similar to Chinese-style congee to dessert dishes. In the Visayan regions, savory lugaw are known as pospas. Lugaw typically use glutinous rice (Tagalog: malagkit; Visayan: pilit). It is usually thicker than other Asian congees, retaining the shape of the rice, yet with a similar texture.

Savory versions of lugaw are flavored with ginger and traditionally topped with scallions and toasted garlic. Dried red safflower (kasubha) may also be used as a topping, mainly as a visual garnish and to impart a more appealing yellow tinge to the dish. As with Japanese okayu, fish or chicken stock may be used to flavor the broth. The most popular variants of lugaw include arroz caldo (chicken), goto (beef tripe), lugaw na baboy (pork), lugaw na baka (beef), and lugaw na tokwa't baboy (diced tofu and pork). Other versions can also use tinapa (smoked fish), palaka (frog legs), utak (brain [of pig]), dila (tongue [of pig]), and litid ([beef] ligaments). They are traditionally seasoned with calamansi, fish sauce (patis), soy sauce (toyo), and black pepper. It is often served to the ill and the elderly, and is favored among Filipinos living in colder climates because it is warm, soft, and easy to digest.[46][47]

Dessert versions of lugaw include champorado (lugaw with home-made chocolate topped with milk), binignit (lugaw in coconut milk with various fruits and root crops), and ginataang mais (lugaw with sweet corn and coconut milk), among others. Like the savory versions, they are usually eaten for breakfast, but can also be eaten as a snack. In Hiligaynon-speaking areas, lugaw may refer to binignit.

Singapore Edit

In Singapore, Teochew porridge or Singapore-style porridge is a version of Singapore congee.[48] In Singapore, it's considered a comfort food for both breakfast and supper. Teochew porridge dish often accompanied with various small plates of side dishes.[48] Usually, it's served as a banquet of meats, fish egg and vegetables eaten with plain rice porridge. The recipes that early immigrants prepared in Singapore have been modified over the generations to suit local tastes. Singapore Teochew style porridge is usually consumed with a selection of Singaporean Chinese side dishes like Nasi Padang. There is no fixed list of side dishes, but in Singapore, accompaniments typically include lor bak (braised pork), steamed fish, stir-fried water spinach (kangkong goreng), salted egg, fish cake, tofu, omelette, minced meat, braised tau kway, Hei Bee Hiang (fried shrimp chilli paste), and vegetables.[49]

Thailand Edit

 
Jok mu sap: Thai rice congee with minced pork
 
Jok Prince or written Jok Prince, a Bib Gourmand Jok eatery in Bang Rak

In Thai cuisine, rice congee, known as Chok or Jok (Thai: โจ๊ก, IPA: [tɕóːk], a loanword from Min Nan Chinese), is often served as breakfast with a raw or partially cooked egg added.[50] Minced pork or beef and chopped spring onions are usually added, and the dish is optionally topped with a small donut-like pathongko, fried garlic, slivered ginger, and spicy pickles such as pickled radish. Although it is more popular as a breakfast dish, many stores specializing in Jok sell it throughout the day. Variations in the meat and toppings are also frequently found. It is especially popular during Thailand's cool season.

Plain rice congee, known as khao tom kui (Thai: ข้าวต้มกุ๊ย), is served at specialty restaurants, which serve a multitude of side dishes to go with it, such as yam kun chiang (a Thai salad made with sliced dried Chinese sausages), mu phalo (pork stewed in soy sauce and five-spice powder), and mu nam liap (minced pork fried with chopped Chinese olives).

Notable Jok eateries in Bangkok can be found in areas like Bang Rak on Charoen Krung, home to Jok Prince which received the Bib Gourmand from Michelin Guidebook,[51] Talat Noi in Chinatown beside Wat Traimit near Hua Lamphong,[52] and the Jok Chai neighbourhood in Lat Phrao, where the dish is available 24 hours a day.[53] Khao tom kui is found in areas such as the Yaowarat and Wong Wian Yi Sip Song Karakadakhom (July 22 Circle) neighbourhoods.[54][55]

In a popular reference within the 2011 US comedy film The Hangover Part II set in Thailand, Jok is described as being a food for ″small babies and very old people″ with ″no taste″ that is nourishment ″everybody can digest″. The reference is used to describe the character of the protagonist Stu Price (portrayed by Ed Helms).

Vietnam Edit

 
A simple cháo

In Vietnam, rice congee (Vietnamese: cháo)[56] is sometimes cooked with pandan leaves or Asian mung bean. In its simplest form (plain rice porridge, known as cháo hoa),[57] it is a food for times of famine and hardship to stretch the rice ration. Alternately, as is especially common among Buddhist monks, nuns and lay persons, it can be a simple breakfast food eaten with pickled vegetables or fermented tofu (chao).

 
Vietnamese congee with youtiao

Despite its ubiquity among the poor, it is also popular as a main dish when cooked with a variety of meats. For example, cháo gà is cooked with chicken, garlic, and ginger. The rice porridge is cooked in chicken broth, and when the chicken is cooked, the meat is sliced and layered on a bed of shredded raw cabbage and sliced scallions and drizzled with a vinegar-based sauce, to be eaten as a side dish. Other combinations include cháo vịt (duck porridge), which is cooked in the same manner as chicken porridge. Cháo lòng heo is made with lòng heo, a variety of offal from pork or duck with sliced portions of congealed pork blood. Cháo is typically served with quẩy on the side.

Cháo bầu dục is a congee containing pig kidney (bầu dục lợn). A specialty of the Hóc Môn District in Ho Chi Minh City, it is typically eaten in rural areas of southern Vietnam. Well-known cháo bầu vendors include Cánh Đồng Hoang, Cô Ba Nữ, and Sáu Quẻn.[58] Another typical Vietnamese dish is cháo nấm, a congee with mushrooms.[59]

Youtiao is usually added to congee especially at congee vendors.

It is also common to eat cháo when ill, as it is believed the porridge is easy to digest while being fortifying. For such purposes, the cháo is sometimes cooked with roasted white rice, giving the porridge broth a more nuanced body and a subtle, nutty flavor. In some parts of Vietnam, local customs call for making cháo as offerings for the "wandering souls" during the Buddhist Vu Lan summer feast.

South Asia Edit

India Edit

Tamil Nadu Edit

Kanji is a popular dish in Tamil Nadu. Among the working classes, it is a staple nourishing breakfast dish, although consumed often for lunch and dinner as well. In addition, all classes regard kanji as an excellent food during convalescence, for its ability to be easily digested. The different kinds of kanji in Tamil Nadu include rice kanji (the most popular): variations of this include sweet rice kanji (milk and sugar/jaggery added to the cooked rice soup) or salt rice kanji (buttermilk and salt added to the rice soup); wheat kanji, mung bean kanji, ragi/millet kanji, multi-grain kanji.

Karnataka Edit

In Karnataka a plain rice porridge, or the thick supernatant water from overcooked rice, is known as ganji (ಗಂಜಿ).[60] Kanji is also prepared with different grains available in different parts of Karnataka, for example minor millet or pearl millet,[61][62] finger millet,[63] broken wheat, maize. In coastal districts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi of Karavali region of Karnataka state, Ganji made from parboiled or red or brown rice or white was staple food of most inhabitants of those districts.[64] Also a special type of Ganji is prepared on the occasion of Dwadashi in Tulu speaking Shivalli Brahmins households[65] Even today still many households in those districts have Ganji as staple food.In Kerala it is eaten as a porridge with green lentils or chutney.[citation needed] Kanji is prepared with rice or ragi. Nuts and spices are added to the kanji depending on the economic status or health requirements. Rice kanji is prepared by boiling rice in large amounts of water. To this preparation, either milk and sugar (usually jaggery) or curd (yoghurt) and salt are added. Ragi kanji is prepared by drying ragi sprouts in shade, and then grinding them into a smooth powder. This powder is added to water and cooked. Milk and brown sugar are added to this cooked preparation for taste. Ragi kanji can be given to infants after six months. Another kanji preparation uses jevvarisi (sago) in kanji. Sago is dry roasted and powdered with/ without sugar. Powdered sago is boiled in water until cooked. This is eaten by all ages from adults to infants as young as three months.

Konkan Edit

In the Konkan region of India, congee is known as pez, is a home remedy for treating a fever as it is easy to digest. The farming and manual labour community of the same region, on the other hand, consume on a daily basis in the late morning as a source of energy. Variants of the dish include nachnyachi pez (ambil[what language is this?]) which is made with ragi and rice, athwal or metheachi pez is a sweeter version which is made with rice, fenugreek and jaggery, which is usually served to a nursing mother. The rice here is usually eaten boiled, with dry fish, vegetables or pickles.[66]

Western Karnataka and Goa Edit

In Goa state and Udupi and Dakshina Kannada districts, people usually eat rice ganji in a variant manner made by Kannada-speaking, Tulu-speaking or Konkani people in and around Udupi and Mangalore (Karnataka, South India). There, parboiled rice (kocheel akki in Kannada, oorpel aari for black rice, bolenta aari for white rice in Tulu or ukde tandool in Konkani) is steamed with a large amount of water. Jain ganji matt are famous in these districts. Usually, simple ganji with pickle and milk are served, in Jain matts. Fresh coconut is grated, and the resulting milk skimmed and added to the ganji (called paez or pyaaz in Konkani), which is served hot with fish curry, coconut chutney, or Indian pickles. In Goa, it is normally served with dried or fresh cooked fish, papad or vegetables.[citation needed]

Kerala Edit

In the state of Kerala, kanji used to be considered as a main course, particularly for dinner, by the majority. It is still popular, although usually only eaten regularly by those lower down the socio-economic ladder. This is normally taken with roasted coconut chutney, tossed mung bean known locally as payar, roasted pappadam (lentil crackers), puzhukku (a side dish consisting mainly of root tubers/underground stems, especially during Thiruvathira); sometimes coconut scrapings are also added to the kanji to increase the flavour. The royal households as well as rich people used to have a special kind of kanji called as palkanji (lit. 'milk congee') where milk was substituted for water base.[67] During the Malayalam month of Karkkidakam, a medicinal kanji is made using Ayurvedic herbs, milk and jaggery. Karkkidakam is known as the month of diseases since the monsoon starts during Karkkidakam. Karikkidaka kanji is eaten to promote the immune system.[citation needed]

Poor households of Kerala used to re-cook leftover rice and all available leftover curries into congee water and take as a mix-mash dish known as pazhamkanji (old congee).[68]

Pazhamkanji means old congee (leftover from the previous day). It is not necessarily eaten by poor people, neither it is necessarily re-heated with leftover curries.

According to the Indian writer Madhur Jaffrey, kanji is, or derives from, a Tamil word for "boiling"—which refers to the porridge and also to any water in which rice has been cooked.[citation needed]

Muslims of south India especially Tamil Muslim, Mappila and Beary prepare special congee during Ramadhan called nombu kanj (lit. 'fasting porridge'). This is prepared by adding spices like turmeric, dry ginger, pepper, onion, and coconut paste to the congee. Sometimes fenugreek seeds are added to it to enhance the flavour.

Andhra Pradesh Edit

In the state of Andhra Pradesh, it is called ganji in Telugu. Ganji is made by boiling rice in large amounts of water and then the filtered liquid is known as Ganji. Ganji mixed with buttermilk is believed to add to the flavor, and is also suggested by doctors for patients with ailing health.

Odisha Edit

Kaanji is a traditional Odia dish. It is a soup-based dish like dal, but tastes a little sour. It is made of rice starch fermented for a few days in an earthen pot. This is considered a healthy dish as many winter vegetables are used as main ingredients. It is seasoned with mustard seeds and turmeric and served hot.[citation needed]. Pakhala is a separate dish with certain similarities to the congee.

In the Buddhist Yāgu Sutta of the Aṅguttara Nikāya (AN 5.207), the Buddha recommends eating rice porridge, "yāgu": "There are these five benefits in rice porridge. What five? It stills hunger, dispels thirst, settles wind, cleans out the bladder, and promotes the digestion of the remnants of undigested food. These are the five benefits of rice porridge.".[69]

Sri Lanka Edit

In Sri Lanka, several types of congee are known as kenda in Sinhalese.[70] Sinhala people use congee as a breakfast, a side dish, an accessory to indigenous medical therapies,[71] and a sweet. Kenda can be prepared with many ingredients, including rice, roasted rice, rice flour, finger millet flour, sago, coconut milk, herbs, tubers, kitul flour, and mung bean. When it is prepared with rice and water only, it is known as hal kenda. If salt is added to bring a much saltier taste, it is known as lunu kenda, a dish commonly used as a supplementary diet in purgation therapy in indigenous medical traditions. If roasted rice is used, the congee becomes bendi hal kenda, utilized to treat diarrheal diseases. If rice flour and coconut milk are the main ingredients, such congee is known as kiriya. If finger millet flour and water is used, it is known as kurakkan anama. If coconut milk is added, the dish is called kurakkan kenda. If sago is used, such congee is known as sawu kenda. A special type of congee prepared from the byproducts of coconut oil production is known as pol kiri kenda. There are many varieties of kola kenda, congee with herbs as an ingredient; sometimes, a vaidya or veda mahttaya (a physician trained in indigenous medical traditions) might prescribe a special type of kola kenda, known under such circumstances as behet kenda. Sinhala villagers use specific tubers for preparing congee, such as Diascorea species tubers. If kitul flour is mixed with boiling water and coconut milk added to it, this special type of congee is known as kitul piti kenda. Kenda prepared with mung beans is known as mung eta kenda.

Most of the time, kiriya, kurakkan kenda, sawu kenda, pol kiri kenda and kitul piti kenda are used as sweets. Sugar, candy, dates, raisins, cashew nut, jaggery, and treacle are among the ingredients that may be added to sweeten these congees.

Congee is also eaten by Sri Lankan Moors for iftar during Ramadan. It is also occasionally made with oats. Tamils and Moors in Sri Lanka call it arisi kanji (rice kanji) and may use chicken or beef for it. It is just as often made with milk (paal kanji), and there are many other combinations with appropriate prefixes in Tamil; One very special type being 'Chithirai' kanji, Chithirai being the Tamil month coinciding with April/May, made for a festival in this month. It is a salty simple kanji with green chilis, onions and coconut milk.

Europe Edit

Portugal Edit

In Portugal, a traditional soup made of rice and chicken meat is named canja or Canja de galinha. The Portuguese likely picked up the dish from their colonies in Western/Southern India or Sri Lanka; where the soup remains a staple (particularly for the ill). The rice is not cooked for as long as in Asian congee, so it is very soft, but not disintegrated. Traditionally, a boiling fowl containing small, immature eggs is used; the eggs are carefully boiled and served in the canja. This soup is sometimes served with a fresh mint leaf on top. Strongly valued as comfort food, it is traditionally given to people recovering from disease, as in Asia, and in some regions of Portugal, there is even a custom of feeding the mother a strict diet of canja in the first weeks after childbirth. It is also eaten traditionally in Brazil and Cape Verde, former Portuguese colonies.

See also Edit

Notes Edit

  1. ^ "This dish is sometimes referred to as rice porridge and in the Philippines it is usually called lugaw or lugao (from Tagalog)."[44]

References Edit

  1. ^ "Definition of CONGEE". www.merriam-webster.com. 22 July 2023.
  2. ^ Yule, Henry, Sir (1903). Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. It is from the Tamil kanjī, 'boilings.'{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Lim, Lisa (10 November 2017). "Where the word congee comes from – the answer may surprise you". Post Magazine. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  4. ^ Lu, Tracey L-D (2006). "The Occurrence of Cereal Cultivation in China". Asian Perspectives. 45 (2): 129, 135, 138.
  5. ^ Grossa, Briana L.; Zhao, Zhijun (2014). "Archaeological and genetic insights into the origins of domesticated rice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111 (17): 6191. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308942110. PMC 4035933. PMID 24753573.
  6. ^ Ma, Yongchao (2018). "Multiple indicators of rice remains and the process of rice domestication: A case study in the lower Yangtze River region, China". PLOS ONE. 13 (12): 2. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0208104.
  7. ^ 陳嘉遠 (July 2021). "一個愛國知識份子的流亡生涯——陳嘉遠先生日記(1950.9.1-9.30)". 黃花崗雜誌. No. 70–71. p. 65.
  8. ^ Robert Saunders (1789) "Boutan & Thibet", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Vol. 79, p. 101
  9. ^ Lim, Lisa (10 November 2017). "Where the word congee comes from – the answer may surprise you". South China Morning Post.
  10. ^ 赵喜荣 (5 June 2023). "东拉西扯唠酸粥(二)". 府谷故事. 府谷县委史志研究室. Archived from the original on 27 August 2023.
  11. ^ 若希 (29 November 2022). "可口的烂腌菜". 鄂尔多斯日报. p. 6. Archived from the original on 25 August 2023.
  12. ^ 杜洪涛 (7 November 2022). "准格尔的酸味" (PDF). 內蒙古日報. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2023.
  13. ^ 魏二保; 王二永 (18 January 2018). "府谷酸捞饭、酸稀粥、酸米汤,只属于我们府谷人的味道". 府谷报. 府谷县融媒体中心.
  14. ^ 闫桂兰 (13 January 2019). "准格尔的酸粥!口水直流". 右读 – via 准格尔旗发布.
  15. ^ 邢向东; 王兆富 (2014). 吴堡方言调查研究. 中华书局. pp. 43, 44, 48, 51, 61, 150.
  16. ^ "桂花赤豆汤粥,甜得讲究". 三联美食. Beijing: 三联生活. Archived from the original on 27 August 2023.
  17. ^ 钱乃荣 (2007). 上海话大词典 (PDF). 上海辞书出版社. pp. 49, 56. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2021.
  18. ^ 予安老师, "音频". In 更苏州, ed. (3 August 2018). "笃笃笃,卖糖粥……小辰光,我们常哼的童谣,你还记得吗?".
  19. ^ 郑土有; 王士均 (2006). 笃笃笃,卖糖粥——100首上海里弄童谣 (附光盘). 华东师范大学出版社. Archived from the original on 28 August 2023.
  20. ^ 冯大诚 (16 April 2012). "闲说苏州(7)旧时街头交响(上)". 科学网. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023.
  21. ^ 周锡娟 (9 December 2022). "肯德基大打"本土"牌 金针鸡丝汤月底上市". 江南时报. Wuxi – via Sina.
  22. ^ 草梅 (30 March 2005). "乱弹东西(十六): 肯德基的皮蛋瘦肉粥和麦当劳的金牌饮料". e-yep.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2023.
  23. ^ 严珏 (21 August 2020). "中国人的早餐藏着什么秘密". 网易数读. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020.
  24. ^ 饿了么 (20 January 2018). 2017年中国互联网本地生活服务蓝皮书. 饿了么. Archived from the original on 22 August 2023.
  25. ^ "Okayu recipe". about.com. Retrieved 2 May 2007.
  26. ^ Hensperger, Beth (31 March 2010). The Ultimate Rice Cooker Cookbook: 250 No-Fail Recipes for Pilafs, Risotto … - Beth Hensperger – Google Books. ReadHowYouWant.com. ISBN 9781458769589. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  27. ^ Bester, John; Carpenter, Juliet (1997). ジャパン: 四季と文化 - Clive W. Nicol – Google Books. Kodansha International. ISBN 9784770020888. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  28. ^ Robertson, Stephen (2016). "Hope that sustains: revisiting New Year's divination at Suwa Taisha" (PDF). Contemporary Japan. 1 (28): 101–122. doi:10.1515/cj-2016-0006. S2CID 131527379. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  29. ^ a b An Illustrated Guide to Korean Culture - 233 traditional key words. Seoul: Hakgojae Publishing Co. 2002. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-8985846981.
  30. ^ a b (in Korean) Juk Doosan Encyclopedia
  31. ^ "Rice porridge (Juk) A Practical source of nutrition" Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Paik Jae-Eun, professor of food and nutrition, Bucheon College, 2008 Spring Koreana. Retrieved 2010-06-16
  32. ^ (in Korean)"Food industry eyes baby market", Newsis Health 2010-03-30
  33. ^ "Busy juk restaurants" (in Korean). City News. 17 May 2010.
  34. ^ Goldberg, Lina. "How Breakfast Has Shaped Cambodia's Cultural Identity". BBC. The New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  35. ^ Jimmy (3 March 2014). "The Cambodian Breakfast". Jimmy Eats World.
  36. ^ lov, lisa (September 2015). "Congee – Asian Rice Porridge". aorta food.
  37. ^ Larson, Tevy (25 February 2013). "Chicken Rice Congee (Khmer Borbor Sach Mouan)". Tevys Food Blog. blogspot.
  38. ^ Smith, Joanne. "BUILD YOUR OWN Cambodian Chicken Rice Soup". The Family Dinner Project.
  39. ^ a b Kraig, B.; Sen, C.T. (2013). Street Food Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-59884-955-4. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  40. ^ Dalby, A. (2013). The Breakfast Book. EBL-Schweitzer. Reaktion Books. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-78023-121-1. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  41. ^ Tan, M.G. (2008). Etnis Tionghoa Di Indonesia: Kumpulan Tulisan. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 115. ISBN 978-979-461-689-5. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  42. ^ indonesiasecretkitchen. "Indonesia Secret Kitchen: Bubur Mengguh recipe". Indonesiasecretkitchen.blogspot.nl. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  43. ^ Philpott, D. (2016). The World of Wine and Food: A Guide to Varieties, Tastes, History, and Pairings. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 444. ISBN 978-1-4422-6804-3. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  44. ^ Moore, B.; Centre, Australian National Dictionary (2001). Who's centric now?: the present state of post-colonial Englishes. Oxford University Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-19-551450-6. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  45. ^ Philippines Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments. International Business Publications, USA. 2012. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4387-7532-6. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  46. ^ "The difference between lugaw, goto, and arroz caldo". 13 June 2018.
  47. ^ Aranas, Jennifer M. (2006). Tropical Island Cooking: Traditional Recipes, Contemporary Flavors. Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4629-1689-4.
  48. ^ a b Lee, S.H. (2016). Chicken and Rice: Fresh and Easy Southeast Asian Recipes From a London Kitchen. Penguin Books Limited. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-241-27877-2. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  49. ^ "Enjoy Teochew porridge with popular dishes" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  50. ^ Press, R. (2015). Thai Slow Cooker Cookbook: Classic Thai Favorites Made Simple. Callisto Media Incorporated. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-62315-650-3. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  51. ^ "Jok Prince". Michelin Guide.
  52. ^ ร้านโจ๊ก ตลาดน้อย เจ๊หมวยเกี้ย ย่านเยาวราช. Chinatownyaowarach (in Thai).
  53. ^ "เจ๊เกียง โจ๊กกองปราบ" อร่อยอุ่นท้อง ได้ตลอด 24 ชั่วโมง. Manager Daily (in Thai). 2 July 2017.
  54. ^ ครัวคุณต๋อย: ขาหมูต้มถั่ว ร้านข้าวต้มแปลงนาม. Channel 3 (in Thai). 18 March 2018.
  55. ^ ร้านข้าวต้ม 3/1. Chinatownyaowarach (in Thai).
  56. ^ Le, A.; Ashborn, J. (2011). Little Saigon Cookbook: Vietnamese Cuisine and Culture in Southern California's Little Saigon. Globe Pequot Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-7627-9949-7. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  57. ^ Van Giuong, P. (2014). Tuttle Concise Vietnamese Dictionary: Vietnamese-English English-Vietnamese. Tuttle Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-4629-1417-3. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  58. ^ "Cánh Đồng Hoang quán – một điểm đến thú vị". Kenh14.vn. VC Corp. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2013. (Originally in Pháp luật & Xã hội.)
  59. ^ Cameron Stauch (2018). "Grains of Rice - Mixed Mushroom Rice Porridge with Bitter Greens - Cháo Nấm". Vegetarian Viet Nam. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393249347.
  60. ^ Yule, Henry, Sir (1903). Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. It is from the Tamil kanjī, 'boilings.']{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  61. ^ Staff Reporter (19 August 2012). "NATIONAL / TAMIL NADU : Minister moots heritage tourism plan for Jawadu Hills". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  62. ^ Shonali Muthalaly (11 June 2010). "Life & Style / Food : The Reluctant Gourmet – Back to the basics". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  63. ^ Syed Muthahar Saqaf (8 April 2012). "NATIONAL / TAMIL NADU : Desi version of porridge sold like hot cakes". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  64. ^ Anushree Shetty (September 2015). "Ganji". Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  65. ^ udupi-recipes. "Coconut Milk Rice Porridge, Ganji". Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  66. ^ Gauree Malkarnekar | TNN (16 October 2016). "'Pez' soothes the fever and the brow" (Newspaper article). The Times of India. Retrieved 29 June 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  67. ^ "Payaru Kanji with Thenga Chammanthi ~ SarasYummyBites". SarasYummyBites. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  68. ^ Singh, K.S.; Menon, T.M.; Tyagi, D.; India, Anthropological Survey of; Kulirani, B.F. (2002). Kerala. People of India. Affiliated East-West Press [for] Anthropological Survey of India. p. 706. ISBN 978-81-85938-99-8. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  69. ^ "5:21 Kimbilavaggo - English". awake.kiev.ua.
  70. ^ Uragoda, C.G. (2000). Traditions of Sri Lanka: A Selection with a Scientific Background. Vishva Lekha Publishers. p. 259. ISBN 978-955-96843-0-5. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  71. ^ "Appetizing kenda to titillate Royalists' tastebuds". The Island. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.

External links Edit