List of pies, tarts and flans

This is a list of pies, tarts and flans. A pie is a baked or fried dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savory ingredients. A tart is a baked dish consisting of a filling over a pastry base with an open top not covered with pastry. The pastry is usually shortcrust pastry; the filling may be sweet or savory, though modern tarts are usually fruit-based, sometimes with custard. Flan, in Britain, is an open pastry or sponge case containing a sweet or savory filling. A typical flan of this sort is round, with shortcrust pastry.

Pies, tarts and flansEdit

Name Image Origin Type Description
Aloo pie   Trinidad and Tobago Savory This soft and fried pastry is a variant of the samosa, made from flour and water, and filled with boiled, spiced and mashed potatoes and other vegetables like green peas. Its shape is similar to a calzone, and it is usually larger than a samosa, approximately 5 inches (13 cm) long.[1]
Apple crisp
Apple crumble
  United States Sweet A dessert consisting of baked apples topped with a crispy crust. Many different kinds of fruit can substituted for apples, and one of the most common variants is 'apple rhubarb crisp' including rhubarb. It is a simpler alternative to apple pie and apple cobbler.
Apple pie   United Kingdom (England) Sweet A fruit pie (or tart) in which the principal filling ingredient is crisp and acidic cooking apples such as the Bramley or Granny Smith
Australian and New Zealand meat pie   Australia and New Zealand[2] Savory A hand-sized meat pie containing largely minced meat and gravy sometimes with onion and often consumed as a takeaway food snack. The pie itself is congruent with the United Kingdom's steak pie.
Bacon and egg pie   Worldwide Savory A pie containing bacon, egg and often onion
Bakewell tart   United Kingdom (England) Sweet A tart with a shortcrust pastry shell, spread with jam and filled with a sponge-like, ground almond filling.[3] Often covered with nuts, such as almonds and peanuts, a top layer of almond flavored icing, and a half glacé cherry.
Banana cream pie   United States Sweet A cream pie made with a rich custard made from milk, cream, flour, and eggs and combined with sliced bananas in a pastry or graham crumb crust. It is often made with a whipped cream topping.
Banoffee pie   United Kingdom (England) Sweet An English pastry-based dessert made from bananas,[4] toffee[4] and cream, either on a pastry base or digestive biscuit crumb crust.
Bay tat Indonesia (Bengkulu) Sweet A sweet pie or tart made from coconut milk with pineapple jam or coconut jam as filling.
Bavarian Cream Pie Bavaria Sweet A sweet chocolatey pie best served cold, topped with Bavarian cream.
Bean pie   United States Sweet A sweet custard pie with a filling of mashed beans, sugar, butter, milk, and spices, including vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
Bedfordshire clanger   United Kingdom (England) Savory and sweet An elongated, suet crust pie with a savory filling at one end (meat, potatoes and vegetables) and a sweet filling (jam or fruit) at the other.
Bisteeya
pastilla, etc.
  Morocco Savory A traditional Berber meat pie traditionally made of squab (fledgling pigeons) in crisp layers of warka dough, with a crunchy layer of toasted and ground almonds, cinnamon, and sugar. Many variant transliterations: bastilla, bsteeya, b'stilla, bstilla, ...
Blackberry pie   United States Sweet A fruit pie with a filling made from blackberries.
Black bottom pie   United States Sweet A layer of chocolate pastry cream or pudding, the "black bottom," topped with whipped cream or meringue in a crust of variable composition.
Black bun   United Kingdom (Scotland) Sweet A pastry-covered fruitcake, traditionally eaten on Twelfth Night.
Blueberry pie   United States (New England) Sweet A fruit pie (or tart) in which the principal filling ingredient is blueberries.
Bob Andy pie United States (Amish community) Sweet A sweet custard pie, spiced with cinnamon and cloves.
Bougatsa   Greece Sweet or savory Consists of custard, cheese, or minced meat filling between layers of phyllo.
Boysenberry pie   United States Sweet Made with boysenberries, often simmered into a softer sweeter "preserve"-type gel, most frequently with a second covering crust, either lattice or with only a few cutouts.
Bridie   United Kingdom (Scotland) Savory A small, savory pie filled with minced steak, butter, and beef suet seasoned with salt and pepper. Sometimes with an addition of minced onions.
Buko pie   Philippines Sweet A sweet pie originating from the Philippines. It was only available to the island country, until a method of freezing was used. It is a very popular pie, consisting of young coconuts.
Bumbleberry pie   Canada, United States Sweet This is a sweet fruit pie in which the filling consists of blackberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries.[5] Other varieties also include other berries or the addition of grapes. The color of the filling is a deep purple, and it is baked in a typical pie shell pâte sucrée.
Bundevara   Serbia Sweet An elongated, strudel-like pie filled with sweetened pumpkin.
Bündner Nusstorte   Switzerland (Graubünden) Sweet A traditional sweet, caramelised nut-filled pastry (generally walnut).
Burek   Turkey (Anatolia) Savory Phyllo filled with cheese, meat, potatoes and other vegetables. Found in the cuisines of the Balkans, the Caucasus, Central Asia, West Asia, and parts of North Africa.
Butter pie United Kingdom (England) Savory Made with sliced potatoes, onion, butter, salt and pepper in a light pastry casing.
Butter tart   Canada Sweet Butter, sugar and eggs in a pastry shell, with raisins, pecans or walnuts often added.
Buttermilk pie   United States Sweet A traditional custard-like pie in a pastry crust with a filling made of a mixture of sugar, butter, eggs, buttermilk and flour.
Canelé   France Sweet A small French pastry with a soft and tender custard center and a dark, thick caramelized crust.
Cantaloupe pie United States Sweet A custard pie of cantaloupe, butter, eggs, and nutmeg, with meringue topping.
Caramel tart   Australia Sweet A sweet tart, filled with soft piped caramel. Sometimes topped with whipped cream or drizzled with chocolate.
Cashew pie Worldwide Sweet Prepared using cashews as a main ingredient.
Cheesecake   United States Sweet Cream cheese and pastry; may come in a variety of flavors.
Cheese pie   United States Sweet A pie with a filling similar to cheesecake with a graham wafer crust and often topped with fruit.
Cherry pie   Worldwide Sweet A pie baked with a cherry filling. Usually made with tart rather than sweet cherries so as to control the sweetness of the pie.
Chess pie   United Kingdom, United States Sweet A custard pie with a filling composed of eggs, butter, granulated sugar, brown sugar, vanilla and corn meal.
Chestnut pie   Italy, United States Savory or sweet A pie prepared using chestnuts as a primary ingredient
Chicken and mushroom pie   United Kingdom Savory A pie made with a pastry crust with a filling of small pieces of chicken and sliced mushrooms in a creamy sauce.
Chiffon pie   United States Sweet A pie with a filling made by folding meringue or whipped cream into a mixture resembling a fruit curd (most commonly lemon) in a crust of variable composition. Can also be made with canned pumpkin in place of the fruit.
Chinese pie
Pâté chinois
  Canada (Quebec) Savory A layered French Canadian dish similar to the British cottage pie. It is made with ground beef and sautéed onions on the bottom layer, canned corn (whole-kernel or creamed) for the middle layer, and mashed potatoes on top.
Cobbler   United Kingdom, United States Sweet A dish consisting of a fruit or savory filling poured into a large baking dish and covered with a batter, biscuit, or dumpling before being baked.
Coconut cream pie   United States Sweet A cream pie made with a rich custard made from milk, cream, flour, eggs, and shredded coconut in a pastry or graham crumb crust, usually topped with whipped cream and toasted coconut.
Cookie Cake Pie United States Sweet A combination of cookie dough and cake batter baked together in a pie crust.
Corned beef pie   United Kingdom Savory A pie with a filling of corned beef, onion and other vegetables such as corn, peas or carrot. The pie can be made with a mashed potato topping, as in cottage pie, or with a traditional pastry crust.
Coulibiac   Russia Savory A baked pie with a filling made with salmon or sturgeon,[6] rice, hard-boiled eggs, mushrooms, and dill.
Cumberland pie   United Kingdom (Cumbria) Savory A meat pie topped with a crust of bread crumbs.
Curry pie   United Kingdom Savory A pie with a pastry crust filled with Indian or Chinese curry.
Curry puff   Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand Savory A small pie consisting of curry with chicken and potatoes in a deep-fried or baked pastry shell, similar to an empanada.
Custard tart
flans pâtissier
  United Kingdom, France Sweet A baked pastry consisting of an pastry crust filled with egg custard. French custard tarts are generally shallower and larger than British ones, and therefore served in slices rather than as individual items.
Derby pie   United States (Kentucky) Sweet A chocolate and walnut pie with a pastry dough crust; commonly made with pecans, chocolate chips and Kentucky bourbon.
Egg tart   Hong Kong[7] Sweet A baked pastry consisting of egg custard in a cookie crust or puff crust.
Empanada   Spain Sweet or savory A stuffed pastry, baked or fried and stuffed with a variety of fillings, including meat, cheese, vegetables or fruit. Popular throughout Spain, Portugal, Latin America, Central America, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Caribbean.
Fish pie
Fisherman's Pie
  United Kingdom Savory A dish made with white fish in a béchamel sauce with a mashed potato topping, similar to cottage pie.
Flan   Worldwide Sweet or savory An open pastry or sponge cake containing a sweet or savory filling.
Flan chino [es]   China Sweet A rectangular-shaped egg dessert similar to a cross between a flan and a tocinillo de cielo.
Flapper pie   Canada (Western Canada) Sweet A custard pie with a graham wafer crust, topped with meringue.
Fleischkuekle Russia (Volga Germans) Savory A fried meat pie made with flat bread. A traditional Volga German dish, through immigration became an addition to the cuisine of North Dakota.
Flipper pie Canada Savory A meat pie made from young harp seal flippers.
Fried pie   United States Sweet A small, fried pastry crust pie containing a fruit filling.
Gibanica   The Balkans Savory A traditional Balkan pastry, usually made with white cheese (feta, sirene).
Green grape pie United States Sweet A pie traditionally made with wild green grapes before seeds have formed in the spring, such as early May.
Homity pie   United Kingdom Savory A traditional British, open vegetable pie. The pastry crust contains a filling of potatoes and an onion and leek mixture, which is then covered with cheese.
Hornazo   Spain Savory A Spanish meat pie made with flour and yeast and stuffed with pork loin, spicy chorizo sausage and hard-boiled eggs.
Indian potato pie India Savory A spiced potato and sweet potato pie baked in a crust created from multiple layers of Filo pastry.
Jamaican patty   Jamaica Savory A small, baked pastry coloured yellow with turmeric, usually filled with seasoned ground beef and with Scotch Bonnet pepper added for spice.
Kalakukko   Finland (Savonia) Savory A loaf of bread filled with fish.
Karelian pasties   Finland, Russia (Karelia) Savory Pasties made from a thin rye crust usually with a filling of rice, but originally the filling used to be mashed potatoes or barley.
Key lime pie   United States (Florida) Sweet A pie made with key lime juice, egg yolks, and sweetened condensed milk in a crust.
Khachapuri   Georgia Savory A cheese-filled bread dish.
Killie pie   United Kingdom

(Kilmarnock, Scotland)

Savory A steak pie served at Kilmarnock F.C. football ground.
Knish   Eastern Europe (Ashkenazi Jews) Savory Baked or fried dumpling made of flaky dough with filling of mashed potatoes, ground meat, sauerkraut, onions, kasha or cheese.
Kuchen   Germany Sweet The generic term referring to "cake" in German.
Kurnik   Russia Savory A dome-shaped savory Russian pirog, usually filled with chicken or turkey, eggs, onions, kasha or rice, and other optional components.
Lanttusupikas Finland Savory A double folded buttered flaky crust pie, filled with thin, braised swede slices and pork loin.[8]
Lemon ice box pie   United States Sweet Lemon juice, eggs, and condensed milk in a pie crust,[9] with preparation very similar to that of key lime pie.
Lemon meringue pie   United States Sweet A shortcrust or shortbread pastry with lemon curd filling and a fluffy meringue topping.
Manchester tart   United Kingdom (England) Sweet A baked tart consisting of a shortcrust pastry shell, spread with raspberry jam, covered with a custard filling and topped with flakes of coconut and a Maraschino cherry.
Meat and potato pie   Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cumbria regions in the United Kingdom Savory Potato, either lamb or beef, and sometimes carrot or onion baked in a pastry shell.
Meat pie   Worldwide Savory A preparation common especially to the UK and Commonwealth countries. Originally a way to stretch ingredients when quantities were not enough for a single meal. Usually made with a hot water crust.
Melktert   South Africa Sweet A South African dessert consisting of a sweet pastry crust containing a creamy filling made from milk, flour, sugar and eggs.
Melton Mowbray pork pie   United Kingdom (England) Savory A hand-formed crust pork pie made with uncured chopped rather than minced, meat.
Millionaire pie   United States (Southern) Sweet A no-bake pie with whipped topping, pineapple, coconut and pecans
Mince pie   United Kingdom Sweet A small British sweet pie traditionally served during the Christmas season; a sweet pastry case filled with currants, suet and spices. Centuries ago they contained meat, suet and spices.
Mississippi mud pie   United States (Southern) Sweet Dessert pie consisting of a gooey chocolate filling on top of a crumbly chocolate crust; usually served with ice cream.
Moravian chicken pie   United States (North Carolina) Savory A traditional double crusted pie made with a flaky pastry filled with only chunks of chicken and a thick chicken broth-based sauce. Unlike chicken "pot pies", no vegetables are included in the filling. Served with hot chicken gravy on the side.
Mustard tart France Savory A pie made of puff pastry, Dijon mustard, Emmentaler or Gruyère cheese, sliced tomatoes and sprinkled with spices (herbes de Provence, salt and pepper).
Natchitoches meat pie   United States (Louisiana) Savory Crescent-shaped, flaky wheat pastry turnover with a savory meat filling.
Neenish Tart   Australia, New Zealand Sweet A tart made with a pastry base and with icing of two colours on top. The filling consists of sweet gelatine-set cream, mock cream, icing sugar paste, or a lemon-flavoured filling—most familiar to New Zealand residents—made from butter, icing sugar, sweetened condensed milk and lemon juice. The Australian version of the Pineapple tart is similar but is filled with pineapple jam and topped with passionfruit icing.
Öçpoçmaq
Echpochmak
  Russia (Volga region) Savory A triangular pastry, filled with minced beef, onion and potatoes. Considered a Tartar national dish.
Pască   Romania, Moldova Sweet A traditional Easter pie filled with fresh cheese like urdă or cottage cheese. Other variants include sour cream, chocolate, or berries fillings.
Pastafrola   Río de la Plata (Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay) Sweet A jam-filled tart with shortcrust pastry lattice. Fillings may include quince cheese, dulce de batata (sweet potato jam), dulce de leche, guava, or strawberry jam.[10]
Pastel de nata   Portugal Sweet A custard tart made with egg yolk. Also known as pastél de Belém due to their geographic origin.
Pasty   United Kingdom (England) Savory A traditional lunch food for Cornish miners. The claim that the rolled part of the crust was used as a handle and left uneaten where it was soiled with arsenic-laden ore from the miner's hand is a myth.[11] They are also popular in Canada and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, United States due to Cornish migration.
Peach pie   United States Sweet Prepared with peaches as the primary ingredient, with added spices such as nutmeg, ginger or cinnamon. May be strictly a fruit pie, or a custard based pie. Because peaches are a high moisture fruit and produce copious amounts of juice as they cook, peach pies often have a lattice top to allow steam to vent and prevent excessive liquid build-up during baking, which could result in a runny pie.
Peanut pie   United States (Southern) Sweet Prepared with peanuts or peanut butter as a primary ingredient.
Pear tart   France Sweet Typically Parisian, called tarte bourdaloue.
Pecan pie   United States Sweet A pie made primarily of corn syrup or molasses and pecan nuts in a pie shell.
Pie à la mode   United States (Minnesota) Sweet A pie with ice cream on top.
Pirog   Russia, Ukraine Savory or sweet The generic term for pies and pasties in Eastern-Slavic cuisines. The filling for pirog may be sweet and contain quark or cottage cheese, fruits like apples, plums or various berries, as well as honey, nuts or poppy seeds. Savory versions may consist of meat, fish, mushrooms, cabbage, rice, buckwheat groats or potato.
Pirozhki
pirozhok, piroshki
  Russia, Ukraine Savory or sweet The generic word for individual-sized baked or fried buns (small pirogs) stuffed with a variety of fillings.
Pork pie   United Kingdom Savory A traditional British meat pie consisting of roughly chopped pork and pork jelly sealed in a hot water crust pastry.
Pot pie   United States Savory A savory pie made from pastry crust, usually served in individual containers. Normally made of a creamy sauce, turkey or chicken meat, carrots, peas, and pearl onions. This dish is sometimes served with rice.
Pumpkin pie   United States Sweet A pumpkin-based custard flavored with nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, and ginger, baked in a single pie shell. Sometimes the crust is a graham cracker crust or a pastry dough crust. Very common in the autumn and early winter holidays.
Quiche   France Savory The generic term; pastry base and sides, with various chopped fillings set in an egg/milk mix.
Qumeshtore me pete Albania Sweet A pie filled with apricots, plums, and honey.
Raisin pie   Worldwide Sweet A pie in which the main ingredient is raisins.
Rappie pie   Canada (Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island) Savory An Acadian dish, also known as râpure, consisting of grated potatoes, meat, onions, and soup stock.
Raspberry pie   United States Sweet A pie filled with raspberries, sometimes topped with whipped cream.
Rhubarb pie   United Kingdom Sweet A pie filled with diced rhubarb.
Samosa
singara, sambusac, samsa
  Indian Subcontinent, Central Asia, Western Asia, Horn of Africa, North Africa, South Africa Savory A fried or baked pastry with a savory filling such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, lentils, ground lamb or chicken, often accompanied by chutney.
Saskatoonberry pie   Canada Sweet A pie filled with saskatoonberries.
Sausage roll   United Kingdom Savory A long cylindrical roll of sausagemeat encased in flaky or puff pastry.
Scotch pie   United Kingdom (Scotland) Savory A small, double-crust meat pie filled with minced mutton or other meat.
Sea-pie
Cipaille
United Kingdom Savory A layered meat pie made with meat or fish, and is known to have been served to British sailors during the 18th century.
Sfiha   Lebanon Savory An open-faced meat pie made with ground mutton.
Shaker lemon pie   United States Sweet Thinly sliced lemons, sugar, and eggs in a crust, first made by the Shakers.
Shepherd's Pie   United Kingdom Savory A roasted mutton or lamb cooked in pie dish lined with mashed potatoes, with a mashed potato crust on top.
Shoofly pie   United States (Pennsylvania Dutch Country) Sweet A molasses pie common to Pennsylvania and the Delaware Valley.
Soparnik   Croatia Savory A pie with a filling of chard, chives (or young onion leaves), parsley, olive oil and garlic.
Southern tomato pie   United States Savory A savory dish consisting of a pie shell with a filling of tomatoes (sometimes with basil or other herbs), covered with a topping of grated cheese mixed with either mayonnaise or a white sauce.[12][13]
Spanakopita
spinach pie
  Greece Savory A pie with a filling of chopped spinach, feta cheese, onions and eggs.
Stargazy pie   United Kingdom (England) Savory A Cornish dish made of baked pilchards, along with eggs and potatoes, covered with a pastry crust; the fish heads (and sometimes tails) are baked protruding through the crust, thus appearing to be gazing skyward.
Steak and kidney pie   United Kingdom Savory A pie filled with a mixture of diced beef, diced kidney (often of ox, lamb, or pork), fried onion, and brown gravy.
Steak pie   United Kingdom Savory A meat pie made from stewing steak and beef gravy, enclosed in a pastry shell.
Strawberry pie   United States Sweet A pie filled with strawberries, sometimes topped with whipped cream.
Strawberry rhubarb pie   United States (New England) Sweet A pie filled with strawberries and rhubarb, usually with a lattice-style crust on top.
Sugar cream pie   United States Sweet A single-crust pie with a filling made from flour, butter, salt, vanilla, and cream, with brown sugar or maple syrup
Sweet potato pie[14]   United States Sweet A large tart in an open pie shell without a top crust, with a filling consisting of mashed sweet potatoes, milk, sugar and eggs, flavored with spices such as nutmeg.
Tamale pie   United States, Mexico Savory A meat pie with a cornmeal crust and typical Mexican tamale fillings arranged in several layers. The meat is traditionally ground beef.
Tarta capuchina [es]   Spain Sweet A pie or cake made mainly with egg yolk and syrup. The pie or "cake" is usually presented in a cylindrical or rectangle shape, depending on the mold.
Tarta de Santiago   Spain Sweet A cake or pie with a filling of ground almonds, eggs and sugar. The top of the pie is usually decorated with powdered sugar, masked by an imprint of the Cross of Saint James (cruz de Santiago) which gives the pastry its name.
Tarte conversation   France Sweet A tart made with puff pastry that is filled with a frangipane cream and topped with royal icing.
Tiropita
Greek cheese pie
  Greece Savory A pie made with layers of buttered filo (alternatively, thick pastry or puff-pastry) and filled with a cheese-egg mixture.
Tocinillo de cielo [es]   Spain Sweet A dessert made from yolk egg and caramelized sugar that is compact and bright yellow. The tradition places its origin in Jerez de la Frontera more than 500 years ago.
Tourtière   Canada (Quebec) Savory A meat pie[15] originating from Quebec, usually made with finely diced pork, veal, beef, fish, or wild game.
Treacle tart   United Kingdom Sweet A shortcrust pastry with a thick filling of golden syrup, breadcrumbs, and lemon juice.
Vlaai   Netherlands Sweet A pie or tart consisting of a pastry and a filling of either fruit, a crumbled butter and sugar mix, or a cooked rice and custard porridge.
Västerbotten pie   Sweden Savory A pie filled with a mixture of Västerbotten cheese, cream and eggs.
Walnut pie   United States Sweet A pie prepared using walnuts as a main ingredient.
Watalappam   Sri Lanka Sweet A coconut custard pudding made of coconut milk or condensed milk, jaggery, cashew nuts, eggs, and various spices, including cardamom, cloves, and nutmeg.
Wähe[16]   Switzerland Savory or sweet A flat pie or cake prepared with short pastry and a topping of either fruits, vegetables, or cheese.
Woolton pie[17]   United Kingdom Savory A pie filled with vegetables such as potatoes or parsnips, cauliflower, swede, carrots, and turnips, topped with potato pastry, grated cheese, and served with vegetable gravy.
Whoopie pie   United States Sweet An American baked product that may be considered either a cookie, pie or cake. It is made of two round mound-shaped pieces of chocolate cake, or sometimes pumpkin or gingerbread cake, with a sweet, creamy filling or frosting sandwiched between them.
Zelnik   North Macedonia Savory A pastry composed of thin layers of filo dough filled with combinations of sirene, eggs, spinach, sorrel, browned meat, leeks, rice, and brined cabbage.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Aloo Pie (Trinidad) Archived 2013-02-07 at the Wayback Machine Accessed February 6, 2008.
  2. ^ Phillips, Jock (13 July 2012). "Bicultural New Zealand". The New Zealanders. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage (New Zealand). Archived from the original on 2014-07-24.
  3. ^ Kane, Adrienne (5 June 2012). United States of Pie: Regional Favorites from East to West and North to South. Harper Collins. ISBN 9780062064080 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b "banoffee" – via The Free Dictionary.
  5. ^ Allen, Beth (23 April 2018). Good Housekeeping Great American Classics Cookbook. Hearst Books. ISBN 9781588162809 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Sokolov, Raymond (1 November 2003). The Cook's Canon: 101 Classic Recipes Everyone Should Know. Harper Collins. p. 53. ISBN 9780060083908 – via Internet Archive. Coulibiac.
  7. ^ Jung, Susan (2 October 2011). "Affair of the tart". SCMP. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Suomalaisista piirakoista yleensä". kasvisruoka.com (in Finnish). Archived from the original on January 5, 2005. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  9. ^ Foose, Martha Hall (20 October 2010). Screen Doors and Sweet Tea: Recipes and Tales from a Southern Cook. Potter/TenSpeed/Harmony. ISBN 9780307885555 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ pastaflora (in Spanish). Diccionario de la lengua española (22.ª edición), Real Academia Española (2001).
  11. ^ "Historian claims miners didn't actually use pasty crust as a handle". 7 April 2020.
  12. ^ Deen, Paula. "Tomato Pie Recipe". Food Network. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  13. ^ Crain, Eula (2011). Best of the Best, from Southern Coastal Ladies. PublishAmerica. ISBN 9781456085827. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
  14. ^ Company, Johnson Publishing (1 January 1984). "Ebony". Johnson Publishing Company – via Google Books.
  15. ^ Clark, Edie (2010), "Best Cook: Meat Pie French Canadian meat pies are a family legacy", Yankee Magazine
  16. ^ "Früchtewähen / Gâteaux aux fruits / Torte di frutta". In the data base of Culinary Heritage of Switzerland.
  17. ^ "Woolton pie creator dies", The Times, London, 17 August 1966, p.1.

External linksEdit